Black Banners has been identified as the armed battalion of the Secret Islamic Army. The group's leader has been identified as Omar Hadid, an Iraqi who is believed to have international militant Islamist links. A large share of its membership is believed to be composed of non-Iraqi fighters, especially from Syria.
This group was an active member of the Iraqi insurgency, sharing joint control of Falluja with other militant groups, where it imposed strict Sharia law, and was responsible for a number of kidnappings. This included the abduction of three Indians, two Kenyans, and an Egyptian working for a Kuwaiti company operating in Iraq. The aim was to compel the company to stop its activities in Iraq. The hostages were later released
Coalition military officials believe that a campaign of airstrikes against insurgent safehouses and positions in Fallujah seriously disrupted the network of the Black Banner Organization. Omar Hadid is said to have narrowly avoided capture by U.S. forces twice.