Black Bike Week
|Black Bike Week|
A custom Suzuki Hayabusa at Black Bike Week
|Date(s)||The weekend of Memorial Day weekend|
|Location(s)||Greater Grand Strand, South Carolina|
Black Bike Week, also called Atlantic Beach Bikefest and Black Bikers Week, is an annual motorcycle rally in the Myrtle Beach, South Carolina area, held on Memorial Day weekend. It is also sometimes called Black Fill-in-the-Blank Week, because it has evolved to attract many non-motorcycling visitors who come for music, socializing and enjoying the beach. Events include motorcycle racing, concerts, parties, and street festivals. Called a "one-of-a-kind event" and "an exhibitionist's paradise" by Jeffrey Gettleman, Black Bike Week is "all about riding, styling and profiling," in the words of Mayor Irene Armstrong of Atlantic Beach, South Carolina.
It is the largest African American motorcycle rally in the US. Attendance has been variously reported as 350,000, 375,000, and as high as 400,000. It is considered the third or fourth largest motorcycle rally in the United States. Around 10–15 percent of motorcyclists in the US are women, while at major African American motorcycle rallies, such as Black Bike Week or the National Bikers Roundup, women make up close to half of participants.
From 1940 until 2008, Myrtle Beach had also hosted a predominantly white motorcycle rally, called Harley-Davidson Week, also called the spring Carolina Harley-Davidson Dealer's Association (CHDDA) Rally. The two rallies have run back-to-back in the past, and some have charged city government and local businesses with racial discrimination because of different treatment towards the black rally, citing different traffic rules and levels of policing. In 2002 Black Bike week had 375,000 attendees, versus 200,000 for Harley-Davidson Week of the same year.
The city of Myrtle Beach has used new ordinances to push the 2009 and 2010 motorcycle events, both black and white, out of the city, where they have been welcomed by other municipalities and businesses, and bikers still came in spite of the official efforts to discourage them. After the 2010 motorcycle events the South Carolina Supreme Court overturned the Myrtle Beach city ordinance requiring all motorcyclists to wear helmets, and 4 other ordinances.
"Black Bike Week" can also refer to a side event to the motorcycle rally Daytona Beach Bike Week at Daytona Beach, Florida that happens two months earlier, in March. Like the South Carolina event, the Daytona rally also has its origins in racial segregation, when blacks created their own parallel event after being excluded from the main white festival.
During the 1960s and 1970s, many black motorcyclists visited Atlantic Beach, South Carolina, some riding Harley-Davidsons, but also riding many Japanese Hondas, Kawasakis, Suzukis, and Yamahas, which, along with race, distinguished them as riders from the white event's participants who preferred the Harley-Davidsons. During the segregation era Atlantic Beach was the only beach in the South where blacks were permitted.
The Black Bike Week rally, originally called the Atlantic Beach Memorial Day BikeFest, was founded in Atlantic Beach by the Flaming Knight Riders motorcycle club in 1980. The first rally drew about 100 participants. Though one reason the Flaming Knight Riders worked with the City of Atlantic Beach to create the event was to make money for the town, it was not actually franchised by Atlantic Beach, and the city did not benefit financially; instead, bikers would, over the years, congregate more and more in Myrtle Beach rather than Atlantic Beach. In 1982, the Flaming Knight Riders were renamed the Carolina Knight Riders motorcycle club.
By the 1990s the event had grown to include the entire greater Myrtle Beach, or Grand Strand, area. In 2002, Atlantic Beach hired a public relations firm "to make the rest of the country aware of Atlantic Beach, its uniqueness as a predominantly black beach town and its potential as a vacation spot." This was part of a larger effort to promote the motorcycle rally by the Bike Week Task Force, a group of business owners and public officials from around the Grand Strand area.
The predominantly white rally dates to May 1940, when a group of Harley-Davidson dealers created The Piedmont Harley-Davidson Dealers Association which became The Carolina Harley-Davidson Dealers Association when South Carolina dealers joined. The group's first event was a ride to Ocean Drive in Myrtle Beach, and included a drag race and dirt track race and other festivities. In subsequent years the rally was held in Cherry Grove, Jacksonville and Wilmington, North Carolina before returning to Myrtle Beach. The 2009 event was at New Bern, North Carolina, and the 2010 rally is planned for the same location, two weeks before Memorial Day weekend.
Atlantic Beach Bikefest events
The town of Atlantic Beach hosted a street festival title The Atlantic Beach Bikefest, host by NDA Game Entertainment during the Memorial Day Black Bike Week weekend.
Custom motorcycle builders, parts suppliers and motorcycle dealers provide a focal point for activities during Bikefest, displaying their wares and using motorcycle stunt shows or other entertainment to attract crowds. Motorcycle clubs coming together and networking is a large part of the activity as well, described by some participants as, "an event to be recognized" where, "clubs came out to rep their colors," and, "mostly just to have fun."
Past efforts to centrally organize Bikefest events have failed, with the activity remaining mostly spontaneous. Cruising and street parties flourish while people dance in the streets, hug, kiss, and hop on the back of strangers' bikes. Vendors sold food, t-shirts, mix CDs, and offered wheelie rides on customized motorcycles. Live entertainment includes nightly gospel and other music, and daily motorcycle stunt shows.
Attendance at the 2010 Bikefest events held in Atlantic Beach appeared to be up over 2009, with greater variety in entertainment, merchandise and services offered. Atlantic Beach Town Manager William Booker said there are more families with children, and that, "We have a lot more going on in terms of vendors this year, including more people who are selling parts and upgrades for bikes, which is something we're really working to get more of. People are literally getting their bikes worked on today, which hasn't happened a lot in the past."
On December 1, 2014, a task force approved a 23-mile loop to allow better traffic flow after trouble at the 2014 event. During certain hours on Memorial Day weekend 2015, Ocean Boulevard south of 29th Avenue North would be southbound only with traffic allowed to enter and exit the road only in specific locations, and the loop would continue on Kings Highway, Harrelson Boulevard which becomes George Bishop Parkway, Waccamaw Boulevard which runs parallel to U.S. 501, Carolina Bays Parkway, Grissom Parkway, U.S. 17 Bypass and 29th Avenue North.
Police said the loop worked, while some bikers had problems dealing with the confusion, and some felt unwelcome and called the measures "overreaction". The loop was used again in 2016, and the same route was planned for 2017. Some who felt mistreated want to boycott Myrtle Beach in 2017, while the City of Myrtle Beach responded that Bike Week is "not an organized event" and requires additional measures to make it safe.
As of 2017. the event is called The Black Pearl Cultural Heritage and Bike Festival.
Charges of racial bias
In 2003 a group of black motorcyclists, and the South Carolina chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, sued the city of Myrtle Beach and some businesses there alleging discrimination. The city was accused of abusing traffic law enforcement and of excessive force by the police to harass black bikers. Many businesses closed their doors or cut back their hours during Black Bike Week, and 28 of them, including Red Lobster and Denny's were named in the suit. A Baltimore, Maryland police detective who is also a motorcyclist told The New York Times, "I've seen it myself. When the white bikers come to Myrtle Beach, the town rolls out the red carpet. When the black riders come, they roll it right up." City officials said that the much younger crowd, and nearly double attendance, of Black Bike Week justified the difference in the city's response to the two events.
In a May 25, 2003 article in the New York Times, Jeffrey Gettleman reported that a pattern had emerged of black social and party events growing ever larger in stature and then collapsing and quickly being shut down, particularly in the Southern United States. Examples given included Freaknik in Atlanta, Georgia, spring break in Biloxi, Mississippi, and various festivals in New Orleans, Louisiana, and Virginia Beach, Virginia. Myrtle Beach Mayor Mark McBride said in 2003 that the Black Bike Week crowds are "bigger and rowdier," although that year the white Harley rally had eight motorcycle traffic deaths, while the black Memorial Day rally had three motorcycle traffic deaths.
In 2008, the NAACP issued a press release claiming success in concluding every federal discrimination lawsuit they had filed in Myrtle Beach for complaints during bike week events from 1999–2003, against the City of Myrtle Beach, and restaurants that included Damon's Oceanfront and Barefoot Landing, J. Edward's Great Ribs, and Greg Norman's Australian Grill, as well as the Yachtsman Resort Hotel. In a settlement with the city, the police department agreed to use the same traffic pattern on the city's main boulevard for Black Bike Week as they did for Harley Bike Week.
From 2005 through 2008 the NAACP carried out "Operation Bike Week Justice" in which a complaint hotline was operated, and teams monitored police treatment of African Americans, and the reaction of local businesses, as well as monitoring traffic patterns. Friendly's Ice Cream Corporation and Myrtle Beach Friends Boulevard LLC was sued in 2008 by the NAACP for allegedly closing their indoor area and offering inferior outdoor service during Black Bike Weeks from 2000–2005.
According to an NAACP lawsuit, The Yachtsman Resort Hotel had required Black Bike Week guests to sign a thirty-four rule guest contract, prepay for their hotel bill and show photo ID. The hotel agreed to settle the case, and in addition to a payment of $1.2 million, the hotel agreed to provide future discounts and make policy changes including yearly anti-discrimination training for employees. The settlement did not require the hotel to admit to discrimination.
In 2010, the NAACP released a press release indicating that it would continue to monitor police and local businesses for possible discrimination.
Myrtle Beach ban
In 2008, the Myrtle Beach City Council announced it would no longer host motorcycle rallies, and approved a set of ordinances on September 23, 2008 that placed restrictions on motorcycle rallies. Fifteen laws were passed, restricting muffler noise, requiring helmets within city limits, limiting parking to two bikes per space, restricting loitering in parking lots, and more. In spite of this, Black Bike Week 2009's attendance was only reduced slightly. Vendors, hotels, biker groups and promoters attempted to schedule events for Black Bike Week 2010 despite the Myrtle Beach government's ban.
This article or section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic. (May 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
In anticipation of the 2010 Harley Bike Week rally, a local Harley-Davidson dealership said events would still take place for their bike week event, but on a reduced schedule of only 5 days, May 11 to 16, while the website Myrtle Beach Bike Week, LLC says a full-length rally of May 7–16 would take place. Both sources say there would be no vendors inside the city limits of Myrtle Beach during the Harley Bike Week, and they both encouraged attendees to boycott the city and patronize those communities and businesses outside the city which did support Harley Bike Week.
The Myrtle Beach Convention Center had ceased attempting to find a replacement for the Carolina Harley-Davidson Dealers Association, which had moved to Hard Rock Park. The reason for moving The Carolina Harley-Davidson Dealers Association event to New Bern in 2009 was that Myrtle Beach, "passed all these silly laws, they said we ruined their May, so we talked about it and decided to oblige them," said Gene Lummus, former president of the association.
Helmet law struck down
On June 8, 2010 the South Carolina Supreme Court overturned a Myrtle Beach city ordinance requiring all motorcyclists to wear helmets, on the grounds that the state law, requiring helmets only for riders under age 21, cannot be preempted by a city ordinance. The court ruled unanimously that in addition to the priority of state law, the local ordinance created undue confusion for motorists, and that the city itself had invalidated their helmet ordinance and some other ordinances also passed to suppress motorcycle rallies, in a subsequent amendment. The ruling took effect immediately, requiring that pending citations be dismissed, the records of those cited under the ordinance be expunged, and all fines collected be returned.
The state Supreme Court had heard arguments on February 3, 2010 in a lawsuit by two groups of plaintiffs seeking to overturn the ordinance. One group of plaintiffs was made up of 49 motorcyclists who had been cited for not wearing helmets in Myrtle Beach. The second plaintiff was the organization Business Owners Organized to Save Tourism (BOOST) along with South Carolina State Representative Thad Viers. BOOST's mission includes ending "the practice of ‘selective tourism,’ whereby government entities and/or organizations welcome some individual and group tourists but discourage others." Viers, a Republican representing Myrtle Beach, said, "There's certain things cities can do, and making up their own traffic laws is not one of them. I believe the law and the constitution are on our side."
During the hearing in February, Justice Don Beatty said to Mike Battle, Myrtle Beach's lawyer, that, "I realize the issue is narrow here, but don’t pretend like we don’t know what’s going on. We read. We all know why the city," passed the ordinances, questioning whether the intent of the law was not to promote safety but rather to curtail motorcycle rallies. Justice Costa Pleicones told Viers that the city's interest in regulating noise, lewd behavior and nuisances was legitimate.
In defense of the ordinance, the city's court filings argued six key points, among them that their helmet law was constitutional and did not contradict the state traffic code. Myrtle Beach's attorney Mike Battle also argued that because the state law was silent on whether adults must wear helmets, only addressing riders under 21, that cities had the freedom to make their own laws with respect to those over 21. Battle also argued that the benefits of the helmet law were greater than the inconvenience.
The ruling prompted speculation that motorcyclists would return to Myrtle Beach in greater numbers. Some motorcycle rally participants immediately booked rooms for the next year, while others vowed never to return to Myrtle Beach, instead favoring businesses outside the city limits.
Myrtle Beach City Council relax noise ordinance
Months after Tom McGrath filed a suit on behalf of business owners and residents against the noise ordinance enacted by the city to push away motorcycle rallies, the Myrtle Beach city council increased the noise limit. Motor vehicles were limited to a level of 89 decibels while the engine is running at idle speed, but now motor vehicles may operate as high as 99 decibels which is more in alignment with national standards.
During the 2014 Atlantic Beach Bikefest, three people were killed and one wounded in shootings at the Bermuda Sands Motel in Myrtle Beach about 15 miles from the rally. Police said that normally during the rally they see motorcycle crashes and minor offenses but that violence was unusual.
After the incidents, South Carolina governor Nikki Haley said on May 30, 2014 that with the damage to the area's reputation hurting tourism and efforts to attract other industries, "It is time for that Bikefest to come to an end, and that is the way that I am going to talk to the elected officials of Atlantic Beach." Haley, who was in Conway to talk about hurricane safety, emphasized that the incidents do not reflect the state as a whole. The previous day, Atlantic Beach Mayor Jake Evans said the event would not be cancelled; he pointed out that the vast majority of bikers are good people. Chief Warren Gall of the Myrtle Beach Police Department, however, believed the shooting was related to the rally.
At a summit held September 22 and 23 and attended by local officials and police officers from different areas, Haley said that while she still opposed the event, "They can continue to have Bikefest if they follow our rules."
- Urban Beach Week, also on the Memorial Day weekend.
- Conner, M. Shelly (Fall 2009), "First-Wave Feminist Struggles in Black Motorcycle Clubs", International Journal of Motorcycle Studies, retrieved 2010-01-30
- Cullen, Christine (2 October 2009), "Organizers of Black Bike Week see OC as possible alternative; Hope remains that they can work something out with Myrtle Beach officials", Ocean City Today, Ocean City, Maryland, retrieved 2010-01-31
- Suttles, Sherry A.; Atlantic Beach Historical Society (2009), Atlantic Beach; Images of America, Arcadia Publishing, pp. 54–55, ISBN 0-7385-6820-1
- Stokes, Barbara F. (2007), Myrtle Beach: a history, 1900-1980, University of South Carolina Press, pp. 126, 185–202, ISBN 1-57003-697-7
- Gettleman, Jeffrey (May 21, 2003), "Suit Charges Bias at Rally for Black Bikers", The New York Times, p. A22, retrieved 2010-01-31
- Gettleman, Jeffrey (May 25, 2003), "Claims of Bias Cloud an American Dream for Black Bikers", The New York Times, p. 122, retrieved 2010-01-31
- Motorcycle Industry Council (18 May 2009), Motorcycling in America Goes Mainstream Says 2008 Motorcycle Industry Council Owner Survey, Irvine, California, retrieved 2010-02-04
- Rothenberg, Jill (11 June 2006), "Hog Wild; Female motorcyclists steer their way to the head of the pack with their own clubs", San Francisco Chronicle, retrieved 2010-02-04
- Samuels, Adrienne P (October 2007), "Black Bikers: the rides and the history", Ebony, Chicago, vol. 62 no. 12, pp. 98–106, retrieved 2010-02-04
- Carolina Harley-Davidson Dealer's Association, We Started It All!, Swannanoa, North Carolina, retrieved 2010-02-02
- Anderson, Lorena (3 March 2009), "Motorcycle rally leaving Myrtle Beach for N.C.; Association leaves behind other event promoters", The Charlotte Observer, retrieved 2010-02-01
- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; The Crisis Publishing Co (2008), NAACP: celebrating a century : 100 years in pictures, Gibbs Smith, p. 410, ISBN 1-4236-0527-6
- Harley, Bryan (9 June 2010), "S.C. Court Overrules Myrtle Beach Helmet Law", MotorcycleUSA.com, retrieved 2010-06-14
- Wood, Bill (May 2007), "Daytona Evolves", American Motorcyclist, American Motorcyclist Association, vol. 61 no. 5, p. 14, ISSN 0277-9358
- "The Best of Bike Week", American Motorcyclist, American Motorcyclist Association, vol. 55 no. 5, p. 38, May 2001, ISSN 0277-9358
- Reed, Erin (23 February 2002), "Firm Promotes Annual Motorcycle Festival in Atlantic Beach, S.C.", The Sun News, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina
- Britton, Jason (2007), "Black Bike Week", Super Bikes!, Speed (TV channel), 2 (3)
- Ponton, Thema (May 22, 2009), Bike fest founders say rally is on, WBTW News 13, retrieved 2010-06-01
- Britton, Jason (2008), "Atlantic Beach", Super Bikes!, Speed (TV channel), 3 (13)
- Lauer, Claudia (May 30, 2010), Atlantic Beach's offerings widen rally appeal, retrieved 2010-06-01
- Lenghi, Mola (29 May 2010), "Atlantic Beach Memorial Day Bike Fest revvs up", CarolinaLive.com, Barrington Broadcasting Group, LLC, retrieved 2010-06-01
- Prabhu, Maya (3 December 2014). "Compromise achieved, officials begin to work out specifics 23-mile Memorial Day weekend traffic loop". The Sun News. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Prabhu, Maya (21 April 2015). "What you need to know about the Memorial Day weekend traffic loop". The Sun News. Retrieved 22 April 2015.
- Prabhu, Maya (25 April 2015). "Hundreds of officers, thousands of barricades and large crowds to fill the streets Memorial Day weekend". The Sun News. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
- Weaver, Emily (15 December 2015). "23-mile traffic loop will return in Myrtle Beach for Memorial Day weekend". The Sun News. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Weaver, Emily (31 May 2016). "Myrtle Beach leaders say Bikefest safety measures are working". The Sun News. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
- Byun, Claire (24 May 2016). "Atlantic Beach Bikefest: 5 things to know before you go". The Sun News. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
- Johnson, Chloe (7 March 2017). "Check out the traffic loop around Myrtle Beach for 2017 Bikefest". The Sun News. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- Weaver, Emily (14 June 2016). "Bikefest attendees: Let's bankrupt Myrtle Beach". The Sun News.
- Hudson, Audrey (26 May 2017). "Bikefest roars to life in Atlantic Beach: A festival for some, healing for others". The Sun News.
- Lang, Alex; Strong, Hannah (27 February 2018). "NAACP files race discrimination lawsuit against City of Myrtle Beach, police". The Sun News. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
- McIntire, Richard (22 May 2008), NAACP Launches 4th Operation Bike Week Justice To Monitor Treatment Of African Americans At Seaside Resort (press release), National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, retrieved 2010-02-01
- "Myrtle Beach eatery settles discrimination lawsuit", New York Beacon, New York, NY, 12 (17), p. 3, April 28 – May 4, 2005
- Anonymous (1 June 2006), "NAACP to Monitor City, Businesses During Black Bike Week", The Tennessee Tribune, Nashville, Tennessee, 17 (20), p. A3
- Knight-Ridder/Tribune Business News (21 October 2004), "Myrtle Beach, S.C., resort hotel settles NAACP discrimination lawsuit", Sun News – via HighBeam (subscription required), Myrtle Beach, South Carolina
- The Associated Press (May 27, 2010), "NAACP again monitors black bike rally in SC", The State, retrieved 2010-06-01
- Harley, Bryan (January 14, 2010), "Myrtle Beach Bike Week - To Rally or Not", Motorcycle USA, retrieved 2010-01-31
- Fleisher, Lisa (24 April 2008), "Bike rally hub shifts", The Sun News, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina
- Allen, Joel (7 January 2010), "Plans advance for North Myrtle Beach motorcycle rally", CarolinaLive.com, Conway, South Carolina: WPDE NewsChannel 15, retrieved 2010-02-01
- Harley, Bryan (3 February 2010), Court to Rule on Myrtle Beach Helmet Law, retrieved 2010-02-04
- Anderson, Lorena (Jun 9, 2010), "Myrtle Beach helmet law quashed; High court backs state standard", Myrtle Beach Sun News, archived from the original on September 12, 2012, retrieved 2010-06-14
- SC high court judge questions motives of MB helmet law, Columbia, South Carolina: WIS News 10 Television, 3 February 2010, retrieved 2010-02-04
- Fogle, Adam (4 February 2010), SC Supreme Court hears Myrtle Beach helmet law cases, archived from the original on 2010-02-07, retrieved 2010-02-04
- Anderson, Lorena (4 February 2010), "High court hears Myrtle Beach helmet law cases; Justices grill attorneys, hold off on decisions", The Sun News, retrieved 2010-02-04[permanent dead link]
- Mission Statement, Business Owners Organized to Save Tourism (BOOST), 2009, retrieved 2010-02-04
- Anderson (13 June 2010), "Businesses optimistic for a motorcycle rally rebirth in Myrtle Beach area", Myrtle Beach Sun News, retrieved 2010-06-14
- Theis (9 Feb 2011), "Myrtle Beach City Council votes to relax noise ordinance", Carolina Live, retrieved 2011-03-13
- Associated Press (May 25, 2014), "3 dead, 1 wounded in shooting at SC beach motel", The Jamaica Observer, retrieved May 25, 2015
- Root, Tonya (2014-05-30). "Gov. Nikki Haley says Atlantic Beach Bikefest must end". The Sun News. Retrieved 2014-06-01.
- Kelley, Amanda (2014-06-08). "Myrtle Beach Police Chief says dedicated emergency lane likely returning next Memorial Day". The Sun News. Retrieved 2014-06-08.
- Prabhu, Maya T. (2014-09-22). "Gov. Haley says Bikefest can continue if Grand Strand gets control of Memorial Day weekend crime". The Sun News.
- Adeboyejo, Betsy (Winter 2008), "NAACP Files Class Action Lawsuit Against Friendly's Restaurant", The Crisis, The Crisis Publishing Company, Inc., pp. 50–51, ISSN 0011-1422
- Anderson, Lorena (25 January 2010), "A different picture of May develops for Myrtle Beach area", Myrtle Beach Online, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, retrieved 2010-02-01
- Côté, Richard N. (2001), Redneck Riviera, Corinthian Books, ISBN 1-929175-17-5
- Gamber, Frankie (Winter 2008), "Black Bikers Still Receive Unequal Treatment at Myrtle Beach Bikefest", The Crisis, The Crisis Publishing Company, Inc., p. 65, ISSN 0011-1422
- Glencer, Dawn (November 2009), "Myrtle Beach Bike Week 2009; Still Standing For Now", Hot Bike, retrieved 2010-02-02
- Harris, Anne-Marie (Nov–Dec 2004), "South Carolina Hotel Settles Biker Lawsuit", The Crisis, The Crisis Publishing Company, Inc., pp. 54–55, ISSN 0011-1422
- Jonsson, Patrik (27 May 2005), "A motorcycle mecca stirs up questions of race", The Christian Science Monitor, Boston, Massachusetts, p. 1, ISSN 0882-7729
- Lauer, Claudia (26 January 2010), "Horry County puts off Myrtle Beach area motorcycle rally decision", The Sun News, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, retrieved 2010-02-01
- Lauer, Claudia (7 January 2010), "North Myrtle Beach Harley rally moves ahead", The Sun News, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, retrieved 2010-02-01
- Lauer, Claudia (18 January 2010), "Myrtle Beach area motorcycle rallies may run in tandem; Harley-Davidson rally trimmed to five days", The Sun News, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, retrieved 2010-02-01
- Lilliefors, James (2006), America's boardwalks: from Coney Island to California, James Lilliefors, pp. 143–157, ISBN 0-8135-3805-X
- McArdle, Elaine (February 2008), Sociologists On The Colorblind Question, 7 (1), pp. 34–37, doi:10.1525/ctx.2008.7.1.34, retrieved 2010-01-31
- Rackoff, David (2006), Don't Get Too Comfortable: The Indignities of Coach Class, the Torments of Low Thread Count, the Never-Ending Quest for Artisanal Olive Oil, and Other First World Problems, Random House, p. 65, retrieved 2010-01-31
- Seate, Mike (27 November 2008), "Black bikers get Southern bum's rush", Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, retrieved 2010-02-02
- Seate, Mike (February 2009), "Black Bike Week - No Ifs, Ands Or Butts; Black Bike Week Grows Up", Motorcyclist, retrieved 2010-02-02
- Seate, Mike (June 2009), "Atlantic Beach Bikefest - The End May Be Near; Myrtle Beach moves to shut down biker rallies", Motorcyclist, retrieved 2010-02-02
- "Speaking of People: Lynn Bonner", Ebony, Johnson Publishing Company, vol. 62 no. 11, p. 14, September 2007, ISSN 0012-9011, retrieved 2010-01-31
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Black Bike Week.|