|Part of the Politics series on|
A black bloc is a tactic used by groups of protesters who wear black clothing, scarves, sunglasses, ski masks, motorcycle helmets with padding, or other face-concealing and face-protecting items. The clothing is used to conceal wearers' identities and hinder criminal prosecution by making it difficult to distinguish between participants. It is also used to protect their faces and eyes from pepper spray, which is used by law enforcement during protests or civil unrest. The tactic allows the group to appear as one large unified mass. Black bloc participants are often associated with anarchism, anti-globalization movement or antifascism.
The tactic was developed in the 1980s in the European autonomist movement's protests against squatter evictions, nuclear power, and restrictions on abortion, as well as other influences. Black blocs gained broader media attention outside Europe during the 1999 Seattle WTO protests, when a black bloc damaged property of Gap, Starbucks, Old Navy, and other multinational retail locations in downtown Seattle.
West German origins
On 1 May 1987, demonstrators in Berlin-Kreuzberg were confronted by West German police. After this, thousands of people attacked the police with rocks, bottles and Molotov cocktails. The riots at the May Day in Kreuzberg became famous after the police had to completely pull out of the "SO 36" neighborhood in Kreuzberg for several hours, and rioters looted shops together with residents.
When Ronald Reagan came to Berlin in June 1987, he was met by around 50,000 demonstrators protesting against his Cold War policies. This included a black bloc of 3,000 people. In November 1987, the residents were joined by thousands of other protesters and fortified their squat, built barricades in the streets and defended themselves against the police for nearly 24 hours. After this the city authorities legalised the squatters residence.
On 1 May 1988, radical left groups organised a May Day demonstration through Berlin-Kreuzberg, ending in riots even heavier than the year before. The police were attacked with steel balls fired by slingshots, stones, fireworks and Molotov cocktails. On 2 May, headline of the Berlin newspaper BZ was "Beirut?? Nein, das ist Berlin!" (Beirut?? No, it's Berlin!). The riots finally became a tradition in Berlin-Kreuzberg and have recurred every 1 May since, but never as fatally as in the first two years. When the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund met in Berlin in 1988, the autonomen hosted an international gathering of anti-capitalist activists. Numbering around 80,000, the protesters greatly outnumbered the police. Officials tried to maintain control by banning all demonstrations and attacking public assemblies. Nevertheless, there were riots and upmarket shopping areas were destroyed.
In the period after the Berlin Wall, the German black bloc movement continued traditional riots such as May Day in Berlin-Kreuzberg, but with decreasing intensity. Their main focus became the struggle against the recurring popularity of Neo-Nazism in Germany. The "turn" came in June 2007, during the 33rd G8 summit. A black bloc of 2,000 people built barricades, set cars alight and attacked the police during a mass demonstration in Rostock. 400 police officers were injured, and also about 500 demonstrators and activists. According to the German Verfassungsschutz, the weeks of organisation before the demonstration and the riots themselves amounted to a revival for the militant left in Germany. Since the "Battle of Rostock", traditional "May Day Riots" after demonstrations every 1 May in Berlin, and since 2008 also in Hamburg, became more intense, and violence of the autonomen against police officers and political enemies at demonstrations of radical left groups have dramatically increased.
The first recorded use of the tactic in United States of America occurred at the Pentagon, in Washington, D.C. on 17 October 1988. Over one thousand demonstrators—a small number consisting of a black bloc—called for the end to U.S. support for the right wing death squads in El Salvador. A black bloc caused damage to property of GAP, Starbucks, Old Navy, and other retail locations in downtown Seattle during the 1999 anti-WTO demonstrations. They were a common feature of subsequent anti-globalization protests.
In the years after the end of the Vietnam War, protest in the US came to assume more legalistic, orderly forms, and was increasingly dominated by the middle-class. This corresponded with the rise of a highly effective police strategy of crowd control called "negotiated management." Many social scientists have noted the "institutionalization of movements" in this period. These currents largely constrained disruptive protest until 1999. In an unprecedented success for post-Vietnam era civil disobedience, the WTO Ministerial Conference opening ceremonies were shut down completely, host city Seattle declared a state of emergency for nearly a week, multilateral trade negotiations between the wealthy and developing nations collapsed, and all of this was done without fatalities. This occurred in the midst of mass rioting which had been set off by militant anarchists, some of them in a black bloc formation.
In the lead up to the shutdown, local group Seattle Anarchist Response (SAR) had circulated Ward Churchill's text Pacifism as Pathology freely among protesters. SAR actively promoted among the rank-and-file of the Direct Action Network (DAN) and criticized NGO hegemony of the protests. They often found an enthusiastic response.
The call for the Seattle protest had originally come from Peoples' Global Action (a network co-founded by the Zapatistas) which supported diversity of tactics and a highly flexible definition of nonviolence. In the aftermath of the shutdown, however, various NGO spokespeople associated with Seattle DAN claimed that the riotous aspect of the WTO protests was counterproductive and undemocratic. They also asserted that it was only an insignificantly small group from Eugene, Oregon that engaged in property destruction. Medea Benjamin told The New York Times that "These anarchists should have been arrested,"  while Lori Wallach of Public Citizen stated that she had instructed Teamsters to assault black bloc participants. In response, numerous scholar-activists including Barbara Ehrenreich decried the NGO leaders as "hypocrites," and wrote that nonviolent activists ought to be "treating the young rock-throwers like sisters and brothers in the struggle." The author-activist also criticized the dominant nonviolent paradigm as "absurdly ritualized,."  The solution to Ehrenreich's impasse was the growing acceptance of black bloc tactics in the anti-globalization movement.
During the 2010 G20 Summit in Toronto, a black bloc riot damaged a number of retail locations including an Urban Outfitters, American Apparel, Adidas Store, Starbucks and many banking establishments.
On the day of President Donald Trump's inauguration, black bloc groups were present among other protests in Washington, D.C. and other places. The groups engaged in vandalism, rioting, and violence. At least 217 were arrested and six police officers sustained minor injuries, and at least one other person was injured.
In February 2017, an event at the University of California, Berkeley by commentator Milo Yiannopoulos was cancelled by college administrators after protestors of a black bloc broke windows, shot fireworks, and caused a light fixture to catch fire. The cancellation of the event brought mainstream attention to anarchism and black bloc tactics, and led to a larger conversation about the role of violence in protest movements.
During the June–July 2013 mass public demonstrations, groups of people using Black Bloc tactics started attending demonstrations, especially those held across the street from governor of Rio de Janeiro State Sérgio Cabral's residence and the state government palace. Police face accusations of infiltrating the movement and, at times, acting as agents provocateurs by starting confrontations. Many leftists claim that video footage shows an infiltrated police officer throwing a molotov cocktail that wounded a riot policeman, although this has been denied by the police and hasn't been proven until today (2017). Protester violence occurred regularly during the Brazilian protests (particularly the week of 17 to 21 June) even when not linked with the black bloc, or with police infiltration.
Despite the denunciations by media, police, and even some activists, the black bloc tactic persisted in the movement. By October 2013, "The mask-wearers were welcomed by the protesters who wanted to wreak havoc during manifestations...Indeed, this sense of solidarity amidst the demonstrations, this shared manning of barricades, inspires a common determination to fight against the fear of repression." According to a report by two Brazilian leftists published in Al Jazeera, this coincided with a revival in the breadth of the street protests that had not been seen since its early days in June. On 10 October, the Rio teacher's union (Sepe) officially declared support for the recent black bloc actions, stating that the bloc were "welcome" at their demonstrations. Postings on teacher Facebook groups praised bloc participants as "fearless."
During May 1, 2018, over 1,200 black bloc took part in demonstrations in Paris, France. High damages on public infrastructures and stores were committed.  During the demonstrations of the Yellow vests movement (autumn 2018-spring 2019) strong damages were committed by black bloc in Paris, Toulouse or Bordeaux. The most violent event took place in Paris when Champs-Élysées were vandalized on March 16, 2019.
A group of about 400 black bloc demonstrators took part in the 2011 London anti-cuts protest where they attacked various high end retail outlets; according to journalist Paul Mason this may have been the largest ever black bloc assembly in the UK. Mason says some of the participants were anarchists from Europe, others were British students radicalised after participation in the 2010 UK student protests. A black bloc protested the opening of the universal exposition Expo 2015 in Milan.
Amongst hundreds of thousands of protesters protesting the G20 Summit in Hamburg Germany were thousands of violent black clad rioters who vandalised the city day and night, mostly at night.
On 25 January 2013, on the second anniversary of the Egyptian Revolution, black blocs made an appearance in the Egyptian political scenes where they have reportedly attacked various Muslim Brotherhood headquarters and government buildings and stopped traffic and metro lines in more than 8 cities. A group of young protesters, who identified themselves as the "Black Bloc", have marked the second anniversary of the Egyptian revolution by blocking the tramway tracks in Alexandria on Friday. Egyptian Prosecutor General Talaat Abdallah ordered the police and armed forces to arrest any participant in the Black Bloc, pointing out that the group was carrying out "terrorist activities" and is considered by the government and under the new Constitution a violent radical outlaw group.
On occasion, police and security services have infiltrated black blocs, for purposes of investigation. Allegations first surfaced after several demonstrations. At the 2001 G8 summit in Genoa, among the many complaints about the police there was mention of video footage which "suggests that men in black were seen getting out of police vans near protest marches." In August 2007, Quebec police admitted that "their officers disguised themselves as demonstrators" in Montebello. However, the officers purportedly did not engage in violence, and claimed that they were carrying rocks because other protesters were doing so. They were identified by genuine protesters because of their police-issue footwear. According to veteran activist Harsha Walia, it was other participants in the black bloc who identified and exposed the undercover police.
There is no evidence that the black bloc tactic is particularly vulnerable to infiltration, however, as investigatory – and even agent provocateur – activity has taken place regularly among completely nonviolent, non-"black bloc" campaigns. In 2003, the Oakland, California Police Department infiltrated a group of demonstrators protesting police brutality and the war in Iraq at the port; subpoenaed private comments by Captain Howard Jordan indicate that his plan was to steer the march away from the police station in order to avoid confrontation. In internal documents, Jordan mentioned this strategy was common in other police departments, including San Francisco and Seattle."
When we smash a window, we aim to destroy the thin veneer of legitimacy that surrounds private property rights … After N30 [30 November], many people will never see a shop window or a hammer the same way again. The potential uses of an entire cityscape have increased a thousand-fold. The number of broken windows pales in comparison to the number of spells—spells cast by a corporate hegemony to lull us into forgetfulness of all the violence committed in the name of private property rights and of all the potential of a society without them. Broken windows can be boarded and eventually replaced, but the shattering of assumptions will hopefully persist for some time to come.— ACME Collective, quoted in Paris (2003)
Tactics of a black bloc primarily include vandalism of private property, rioting, and demonstrating without a permit. Tactics can also include use of defensive measures such as misleading the authorities, assisting in the escape of people arrested by the police ("un-arrests" or "de-arrests"), administering first aid to persons affected by tear gas, rubber bullets and other riot control measures in areas where protesters are barred from entering, building barricades, resisting the police, and practicing jail solidarity. Property destruction carried out by black blocs tends to have symbolic significance: common targets include banks, institutional buildings, outlets for multinational corporations, gasoline stations, and video-surveillance cameras.
There may be several blocs within a particular protest, with different aims and tactics. As an ad hoc group, blocs often share no universally common set of principles or beliefs apart from an adherence to—usually—radical left or autonomist values, although some anarchist groups have called for the Saint Paul Principles to be adapted as a framework in which diverse tactics can be deployed. A few radical right-wing groups, like some of the "autonomous nationalists" of Europe or the Australian so-called "National-Anarchists" have adopted "black bloc" tactics and dress.
In 2000, some months after the Battle of Seattle and the A16 protests against the IMF in Washington DC, the Green Mountain Anarchist Collective (based out of rural Vermont), called for Black Bloc activities to be coordinated on the tactical level, through the temporary election of street officers democratically empowered to make fast tactical decisions, especially concerning movement, while in confrontation with state police forces. This collective also called for Black Bloc actions to entail reserve groups, who could be called into a clash by these elected officers. These proposals were mapped out in the first edition of the pamphlet Communique on Tactics. The pamphlet was controversial within the anarchist community. Some anarchists attacked this approach be being too formal and bordering on Leninist in structure. The Green Mountain Anarchist Collective countered that the direct election of tactical officers was historically in line with the CNT and FAI anarchist militias during the Spanish Civil War. Of those early segments of the anarchist scene that agreed, in principle, with these assertions were the Barricada Collective (Boston, MA) and Columbus Anti-Racist Action (Ohio). The Barricada Collective, in their publication of the same name, published the pamphlet, and also wrote their own essays calling for a more nuanced and more militant use of the Black Bloc in the North American anarchist movement.
In July 2001 the Green Mountain Anarchist Collective would go on to produce a second edition of the Communique on Tactics pamphlet in cooperation with Columbus ARA. This second edition further refined the proposal to suggest, among other things, that large Black Blocs, composed of numerous affinity groups, could reach a further level of tactical sophistication by each affinity group further specializing their capabilities (i.e. offense, defense, recon, etc.) and by investing coordinating ability to the elected officer core. This pamphlet, like the first, was debated among anarchists. Aspects of these tactical reforms were field tested with some success at the Festival De La Pueblo 5 May March in Boston in 2002, and the siege of the Lewiston Armory (in opposition to a failed neo-Nazi organizing meeting), Maine, 2003. Both these actions were organized largely by the Northeast Federation of Anarcho-Communist (whom the Green Mountain Anarchist Collective and Barricada were then affiliated).
- Autonomia and the Origin of the Black Bloc. Retrieved 7 November 2008.
- Carlson, Kathryn Blaze (14 June 2010). "The Black Bloc: A look at the anarchists who could be the biggest G20 security threat". National Post.
- "Fashion Tips for the Brave". CrimethInc. Archived from the original on 21 January 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- Lennard, Natasha (22 January 2017). "Neo-Nazi Richard Spencer Punched--You Can Thank the Black Bloc". National Post.
- Bild, Ullstein (19 February 1977). "History of Germany 1963–1988" (gallery). UK: TopFoto. p. 37. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Bild, Ullstein (19 February 1977). "History of Germany 1963–1988" (gallery) (in German). UK: TopFoto. p. 39. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Bild, Ullstein (19 February 1977). "History of Germany 1963–1988" (gallery) (in German). UK: TopFoto. p. 40. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- "Der Mythos von Bolle – Sie lesen das Original! aus Berlin-Kreuzberg". Kreuzberger Chronik (in German). DE. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- "Die Nacht, als Bolle in Kreuzberg abbrannte". Berliner Morgenpost (in German). Berlin. 30 April 2007. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Neumann, Peter; Thomsen, Jan (31 May 2008). "Kreuzberger übernehmen Vorbereitung für den 1. Mai: Textarchiv: Berliner Zeitung Archiv" (in German). Berlin online. Retrieved 13 August 2011.[permanent dead link]
- Grauwacke, AG, "We Will Disrupt this Conference: Resistance to the 1988 IMF and World Bank Conference in West Berlin", Days of Dissent: Reflections on Summit Mobilisations, UK: Dissent Network!, archived from the original on 18 November 2010
- Grauwacke, AG (2003), Autonome in Bewegung: aus der ersten 23 Jahren (in German), Association A, ISBN 978-3-935936-13-2
- "G-8-Protest: Randale in Rostock – 430 verletzte Polizisten". Der Spiegel (in German). 2 June 2007. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- "DER SPIEGEL 23/2011 – Verfassungsschutz warnt vor linker Militanz". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- See The Black Bloc Papers, page 35, Breaking Glass Press, Shawnee Mission, KS, 2010
- Rick Anderson (22 December 1999). "Delta's down with it – Page 1". Seattle Weekly. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Fernandez, Luis A. (2008). Policing Dissent: Social Control and the Anti-globalization Movement. Rutgers University Press. p. 59.
- Doug McAdam, et al. “There Will Be Fighting in the Streets: The Distorting Lens of Social Movement Theory”, Mobilization: An International Journal 10(1): 1-18.
- McPhail, Clark, David Schweingruber and John McCarthy. 1998. “Policing Protest in the United States: 1960-1995", pp. 49-69, in della Porta, Donatella and Herbert Reiter (eds), Policing Protest: The Control of Mass Demonstrations in Western Democracies. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
- Doug McAdam, et al. "There Will Be Fighting in the Streets: The Distorting Lens of Social Movement Theory", Mobilization: An International Journal 10(1): 1-18.
- "Day 2- November 30, 1999", WTO History Project, University of Washington.
- “Seattle Declares Civil Emergency”, BBC News, December 1, 1999.
- John Vidal, "The real battle of Seattle", The Guardian, December 5, 1999.
- Seattle Anarchist Response Bulletin, November 15, 1999.
- Geov Parrish, "Beyond Gandhi", The Seattle Weekly, November 17, 1999.
- Alexander Cockburn and our readers, “WTO: Workers of the World United?” The Nation, February 14, 2000.
- Timothy Egan, “Black masks lead to pointed fingers in Seattle”, The New York Times, December 2, 1999.
- "Lori's War", Foreign Policy, Spring 2000, p. 49.
- Barbara Ehrenreich, "Anarkids and Hyprocrites", The Progressive, June 2000.
- Heath, Renee Guarriello; Fletcher, Courtney Vail; Munoz, Ricardo (29 August 2013). Understanding Occupy from Wall Street to Portland: Applied Studies in Communication Theory. Lexington Books. pp. 108–109. ISBN 9780739183229.
- “Hallmarks of People's Global Action (amended at the 3rd PGA conference at Cochamamba, 2001)”.
- Cindy Milstein, "Something Did Start in Quebec City: North America's Revolutionary Anti-Capitalist Movement", Institute for Social Ecology, June 13, 2001.
- "G20 protest brings violence, arrests". MSN. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
- "Violent Black Bloc tactics hit Toronto during G20 protest". The Canadian Press. 26 June 2010. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- Dwyer, Colin; Domonokse, Camila (20 January 2017). "In D.C., Group Of Protesters Breaks Windows; Police Use Pepper Spray". NPR.
- Lawler, David (21 January 2017). "Donald Trump Protests: Limo 'Set on Fire' and 217 Arrested as Police use Tear Gas on Black-Clad Activists". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- Krieg, Gregory (21 January 2017). "Police Injured, More than 200 Arrested at Trump Inauguration Protests". CNN. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
- "'Black bloc' style tactics seen as chaos erupts in downtown D.C." Washington Post. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
- "Kris Cruz on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
- "Video captures moment anti-Donald Trump protest violence erupts". The Independent. 20 January 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
- CNN, Madison Park and Kyung Lah. "Berkeley protests of Yiannopoulos caused $100,000 in damage". CNN. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- Stockman, Farah (2 February 2017). "Anarchists Respond to Trump's Inauguration, by Any Means Necessary". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- Staff, Haruka Senju | Senior (7 February 2017). "Violence as self-defense". The Daily Californian. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
- "Black Blocs e a baderna premeditada na Zona Sul". Globo.com. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "PM culpa Black Blocs por confusão em Laranjeiras". Globo.com. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "Video of Clashes in Brazil Appears to Show Police Infiltration of Protesters". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "Black Bloc Rising: Social Networks in Brazil". Igarape Institute, 13 March 2014
- Hannah Waldram "Brazil protests continue". The Guardian, 21 June 2013
- Bruno Cava and Marcelo Castaneda "Black Bloc and Teachers: Education crisis explodes on Rio's streets". Al Jazeera, 23 October 2013
- "Sindicato do professores declara oficialmente apoio aos black blocs". O Dios, 10 October 2013
- Baker, Jennifer (10 September 2013). "Brazil: Teachers Union Officially Declares Unconditional Support for Black Bloc". revolution-news.com. Archived from the original on 19 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- Kettley (May 1, 2018). "A Paris, le 1er mai des Black Blocs". Le Parisien.
- Mason, Paul (2012). "Ch. 3". Why It's Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions. London,Verso. ISBN 978-1-84467-851-8.
- Bacchi, Umberto; Iaccino, Ludovica; Mezzofiore, Gianluca (May 1, 2015). "Milan Expo 2015: Violent May Day protests at No Expo anti-capitalist demonstration". International Business Times UK. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
- Kettley, Sebastian (July 9, 2017). "Hamburg G20 protests: What is Antifa? Who are the 'Welcome to Hell' protestors?". Daily Express. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- "Black Bloc claims responsibility for attacks against Muslim Brotherhood". Memo: The Middle East Monitor. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "Black Bloc...A model for non-traditional movements of violence in Egypt". AlAhram International politics (arabic edition). Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "The middle east,'Black Bloc'..An Egyptian Movement that raises the banner of violence against the Muslim Brotherhood". Alsharq Alawsat. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "Almogtamaa,'Black Block' ..Newest leftist 'anarchist' chaotic organizations to hit the Arab revolutions". Magmj.com. 26 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Black Block in Egypt, a mysterious group monitored by authorities". France24 (in arabic) Archived 28 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "CNN (in arabic) Egypt: Investigation into an Israeli scheme caught with a participant of Black Bloc" (in Arabic). CNN. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Black Bloc stops tramway in Alexandria, protests in Cairo". Ahram Online. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "Live Updates 1: Protests, clashes all over the country on revolution's anniversary". Ahram Online. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "Black Bloc anarchists emerge". BBC News. 28 January 2013.
- "Egypt's Black Bloc in govt crosshairs". News24. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "Public Prosecution orders arrest of all Black Bloc members". Egypt Independent. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- "Media Advisory: Media Missing New Evidence About Genoa Violence". FAIR. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- Carroll, Rory; John Vidal; David Pallister; Owen Bowcott (23 July 2001). "Men in black behind chaos: Hardliners plan 'actions' away from main protesters". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- "Quebec police admit they went undercover at Montebello protest". CBC News. 23 August 2007. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- Topping, David. "Bon Cop, Bad Cop". Torontoist.com. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- "Rabble TV "A Diversity of Tactics – A Diversity of Opinions" Rabble.ca, March 5, 2010". Rabble.ca. 5 March 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- “State of Surveillance: Government Monitoring of Political Activity in Northern & Central California A Report by the ACLU of Northern California” Written by Mark Schlosberg, Police Practices Policy Director, July 2006; Gonzalez, Richard (8 August 2006). "Oakland Police Spy on Anti-War Group". NPR. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
- Paris, Jeffrey (2003). "The Black Bloc's Ungovernable Protest". Peace Review. 15 (3): 317–322. doi:10.1080/1040265032000130913.
- "Hedging Our Bets on the Black Bloc: The Impotence of Mere Liberalism". Press Action. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- "Battle of Genoa". Southern Cross Review. Retrieved 16 November 2008.
- Juris, Jeffrey S. (2005). "Violence Performed and Imagined: Militant Action, the Black Bloc and the Mass Media in Genoa". Critique of Anthropology. 25 (4): 413–432. doi:10.1177/0308275X05058657. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "A Principled Stand on Diversity of Tactic: Avoiding Uniformity of Failure". Press Action. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- K, 2001, "being black block" in On Fire: the battle of Genoa and the anti-capitalist movement, p. 31, One Off Press.
- Nicola, Stefan (20 May 2008). "Germany's new neo-Nazis". United Press International. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- Sunshine, Spencer (April 2008). "Rebranding Fascism: Nationalists". Public Eye Magazine. 23. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- "Communique on Tactics". The Anarchist Library. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- Albertani, Claudio (2002). "Paint It Black: Black Blocs, Tute Bianche and Zapatistas in the Anti-globalization Movement*". New Political Science. 24 (4): 579–595. doi:10.1080/0739314022000025408. ISSN 1469-9931.
- Dupuis-Déri, Francis (2010). "The Black Blocs Ten Years after Seattle: Anarchism, Direct Action, and Deliberative Practices". Journal for the Study of Radicalism. 4 (2): 45–82. doi:10.1353/jsr.2010.0005. ISSN 1930-1189.
- Dupuis-Déri, Francis (July 1, 2014). Who's Afraid of the Black Blocs?: Anarchy in Action around the World. PM Press. ISBN 978-1-62963-046-5.
- Feigenbaum, Anna; Frenzel, Fabian; McCurdy, Patrick (2013). Protest Camps. London: Zed Books Ltd. pp. 122–128. ISBN 978-1-78032-357-2.
- Gautney, Heather (September 2009). "Between Anarchism and Autonomist Marxism". Working USA. 12 (3): 467–487. doi:10.1111/j.1743-4580.2009.00249.x.
- Gee, Teoman (2001) "Militancy Beyond Black Blocs". Alpine Anarchist Productions.
- Graeber, David (2009). Direct Action: An Ethnography. Oakland: AK Press. ISBN 978-1904859796.
- Graeber, David (9 February 2012). "Concerning the Violent Peace-Police: An Open Letter to Chris Hedges". N+1. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Katsiaficas, George. The Subversion of Politics: European Social Movements and the Decolonization of Everyday Life. Oakland and Edinburgh: AK Press, 2006.
- Mohandesi, Salar (2012) "On the Black Bloc." Viewpoint Magazine.
- Paris, Jeffrey (2003). "The Black Bloc's Ungovernable Protest". Peace Review. 15 (3): 317–322. doi:10.1080/1040265032000130913.
- Shantz, Jeff. Active Anarchy: Political Practice in Contemporary Movements. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2011.
- Black Blocs and Contemporary Propaganda of the Deed, by Jeff Shantz
- Zúquete, José Pedro (January 1, 2014). "Men in Black: Dynamics, Violence, and Lone Wolf Potential". Terrorism and Political Violence. 26 (1): 95–109. doi:10.1080/09546553.2014.849920. ISSN 0954-6553.
- Green Mountain Anarchist Collective (NEFAC-VT) & Columbus Anti-Racist Action; A Communiqué on Tactics and Organization to the Black Bloc, from within the Black Bloc, Black Clover Press, 2001.
- Van Deusen, David; West, Sean; Green Mountain Anarchist Collective; Neither Washington Nor Stowe: Common Sense For The Working Vermonter, Catamount Tavern Press, this pamphlet shows a genesis of focus from organizing Bloc Blocs to organizing towards a libertarian-socialist society in northern New England.
- Van Deusen, David; On Anarchism: Dispatches From The People's Republic of Vermont, forward by Jeff Jones of the Weather Underground, Algora Publishing, 2017, ISBN 978-1-62894-303-0.
- Van Deusen, David; Van Deusen On North American Black Blocs 1996-2001, The Anarchist Library, 2017.
- Van Deusen, David; Green Mountain Anarchist Collective; On The Question of Violence and Nonviolence As a Tactic and Strategy Within The Social Protest Movement: An Anarchist Perspective, Black Clover Press, 2001.
- Van Deusen, David; Massot, Xavier; Green Mountain Anarchist Collective; The Black Bloc Papers: An Anthology of Primary Texts From The North American Anarchist Black Bloc 1988–2005, Breaking Glass Press, Shawnee Mission, KS, 2010. ISBN 0-9791671-0-8
- Van Deusen, David; The Rise and Fall of The Green Mountain Anarchist Collective, 2015, this article looks at the Green Mountain Anarchist Collective, why they came to take part in Black Blocs, and how they moved beyond the Black Bloc.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Black bloc.|