Black Man (song)
|Song by Stevie Wonder|
|Genre||Soul, funk, disco|
|Writer||Stevie Wonder, Gary Byrd|
The song was written about Wonder's desire for worldwide interracial harmony, and criticism of racism, as evidenced in earlier works such as "Living for the City". The lyrics referred prominently to Crispus Attucks, widely considered a martyr of the American Revolution. Wonder deliberately chose this theme as the United States Bicentennial was underway at the time of recording.
The song uses color-based terminology; (i.e. black, red, yellow, white, brown) to describe different racial groups and although this language has become less acceptable culturally, these terms are mentioned below, as in the original form of the song, along with the activity for which the song holds each historical figure to be famous.
The opening verses refer to 12 people, or groups of people in two cases, however their names are not mentioned in the song itself. The numbers of people mentioned for each racial grouping are as follows: Black - 3, Red - 3, Yellow - 2, White - 2, Brown - 2.
- Crispus Attucks - a black man - first man to die in the Boston Massacre
- Native American people - the red man's - native people of the American land
- Pedro Alonso Niño - a brown man - guide on the first Columbus trip
- Chinese workers - the yellow man - builders of American railroads
- Dr. Daniel Hale Williams - a black man - first heart surgeon
- Squanto - a red man - helped pilgrims to survive
- Caesar Chavez - a brown man - farm workers leader
- Thomas Edison - a white man - inventor of incandescent light bulb
- Benjamin Banneker - a black man - inventor of first clock to be made in America
- Sacagawea - a red woman - scout who helped lead Lewis and Clark expedition
- Bruce Lee - a yellow man - pioneer of martial arts in America
- Abraham Lincoln - a white man - abolition of slavery
17 people are mentioned in this call-and-response section (although the last name, TJ Marshall, is difficult to hear clearly in the song's fade-out.) The numbers for each racial grouping are as follows: Black - 7, Red - 4, Yellow - 3, White - 2, Brown - 1.
- Matthew Henson - a black man - first man to set foot on the north pole
- Squanto - a red man - first American to show the pilgrims at Plymouth the secrets of survival in the New World
- Sing Kee - a yellow man - soldier of Company G who won high honors in World War I
- Caesar Chavez - a brown man - leader of United Farm Workers
- Dr. Charles Drew - a black man - founder of blood plasma and the director of the Red Cross blood bank
- Sacagawea - a red woman - heroine who aided the Lewis and Clark Expedition
- Hayakawa - a yellow man - educator and semanticist who made contributions to education in America
- Garrett Morgan - a black man - invented the world's first stop light and the gas mask
- Harvey William Cushing - a white man - surgeon who was one of the founders of neurosurgery
- Benjamin Banneker - a black man - man who helped design the nation's capitol, made the first Clock to give time in America and wrote the first almanac
- Hiawatha - a red man - hero who helped establish the league of Iroquois
- Michio Kushi - a yellow man - leader of the first macrobiotic center in America
- Jean Baptiste - a black man - founder of the city of Chicago in 1772
- Dennis Banks - a red man - one of the organizers of the American Indian movement
- Luis de Santángel - a white man - Jewish financier who raised funds to sponsor Christopher Columbus' voyage to America
- Harriet Tubman - a black woman - leading slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad
- TJ Marshall - a black man - inventor of the fire extinguisher
Four people are referred to twice in the song (both in section 1 and section 2): Squanto, Caesar Chavez, Sacagawea, Benjamin Banneker; which means 25 different people or groups of people are referenced in the song.
- Werner, Craig Hansen (2006). A Change is Gonna Come: Music, Race & the Soul of America. University of Michigan Press. p. 187. ISBN 9780472031474.
- Gulla, Bob (2008). Icons of R&B and Soul: Smokey Robinson and the Miracles ; The Temptations ; The Supremes ; Stevie Wonder. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 322. ISBN 9780313340468.
- Wilson, Ivy G (2011). Specters of Democracy:Blackness and the Aesthetics of Politics in the Antebellum U.S. Oxford University Press. p. 169. ISBN 9780199843725.
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