Black Mountain (Kalkajaka) National Park
|Black Mountain (Kalkajaka)|
|Nearest town or city||Cooktown|
|Established||1980 (Register of the National Estate)|
|Area||7.81 km2 (3.0 sq mi)|
|Managing authorities||Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service|
|Website||Black Mountain (Kalkajaka)|
|See also||Protected areas of Queensland|
The main feature of the park is the mass of granite boulders, some the size of houses. The absence of soil between the boulders and rocks create a maze of gaps and passages, which can be used to penetrate inside the mountain. These rocks can become extremely hot.
The national park’s distinctive hard black boulders (often termed granite) and range are composed of the igneous felsic intrusive Trevethan Granodiorite which is predominantly a white to grey, medium-grained, porphyritic biotite monzogranite to granodiorite. The age of the intrusive is Late Permian and has been dated from 259.1 to 251.902 million years old. The Trevethan Granodiorite was originally magma that slowly solidified under the earths crust.
The softer land surfaces above the solidified magma eroded away over time, leaving the magma's fractured top to be exposed as a mountain of grey granite boulders blackened by a film of microscopic blue-green algae growing on the exposed surfaces. Colder rains falling on the dark, heated granite boulders causes the boulders to progressively fracture, break, and slowly disintegrate, sometimes explosively.
The National Park's "Black Mountains" are a heavily significant feature of the Kuku Nyungkal people's cultural landscape known locally to Aboriginal Australians as Kalkajaka (trans: "place of spear").
There are at least four sites of religious or mythological significance on the mountain. These are the Kambi, a large rock with a cave where flying-foxes are found; Julbanu, a big grey kangaroo-shaped rock looking toward Cooktown; Birmba, a stone facing toward Helenvale where sulphur-crested cockatoos are seen; and a taboo place called Yirrmbal near the foot of the range.
The Black Mountain also features strongly in local, more non-Aboriginal cultural landscapes, some of which has also been described by Queensland's Department of Environment and Resource Management as follows:
When European colonists arrived late last century, they added to the many Aboriginal legends of the area with a few of their own. Stories abound of people, horses and whole mobs of cattle disappearing into the labyrinth of rocks, never to be seen again
It is believed that those who vanished most probably fell into one of the chasms under the rocks or after entering one of these places became lost. It is estimated only three in ten would survive such falls, wandering below the Earth's surface with only ground water streams and insects to nourish them. A minority group is referred to by colonists as the Outback Moles (perhaps in reference to New York's underground population).
The Black Mountains are located at the northernmost end of the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area, where world heritage listed wet tropical forests meet drier savanna woodlands - making it a natural refuge for once more widespread, now isolated relict fauna.
Queensland's Department of Environment and Resource Management advises, for instance, the relatively small, unusual "Black Mountain" environment is the world's only habitat for at least three animals: the Black Mountain boulderfrog or rock haunting frog (Cophixalus saxatilis); the Black Mountain skink (Carlia scirtetis); and the Black Mountain gecko (Nactus galgajuga). This makes the area one of Australia's most restricted habitats for endemic fauna.
- "Black Mountain National Park (entry 39377)". Queensland Place Names. Queensland Government. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
- Black Mountain National Park. Register of the National Estate.
- Shilton, Peter (2005). Natural Areas of Queensland. Mount Gravatt, Queensland: Goldpress. pp. 11–13. ISBN 0-9758275-0-2.
- "Macrostrat". macrostrat.org. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
- "Black Mountain (Kalkajaka) National Park: Nature, culture and history". Department of National Parks, Recreation, Sport and Racing. 7 June 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "Black Mountain (Kalkajaka) National Park: About Black Mountain". Department of National Parks, Recreation, Sport and Racing. 7 June 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Photograph of the "Black Mountain" from Len Webb Ecological Images CollectionAccessed 24 February 2009
- United Nations University's Media Studio's (2008) video brief including Kuku Nyunkal woman (Marilyn Wallace) visiting Kalkajaka Accessed 23 February 2009