Black Narcissus

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Black Narcissus
Blacknar.jpg
Theatrical poster
Directed by
Produced by
  • Michael Powell
  • Emeric Pressburger
Screenplay by
  • Michael Powell
  • Emeric Pressburger
Based onBlack Narcissus
by Rumer Godden
Starring
Music byBrian Easdale
CinematographyJack Cardiff
Edited byReginald Mills
Color processTechnicolor
Distributed by
Release date
  • 4 May 1947 (1947-05-04) (UK)[1]
  • 13 August 1947 (1947-08-13) (US)
Running time
100 minutes
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
Budget£280,000 (or $1.2 million[2]) or £351,494[3]

Black Narcissus is a 1947 British psychological drama film written, produced, and directed by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger, and starring Deborah Kerr, Kathleen Byron, Sabu, David Farrar, Flora Robson, Esmond Knight, and Jean Simmons. The title refers to the Caron perfume Narcisse noir. Based on the 1939 novel by Rumer Godden, the film revolves around the growing tensions within a small convent of Anglican nuns who are trying to establish a school and hospital in the old palace of an Indian Raja at the top of an isolated mountain above a fertile valley in the Himalayas. The palace has ancient Indian erotic paintings on its walls and is run by the agent of the Indian general who owns it, an attractive middle-aged Englishman who is normally dressed only in shorts and is a source of sexual attraction for the nuns, each of whom had a love affair in her youth that ended tragically and made her choose a nun's life.

Black Narcissus achieved acclaim for its pioneering technical mastery with the cinematographer, Jack Cardiff, shooting in vibrant colour, winning an Academy Award for Best Cinematography and a Golden Globe Award for Best Cinematography, and Alfred Junge winning an Academy Award for Best Art Direction.[4][5]

According to film critic David Thomson, "Black Narcissus is that rare thing, an erotic English film about the fantasies of nuns, startling whenever Kathleen Byron is involved".[6]

Plot[edit]

A mission of Anglican nuns from the Order of The Servants of Mary is invited by the Rajput ruler of a princely state to set up a school and hospital (to be called St. Faith) in the dilapidated seraglio where his father's harem was based, high on a cliff in the Himalayas. An order of monks has already tried unsuccessfully to establish themselves there, and the General's agent Mr. Dean makes the social and environmental difficulties plain. The ambitious Sister Clodagh is appointed Sister Superior and sent with four other nuns: Sister Philippa for the garden, Sister Briony for the infirmary; Sister Blanche, better known as "Sister Honey" to teach lace-making, and the emotionally unwell Sister Ruth for general classes. Mr. Dean is unimpressed, and gives them until the beginning of the monsoon before they leave.

During their time setting up the convent, the nuns face troubles with the old building and with the local Hindu population, often clashing with the building's old native caretaker Angu Ayah. Among these is a holy man in their grounds, the General's uncle, who spends all his time staring into the mountains. They also take in a local girl called Kanchi to try and control her erratic spirit; and the General's current heir—referred to as the Young General—for classes to understand Western culture prior to a trip to Britain. Kanchi is whipped by Ayah for stealing, but the Young General stops her and ends up falling for Kanchi in a situation compared by Mr. Dean to the tale of The King and the Beggar-maid.

Each member also has troubles of their own caused by their surroundings, which seem to magnify their emotions. Briony suffers from ill health, and Philippa loses herself in the environment and ends up planting the vegetable garden with flowers. Ruth, already highly strung, becomes increasingly jealous of Clodagh and obsessed with Mr. Dean, leading her to renounce the order. Clodagh remembers a failed romance from her home in Ireland which prompted her to join the Order. Honey's growing attachment to the children ends in disaster when she gives medicine to a fatally ill baby. Its death angers the locals, who blame and abandon the mission, and puts further strain on the nuns. Mr. Dean unsuccessfully tries to persuade Clodagh to leave before anything else happens.

One night, Clodagh confronts the now-unstable Ruth, finding her in a modern dress she ordered to impress Mr. Dean. Ruth escapes Clodagh's watch and finds Mr. Dean. When he refuses her advances, she has a complete mental breakdown and goes back to the mission, intent on killing Clodagh. When Clodagh is ringing the bell for morning service located on a cliff edge, Ruth attempts to push her over the edge. In the resulting struggle, Ruth falls off the cliff to her death. The mission leaves just as the monsoon begins, with Clodagh's final request to Mr. Dean being to tend Ruth's grave.

Cast[edit]

Analysis[edit]

Black Narcissus was released only a few months before India achieved independence from Britain in August 1947. Film critic Dave Kehr has suggested that the final images of the film, as the nuns abandon the Himalayas and proceed down the mountain, could have been interpreted by British viewers in 1947 as 'a last farewell to their fading empire'; he suggests that for the film-makers, it is not an image of defeat 'but of a respectful, rational retreat from something that England never owned and never understood'.[8] The story in the film quite closely follows that of the book, which was written in 1939.

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

Black Narcissus was adapted from writer Rumer Godden's 1939 novel of the same name.[9] Michael Powell was introduced to the novel by actress Mary Morris, who had appeared in the films he did with Emeric Pressburger, The Spy in Black (1939) and The Thief of Bagdad (1940).[10] Godden had adapted her novel for a stage production for Lee Strasberg in the United States, but allowed Pressburger to write his own screenplay adaptation with Powell.[10]

Casting[edit]

Deborah Kerr as Sister Clodagh

Kathleen Byron was among the first to be cast in the film, in the role of the crazed Sister Ruth.[11] Pressburger described Byron as having a "dreamy voice and great eyes like a lynx," which he felt appropriate for the mentally disturbed character.[11] In the role of the leading Sister Superior, Sister Clodagh, Deborah Kerr was cast.[11] Pressburger chose Kerr for the role at the behest of Powell, who felt she was too young for the part.[11] At one point, Powell considered Greta Garbo for the part.[11] Kerr was paid £16,000 for fifty-five days of work.[12]

David Farrar was cast as Mr. Dean, the virile British agent who becomes the object of Sister Ruth's obsession.[13] Farrar was paid £4,500 for forty-five days of shooting.[12] Flora Robson appears as Sister Philippa, a gardening nun in the convent.[12]

Of the three principal Indian roles, only the Young General was played by an ethnic Indian, Sabu; the roles of Kanchi and the Old General were performed by white actors in make-up.[14] The role of Kanchi was played by Jean Simmons.[15] Kanchi, 17, is described by Godden as "a basket of fruit, piled high and luscious and ready to eat. Though she looks shyly down, there is something steady and unabashed about her; the fruit is there to be eaten, she does not mean it to rot." Godden approved of Simmons' casting, remarking that she "perfectly fulfilled my description."[16] The Indian extras were cast from workers at the docks in Rotherhithe.[17]

Filming[edit]

Before-and-after stills of film; the bottom shows W. Percy Day's incorporated matte painting, creating the illusion of a large cliffside

Filming of Black Narcissus began on 16 May 1946, and completed on 22 August.[18] The film was shot primarily at Pinewood Studios but some scenes were shot in Leonardslee Gardens, West Sussex, the home of an Indian army retiree which had appropriate trees and plants for the Indian setting.[19] While Powell at the time had been known for his love of location shooting, with Black Narcissus, he became fascinated with the idea of shooting as much of the filming in-studio as possible.[20]

The film is famous for making extensive use of matte paintings and large-scale landscape paintings (credited to W. Percy Day) to suggest the mountainous environment of the Himalayas as well as some scale models for motion shots of the convent.[21] Powell said later: "Our mountains were painted on glass. We decided to do the whole thing in the studio and that's the way we managed to maintain colour control to the very end. Sometimes in a film its theme or its colour are more important than the plot."

For the costumes, Alfred Junge, the art director, had three main colour schemes. The nuns were always in the white habits that he designed from a medley of medieval types. These white robes of heavy material stressed the nuns' other-worldliness amid the exotic native surroundings. The chief native characters were robed in brilliant colours, particularly the General and his young nephew, in jewels and in rich silks. Other native characters brought into the film merely as 'atmosphere' were clad in more sombre colours with the usual native dress of the Nepalese, Bhutanese and Tibetan peoples toned down to prevent overloading the eye with brilliance.

According to Robert Horton, Powell set the climactic sequence, a murder attempt on the cliffs of the cloister, to a pre-existing musical track, staging it as though it were a piece of visual choreography. Also, there was some personal, behind-the-scenes tension, as Kerr was the director's ex-lover and Byron his current one. "It was a situation not uncommon in show business, I was told," Powell later wrote, "but it was new to me."[22]

Originally the film was intended to end with an additional scene in which Sister Clodagh sobs and blames herself for the convent's failure to Mother Dorothea. Mother Dorothea touches and speaks to Sister Clodagh welcomingly as the latter's tears continue to fall. When they filmed the scene with the rainfall on the leaves in what was to have been the penultimate scene, Powell was so impressed with it that he decided to designate that the last scene and to scrap the Mother Dorothea closing scene. It was filmed but it is not known whether it was printed.[23]

Release[edit]

Box office[edit]

Black Narcissus had its world premiere at the Odeon Theatre in London on 4 May 1947.[1] According to trade papers, the film was a "notable box office attraction" at British cinemas in 1947.[24][25] It premiered in the United States on 13 August 1947 in New York City at the Fulton Theatre.[26]

In France, where it released in 1949, the film sold 1,388,416 tickets. In Japan, it was the fifth top-grossing film of 1950, earning ¥60 million in theatrical rentals.[27]

Critical response[edit]

Kathleen Byron as Sister Ruth

In the United States, the Catholic National Legion of Decency condemned the film as "an affront to religion and religious life" for characterizing it as "an escape for the abnormal, the neurotic and the frustrated."[28] The version of the film originally shown in the United States had scenes depicting flashbacks of Sister Clodagh's life before becoming a nun edited out at the behest of the Legion of Decency.[29]

The Guardian noted that the film possesses "good acting and skillfully built-up atmosphere," also praising the cinematography.[30] Philip Scheuer of the Los Angeles Times gave the film high praise, deeming it an "exquisite cinematic jewel," continuing: "I can't say how authentic Black Narcissus is, but the lotus land to which it carries us is uniquely unforgettable."[31] Jane Corby of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle described the film as a "peculiar recital of religious life" and praised the cinematography, but felt that the "mixed atmosphere of religious seclusion and romantic vagaries is very confusing."[32]

Accolades[edit]

Institution Category Recipient Result Ref.
Academy Awards Best Cinematography Jack Cardiff Won [33]
Best Art Direction Alfred Junge Won
Golden Globe Awards Best Cinematography Jack Cardiff Won
New York Film Critics Circle Best Actress Deborah Kerr Won
Kathleen Byron Nominated [34]

Home media[edit]

The Criterion Collection, an American home media distribution company, released Black Narcissus on laserdisc in the early 1990s, and issued it on DVD in 2002.[35] Noel Murray, writing for The A.V. Club, deemed the 2002 DVD as a "crackerjack release," noting it was a direct copy of the old laserdisc.[35]

In 2008, ITV DVD released a restored version of the film on Blu-ray in the United Kingdom. The Criterion Collection subsequently issued the restored version on DVD and Blu-ray on 20 July 2010.[36] Network Distributing released another Blu-ray edition in the United Kingdom in 2014.[37]

Legacy[edit]

Black Narcissus achieved acclaim for its pioneering technical mastery and shocked audiences at the time of release with its vibrant colour and the themes of the film. Audiences gasped at some of the scenes, notably the shot of the vibrant pink flowers which shown on the big screen was a spectacle at the time.[38] The film's clever use of lighting and techniques have had a profound impact on later film makers, notably Martin Scorsese who used the extreme close-ups of the nuns as the inspiration for the treatment of Tom Cruise's character around the pool table in The Color of Money.[38] Martin Scorsese has said that the film is one of the earliest erotic films, the last quarter of the film in particular.[38] The film was one of his favourites as a boy and Scorsese has stated that one of the greatest experiences he has had with film is viewing Black Narcissus projected on a massive screen at the Director's Guild in 1983. In Michael Powell's own view, this was the most erotic film he ever made. "It is all done by suggestion, but eroticism is in every frame and image from beginning to end. It is a film full of wonderful performances and passion just below the surface, which finally, at the end of the film, erupts".

In The Great British Picture Show, the writer George Perry stated, "Archers films looked better than they were – the location photography in Technicolor by Jack Cardiff in Black Narcissus was a great deal better than the story and lifted the film above the threatening banality". In contrast, the critic Ian Christie wrote in the Radio Times in the 1980s that "unusually for a British film from the emotionally frozen forties the melodrama works so well it almost seems as if Powell and Pressburger survived the slings and barbs of contemporary criticism to find their ideal audience in the 1980s".[39] Marina Warner, introducing the film on BBC2 (on a nun-themed film evening, with Thérèse), called it a masterpiece.

The film's resonance with populations exploring previously stifled sexual desires and expression extends beyond its contemporary milieu of women in the post-war era. Black Narcissus also influenced the themes and aesthetic of the groundbreaking gay experimental film Pink Narcissus, which portrays a series of pornographic vignettes in vivid colour as the fantasies of a prostitute between visits from his keeper.[40] Although Pink Narcissus was lost in obscurity for some time, in recent years it has resurfaced as a cult classic, due in part to the vivid, fantastical aesthetic inspired by Black Narcissus.[41]

The look and cinematography of the 2013 Disney film Frozen was influenced by Black Narcissus. While working on the look and nature of the film's cinematography, Frozen art director Michael Giaimo was greatly influenced by Jack Cardiff's work in Black Narcissus.[42]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Odeon: World Premiere: Black Narcissus". The Guardian. London, England. 29 April 1947. p. 1 – via Newspapers.com.
  2. ^ "Pressburger". Variety. 5 November 1947. p. 20.
  3. ^ Macdonald 1994, p. 268.
  4. ^ "1948, Oscars.org, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. AMPAS. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  5. ^ "Black Narcissus, Golden Globes". Golden Globe Award. Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
  6. ^ David Thomson The New Biographical Dictionary of Film, London: Little, Brown, 2002, p, p.694
  7. ^ "Black Narcissus (1947)". BFI. British Film Institute. Retrieved 16 July 2020.
  8. ^ Kehr, Dave (29 January 2001). "Black Narcissus]". From the Current. The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
  9. ^ Street 2005, pp. 5–8.
  10. ^ a b Street 2005, p. 11.
  11. ^ a b c d e Street 2005, p. 22.
  12. ^ a b c Street 2005, p. 23.
  13. ^ Street 2005, pp. 22–23.
  14. ^ Street 2005, pp. 22–25.
  15. ^ Street 2005, p. 24.
  16. ^ Street 2005, p. 25.
  17. ^ Michael Powell, commentary on the Criterion Collection DVD, ch.6
  18. ^ Street 2005, p. 28.
  19. ^ Powell 1986, p. 562.
  20. ^ Street 2005, p. 12.
  21. ^ Street 2005, pp. 27–30.
  22. ^ Turan, Kenneth (21 September 1997). "Really Big Shoes". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. Archived from the original on 9 October 2019.
  23. ^ Crook, Steve. "Lost Scene from Black Narcissus". The Powell & Pressburger Pages. The Powell and Pressburger Appreciation Society. Retrieved 31 October 2009.
  24. ^ Murphy 2003, p. 209.
  25. ^ Thumim, Janet. "The popular cash and culture in the postwar British cinema industry". Screen. Vol. 32 no. 3. p. 258.
  26. ^ Slide 1998, p. 38.
  27. ^ "Japan 1950". Box Office Story (in French). Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  28. ^ "Legion Condemns British Film". The Tablet. Brooklyn, New York City. 16 August 1947. p. 1 – via Newspapers.com.
  29. ^ Eder, Bruce. "Black Narcissus: Review". AllMovie. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  30. ^ C. T. (6 May 1947). "Odeon– "Black Narcissus"". The Guardian. London, England. p. 6 – via Newspapers.com.
  31. ^ Scheuer, Philip K. (19 September 1947). "'Black Narcissus' Exquisite Production". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. p. 10 – via Newspapers.com.
  32. ^ Corby, Jane (14 August 1947). "'Black Narcissus' at the Fulton". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, New York City. p. 11 – via Newspapers.com.
  33. ^ "Black Narcissus – Awards". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012.
  34. ^ Cameron, Kate (30 December 1947). "N.Y. Critics Pick Best Pix of '47". New York Daily News. New York City, New York. p. 28 – via Newspapers.com.
  35. ^ a b Murray, Noel (19 April 2002). "Black Narcissus (DVD)". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on 5 November 2019.
  36. ^ Tyner, Adam (12 July 2010). "Black Narcissus (Blu-ray review)". DVD Talk. Archived from the original on 18 August 2014.
  37. ^ "Black Narcissus Blu-ray review". Cineoutsider. Archived from the original on 22 March 2019.
  38. ^ a b c Black Narcissus (The Criterion Collection) (2001) DVD commentary
  39. ^ Christie 1994.
  40. ^ Ottaviani, Maria. "James Bidgood, the pope of queer culture?". Numero. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  41. ^ Heath, Roderick (14 May 2017). "Pink Narcissus (1971)". Ferdy on Films. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  42. ^ Desowitz, Bill (7 October 2013). "Immersed in Movies: First Look: Designing the Winter Wonderland of "Frozen"". Animation Scoop. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2013.

Sources[edit]

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