Black River (New York)
The Black River's Great Falls, Watertown, New York.
|- left||Deer River|
|- right||Moose River, Independence River, Beaver River|
|- location||North Lake, Herkimer County|
|- elevation||1,850 ft (564 m)|
|- location||Dexter, Jefferson County|
|- elevation||246 ft (75 m)|
|- coordinates||Coordinates: |
|Length||125 mi (201 km)|
|Basin||1,920 sq mi (4,973 km2) |
|- average||4,242 cu ft/s (120 m3/s) |
|- max||52,000 cu ft/s (1,472 m3/s)|
|- min||137 cu ft/s (4 m3/s)|
The Black River is a 125-mile-long (201 km) blackwater river that empties into the eastern end of Lake Ontario on the shore of Jefferson County, New York in the United States. The origin of the name is not clear, but it may stem from the natural tannic acid that darkens the water in places. The river flows in a generally northwest direction, with its valley dividing the Adirondack Mountains on the east from the Tug Hill region to the west.
The Black River originates at North Lake in the foothills of the Adirondacks, in Herkimer County, about 25 miles (40 km) east of Boonville. The river flows west into Oneida County then north, past Forestport and Boonville into Lewis County. At Lyons Falls, it is joined by the Moose River from the east just above the eponymous waterfall, where the river drops 70 feet (21 m) over a gneiss cliff.
Near Glenfield the Black River receives the smaller tributaries of Otter Creek and the Independence River, also from the east. Further north, it passes Lowville, then receives the Beaver River from the east, then the Deer River, its only major western tributary. Starting above Carthage the river briefly divides Lewis and Jefferson Counties before crossing entirely into Jefferson County, where it turns sharply west toward Lake Ontario, flowing past Great Bend, Black River and Watertown. Below Watertown it enters a canyon, well known for its challenging rapids.
The river ends at Lake Ontario in the village of Dexter, about 10 miles (16 km) west of Watertown, where it empties into the Black River Bay and Marsh, which are parts of the Golden Crescent. For the last few miles it forms the boundary between the Towns of Brownville and Hounsfield.
There are at least 17 dams on the Black River, with eight in the upper part above Lyons Falls, and nine below Watertown. The upper and lower reaches of the river have a steep gradient and were originally developed to provide mechanical power for mills, such as the old Georgia-Pacific paper mill (which now sits abandoned and falling into disrepair) in Lyons Falls, and later hydroelectricity. In contrast the middle 40 miles (64 km) of the river have practically no gradient and are not suitable to the development of head for industrial or hydropower projects.
The three uppermost dams, forming North Lake, Kayuta Lake and the smaller Forestport Reservoir are the only structures forming significant impoundments. The other dams are run-of-the-river, with no appreciable storage capacity, so power generation is entirely dependent on the natural flow of the river combined with releases from upstream reservoirs, which is relatively consistent except for drought years.
Whitewater rafting and kayaking are popular on some stretches of the river, notably the Black River Canyon, which begins in Watertown and ends in Brownville. The Black River Canyon is one of few whitewater streams which have reliable flows throughout the summer. The "Canyon" itself is not actually present until you reach Brownville and ends in the Dexter Reservoir.
In August 2005, the Black River was contaminated by a spill from a manure lagoon on Marks Dairy Farm (a concentrated animal feeding operation near Lowville) when a retaining wall gave way, allowing the contents of a waste holding pond to spill. About 3 million US gallons (11,000 m3) of pollution flowed into the river. An estimated 280,000 to 375,000 fish were killed.
- "Black River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. 1980-01-23. Retrieved 2014-11-04.
- NYS Department of Environmental Conservation. "Black River Watershed". Dec.ny.gov. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- U.S. Geological Survey (2014). SITE 04260500 BLACK RIVER AT WATERTOWN NY (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey Water-Data Report 2013 (Report). p. 3. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- "The National Map". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved Feb 14, 2011.
- Corwin, Harney J. (2012). Images of America - Lewis County. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia Pub. p. 102. ISBN 0738592889. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- NYS Department of Environmental Conservation. "Fishing and Canoeing the Black River". Dec.ny.gov. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- Harman, W.N.; Albright, M.F.; Horvath, T. "Limnological investigations of Kayuta Lake, Onieda County, NY" (PDF). Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- Boonville Black River Canal Museum. "Black River Canal Chronology". Blackrivercanalmuseum.com. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- Michelle York (August 15, 2005). "Workers Trying to Contain Effects of Big Spill Upstate". The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- NYS Department of Environmental Conservation. "Restoration and Spending Plan - Marks Farm Natural Resource Damages Settlement" (PDF). Dec.ny.gov. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- Greg Warner (August 4, 2006). "Marks Farm, DEC settle over Black River manure spill". Northcountrypublicradio.org. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- O'Hern, William; Byron-Curtiss, A.L. (2003). Adirondack stories of the Black River Country. Utica, N.Y.: North Country Books. ISBN 0-925168-68-8.
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