Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation

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Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation
Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) logo.png
Formation4 June 1992
TypeEconomic cooperation organization
HeadquartersIstanbul, Turkey
Location
Membership
Secretary General
Greece Michael Christides
Website

The Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) is a regional international organization focusing on multilateral political and economic initiatives aimed at fostering cooperation, peace, stability and prosperity in the Black Sea region. It traces its origin to 25 June 1992, when Turkish President Turgut Özal and leaders of ten other countries gathered in Istanbul and signed the Summit Declaration and the "Bosphorus Statement". BSEC Headquarters – the Permanent International Secretariat of the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC PERMIS) – was established in March 1994, also in Istanbul.[1]

With the entry into force of its Charter on 1 May 1999, BSEC acquired international legal identity and was transformed into a full-fledged regional economic organization: Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. With the accession of Serbia (then Serbia and Montenegro) in April 2004, the Organization’s Member States increased to twelve.[1]

An important aspect of the activities of BSEC is the development of SME and entrepreneurship in the member countries. Concerning these issues, a series of workshops have been organized in cooperation with Konrad Adenauer Foundation and ERENET.[2]

Membership[edit]

  BSEC member states
  BSEC observer states

Founding members:

Later members:

Black Sea Economic Cooperation (zoom)
  members
  observers

As seen above, membership has not been restricted to countries which have access to the Black Sea: Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Greece, Moldova, and Serbia do not have coastlines on the Black Sea, though the last two are connected through the Danube river corridor and Greece through the two sea straits.

Macedonia's application was vetoed by Greece after Turkey vetoed the previous application of the Republic of Cyprus, prompting Greece to cease to approve future applications from any country.[3]

Observer nations:

Observer organizations:

Sectoral Dialogue Partner Countries:

Sectoral Dialogue Partner organizations:

Structure[edit]

Commemorating 25th Anniversary of BSEC on 2017 post stamp of Serbia
  • Summit Meetings of the Heads of State or Government of the Member States meets regularly every 5 years;[4]
  • Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs is the main decision-making organ of BSEC, and meets twice a year;
  • The Council of Ministers meets to achieve consensus on specific issues;
  • The Committee of Senior Officials meets 4 times a year and acts on behalf of Ministers of Foreign Affairs;
  • The Subsidiary Organs formed by the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs deal with their mandate defined by the Council, prepare joint projects and follow the implementation of these projects. Working Groups and Groups of Experts are the Subsidiary Organs;
  • Chairmanship-in-Office coordinates all activities of BSEC, as well as, it controls the proper conduct of the activities of the organization and implementation of the Resolutions and Decisions adopted by the Council. In English alphabetical order, one of the Member States heads the Chairmanship-in-Office every 6 months.[4] Chairmanship in BSEC is performed by Ukraine for the term of 1 July - 31 December 2017.[5]

Related bodies[edit]

Related bodies of BSEC carry out their functions due respect to the principles of BSEC defined in the Summit Declaration of 25 June 1992 and in the Charter. They have their own budget.[4]

PABSEC[edit]

The Parliamentary Assembly of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation based in Istanbul, is the inter-parliamentary consultative institution of the organization formed based on the Declaration on the Establishment of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation on February 26, 1993 by 9 founding states. Greece joined PABSEC in 1995, Bulgaria joined in 1997, and Serbia (former Serbia and Montenegro) joined in 2004.[6]

Representatives of Parliaments of member countries pursue objectives which are stated in the preamble of the PABSEC Rules and Procedures: insure the understanding and adoption of the ideas and objectives of BSEC; provide a legal basis for social, economic, cultural, commercial and political cooperation among the member states; provide support to the national parliaments to reinforce the parliamentary democracy; pass the legislation required for the implementation of the decisions adopted by the Heads of States or by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs.[6]

Main bodies of PABSEC are General Assembly, Standing Committee, the Bureau, Committees, the President, the Secretary General, and the International Secretariat.The Assembly is composed of 76 members. English, French, Russian and Turkish are the working languages of PABSEC.[6]

The President of PABSEC is Gramoz Ruçi from Albania, Secretary General is Asaf Hajiyev from Azerbaijan.[7]

BSEC BC[edit]

The Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization Business Council was formed in 1992 as an international, non-governmental and non-profit organization to strengthen the improvement of the business environment within Black Sea region. Business Council represents the business communities of member states. The International Secretariat of Business Council is based in Istanbul.[8]

BSTDB[edit]

The Black Sea Trade and Development Bank (BSTDB) is an international financial institution that was formed 24 January 1997.[9] It supports economic development and regional cooperation by providing trade and project financing, guarantees, and equity for development projects supporting both public and private enterprises in its member countries. Objectives of the bank include promoting regional trade links, cross country projects, foreign direct investment, supporting activities that contribute to sustainable development, with an emphasis on the generation of employment in the member countries, ensuring that each operation is economically and financially sound and contributes to the development of a market orientation.[10] The organization has an authorized capital of $1.325 billion.[11] The bank's headquarters are located in Thessaloniki, Greece.

BSTDB is governed by the Agreement Establishing Black Sea Trade and Development Bank, a United Nations registered treaty.[9] Unlike the International Monetary Fund and others, the BSTDB does not attach policy conditions by which debtor states can be controlled.[12] The Bank has a long term credit rating of 'A' from Moody's Investors Service and an 'A3' from Standard & Poor's, both with a stable outlook.[13]

ICBSS[edit]

The International Center for Black Sea Studies is an independent think tank focused on the wider Black Sea region, which serves as a related body of BSEC at the same time. It was established in 1998.[14]

BCCESDEI[edit]

The BSEC Coordination Center for the Exchange of Statistical Data and Economic Information was established with the aim to collect statistical and economic information, accomplish secretarial functions, coordinate obtained data and share it with member countries.[15]

Working Groups[edit]

Member states are cooperating on different issues within the Working Groups.[16] They are following:

Working Groups of OBSEC
Working Groups on Country Coordinator Term
Agriculture and Agro-Industry  Turkey 1 January 2017 - 31 December 2018[17]
Banking and Finance  Russia 1 January 2018 - 31 December 2019[18]
Cooperation in Combatting Crime  Romania 1 January 2018 - 31 December 2019[19]
Culture  Serbia 1 January 2017 - 31 December 2018[20]
Customs Matters  Turkey 1 July 2018 - 30 June 2020[21]
Cooperation in Emergency Assistance  Romania 1 July 2017 - 30 June 2019[22]
Education  Russia 1 January 2018 - 31 December 2019[23]
Energy  Ukraine 1 January 2018 - 31 December 2019[24]
Environmental Protection  Bulgaria 1 January 2018 - 31 December 2018[25]
Exchange of Statistical Data and Economic Information pending[26]
Healthcare and Pharmaceutics  Romania 1 July 2018 - 30 June 2020[27]
Information and Communication Technologies  Armenia 1 January 2018 - 31 December 2019[28]
Institutional Renewal and Good Governance  Romania 1 January 2018 - 31 December 2019[29]
Cooperation in Science and Technology  Russia 1 July 2018 – 30 June 2020[30]
SMEs pending[31]
Trade and Economic Development  Turkey 1 July 2018 - 30 June 2020[32]
Transport  Romania 1 July 2017 - 30 June 2019[33]
Tourism  Turkey 1 July 2018 - 30 June 2020[34]

The functions of Working Groups, of which country coordinators have not been appointed yet, are performed temporarily by the PERMIS.[35][26][36]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

^ Joined as  Serbia and Montenegro in April 2004;[1] BSEC membership was inherited by Serbia after the country dissolved in 2006.[37]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Permanent International Secretariat. "About BSEC". Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC). Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2009-05-29. With the accession of Serbia and Montenegro in April 2004, the Organization’s Member States increased to twelve.
  2. ^ Antal Szabó (ed.), Emerging entrepreneurship and the policy development in the BSEC after the economic crises, Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, Ankara 2012, ISBN 978-975-7968-99-3
  3. ^ Kurt, Suleyman (2006-06-11). "Montenegro Denied BSEC Membership Because of Turkish-Greek Rift". Zaman. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2008-02-23. In retaliation to Turkey’s move to veto the application filed by the Greek Cypriot Administration, Greece opposed all BSEC membership applications in protest, including Montenegro’s.
  4. ^ a b c ORGANIZATION OF THE BLACK SEA ECONOMIC COOPERATION. "Point of reference for regional cooperation and understanding" (PDF). www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-19.
  5. ^ "Chairmanship". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  6. ^ a b c "Introduction". www.pabsec.org. Retrieved 2017-12-20.
  7. ^ "PABSEC". www.pabsec.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  8. ^ "Business Council". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-20.
  9. ^ a b http://www.bstdb.gr/keyfacts.htm
  10. ^ http://www.eastagri.org/member_detail.asp?id=11
  11. ^ http://www.bstdb.gr/bank.htm
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved December 27, 2008.
  13. ^ (PDF) http://www.bsec-organization.org/bsecnews/BlackSeaNews/Downloads/December2012No26.pdf. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  14. ^ "ICBSS". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-20.
  15. ^ "Center for Statistics". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-20.
  16. ^ "Areas of cooperation". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  17. ^ "Working Group on Agriculture and Agro-Industry". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  18. ^ "Working Group on Banking and Finance". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  19. ^ "Working Group on Cooperation in Combatting Crime". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  20. ^ "Working Group on Culture". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  21. ^ "Working Group on Customs Matters". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  22. ^ "Working Group on Cooperation in Emergency Assistance". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  23. ^ "Working Group on Education". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  24. ^ "Energy - BSEC - Black Sea Economic Cooperation". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2018-11-26.
  25. ^ "Working Group on Environmental Protection". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  26. ^ a b "Working Group on Exchange of Statistical Data and Economic Information". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  27. ^ "Working Group on Healthcare and Pharmaceutics". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  28. ^ "Information & Communication Technologies - BSEC - Black Sea Economic Cooperation". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2018-11-26.
  29. ^ "Institutional Renewal & Good Governance - BSEC - Black Sea Economic Cooperation". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2018-11-26.
  30. ^ "Working Group on Cooperation in Science and Technology". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  31. ^ "SMEs - BSEC - Black Sea Economic Cooperation". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2018-11-26.
  32. ^ "Working Group on Trade and Economic Development". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  33. ^ "Working Group on Transport". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  34. ^ "Working Group on Cooperation in Tourism". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  35. ^ "Working Group on Energy". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  36. ^ "Working Group on Information and Communication Technologies". www.bsec-organization.org. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  37. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Serbia. "Constitutional Charter of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro: Article 60 - Breaking Away from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-02-23. Should Montenegro break away from the state union of Serbia and Montenegro, the international instruments pertaining to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, particularly UN SC Resolution 1244, would concern and apply in their entirety to Serbia as the successor.

External links[edit]