Black Spring (Cuba)
Black Spring refers to the 2003 crackdown on Cuban dissidents. The government imprisoned 75 dissidents, that included 29 journalists, as well as librarians, human rights activists, and democracy activists, on the basis that they were acting as agents of the United States by accepting aid from the US government. Although Amnesty International adopted 75 Cubans as prisoners of conscience, according to Cuba "the 75 individuals arrested, tried and sentenced in March/April 2003 ... who were jailed are demonstrably not independent thinkers, writers or human rights activists, but persons directly in the pay of the US government ... those who were arrested and tried were charged not with criticizing the government, but for receiving American government funds and collaborating with U.S diplomats."
The crackdown received sharp international condemnation, with critical statements coming from the George W. Bush administration, the European Union, the United Nations and various human rights groups, including Amnesty International. Responding to the crackdown, the European Union imposed sanctions on Cuba in 2003, that were lifted on January 2008. The European Union declared that the arrests "constituted a breach of the most elementary human rights, especially as regards freedom of expression and political association".
List of 75 jailed dissidents and their prison sentences:
- Nelson Aguiar Ramírez 13 years
- Osvaldo Alfonso Valdés 18 years
- Pedro Pablo Alvarez Ramos 25 years
- Pedro Argüelles Morán 20 years
- Víctor Rolando Arroyo Carmona 26 years
- Mijail Barzaga Lugo 15 years
- Oscar Elías Biscet González 25 years
- Margarito Broche Espinosa 25 years
- Marcelo Cano Rodríguez 18 years
- Roberto de Miranda Hernández 20 years
- Carmelo Díaz Fernández 15 years
- Eduardo Díaz Fleitas 21 years
- Antonio Díaz Sánchez 20 years
- Alfredo Domínguez Batista 14 years
- Oscar Espinosa Chepe 20 years
- Alfredo Felipe Fuentes 26 years
- Efrén Fernández Fernández 12 years
- Adolfo Fernández Sainz 15 years
- José Daniel Ferrer García 25 years
- Luis Enrique Ferrer García 28 years
- Orlando Fundora Alvarez 18 years
- Próspero Gaínza Agüero 25 years
- Miguel Galván Gutiérrez 26 years
- Julio César Gálvez Rodríguez 15 years
- Edel José García Díaz 15 years
- José Luis García Paneque 24 years
- Ricardo Gonzales Alfonso 20 years
- Diosdado González Marrero 20 years
- Léster González Pentón 20 years
- Alejandro González Raga 14 years
- Jorge Luis González Tanquero 20 years
- Leonel Grave de Peralta 20 years
- Iván Hernández Carrillo 25 years
- Normando Hernández González 25 years
- Juan Carlos Herrera Acosta 20 years
- Regis Iglesias Ramírez 18 years
- José Ubaldo Izquierdo Hernandez 16 years
- Reinaldo Labrada Peña 6 years
- Librado Linares García 20 years
- Marcelo López Bañobre 15 years
- José Miguel Martínez Hernández 13 years
- Héctor Maseda Gutiérrez 20 years
- Mario Enrique Mayo Hernández 20 years
- Luis Milán Fernández 13 years
- Nelson Moliné Espino 20 years
- Angel Moya Acosta 20 years
- Jesús Mustafá Felipe 25 years
- Felix Navarro Rodríguez 25 years
- Jorge Olivera Castillo 18 years
- Pablo Pacheco Avila 20 years
- Héctor Palacios Ruíz 25 years
- Arturo Pérez de Alejo Rodríguez 20 years
- Omar Pernet Hernández 25 years
- Horacio Piña Borrego 20 years
- Fabio Prieto Llorente 20 years
- Alfredo Pulido López 14 years
- José Gabriel Ramón Castillo 20 years
- Arnaldo Ramos Lauzerique 18 years
- Blas Giraldo Reyes Rodríguez 25 years
- Raúl Rivero Castañeda 20 years
- Alexis Rodríguez Fernández 15 years
- Omar Rodríguez Saludes 27 years
- Marta Beatriz Roque Cabello 20 years
- Omar Moisés Ruiz Hernández 18 years
- Claro Sánchez Altarriba 18 years
- Ariel Sigler Amaya 20 years
- Guido Sigler Amaya 20 years
- Ricardo Enrique Silva 10 years
- Fidel Suárez Cruz 20 years
- Manuel Ubals González 20 years
- Julio Antonio Valdés Guevara 20 years
- Miguel Valdés Tamayo 15 years
- Héctor Raúl Valle Hernández 12 years
- Manuel Vázquez Portal 18 years
- Antonio Augusto Villareal Acosta 15 years
The wives of imprisoned activists, led by Laura Pollán, formed a movement called Ladies in White. The movement received the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought from the European Parliament in 2005.
- Cuba's Long Black Spring - A report by the Committee to Protect Journalists
- Interviews (video) with imprisoned dissidents who were released to Spain
- Spring Nightmare - Manuel Vázquez Portal, an imprisoned Cuban writer, poet, and journalist, describes the prison conditions.
- Carlos Lauria; Monica Campbell & María Salazar (18 March 2008). "Cuba's Long Black Spring". The Committee To Protect Journalists.
- "Black Spring of 2003: A former Cuban prisoner speaks". The Committee to Protect Journalists.
- "Three years after "black spring" the independent press refuses to remain in the dark". The Reporters Without Borders. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009.
- "Cuba - No surrender by independent journalists, five years on from "black spring"" (PDF). The Reporters Without Borders. March 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 July 2009.
- "Cuba: "Essential measures"? Human rights crackdown in the name of security". Amnesty International. 2 June 2003. Archived from the original on 26 September 2012.
- "ON RECENT EVENTS IN CUBA Statement by the Nova Scotia Cuba Association". Granma.cu. 8 May 2003. Archived from the original on 26 February 2008.
- "EU lifts sanctions against Cuba". BBC. 20 June 2008.
- "Sakharov nominee: Cuban women who protest against unjust imprisonment". European Parliament.
- "Dissidents' release draws line under Cuba crackdown". BBC News. 24 March 2011.
- "World Report - Cuba". Reporters Without Borders. April 2011. Archived from the original on 23 January 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
- "Awards 2003 - Vazquez Portal". The Committee to Protect Journalists.
- "Héctor Maseda Gutiérrez, Founder and contributor, Grupo de Trabajo Decoro". The Committee to Protect Journalists.