Black Thursday bushfires
|Black Thursday bushfires|
|Date(s)||6 February 1851|
|Cause||Heat wave, careless burning|
The Black Thursday bushfires were a devastating series of fires that swept the state of Victoria, Australia, on 6 February 1851. They are considered the largest Australian bushfires in a populous region in recorded history, with approximately five million hectares (twelve million acres), or a quarter of Victoria, being burnt. Twelve human lives were lost, along with one million sheep, thousands of cattle and countless native animals.
"The temperature became torrid, and on the morning of the 6th of February 1851, the air which blew down from the north resembled the breath of a furnace. A fierce wind arose, gathering strength and velocity from hour to hour, until about noon it blew with the violence of a tornado. By some inexplicable means it wrapped the whole country in a sheet of flame — fierce, awful, and irresistible."
The Black Thursday bushfires, the largest Australian bush fires ever recorded, were caused in part by an intense drought that occurred throughout 1850 when the continent suffered from extreme heat. On 6 February 1851, a strong furnace-like wind came down from the north and gained power and speed as the hours passed. It is believed that the disaster began in Plenty Ranges when a couple of bullock drivers left logs burning unattended, which set fire to long, dry grass affected by the recent drought. The year preceding the fires was exceptionally hot and dry and this trend continued into 1851.
The primary cause of catastrophic bush fires during this period lies in a poor understanding of local fire regimes and in inappropriate landscape management by settlers. Aboriginal people had managed these areas for tens of thousands of years, using fire-stick farming to clear out fuel build up and maintain tracts of walkable land and hunting grounds. Their displacement by Europeans meant a complete regime shift in the ecology of the Australian bush with the result that tremendous fires become possible.
Conditions and progress
The weather reached record extremes. By eleven it was about 47 °C (117 °F) in the shade. The air cooled to 43 °C (109 °F) by one o'clock and rose to 45 °C (113 °F) around four o’clock. Survivors claimed the air was so full of smoke and heat that their lungs seemed to collapse. The air was so dark it made the roads seem bright. Pastures and plains became shrivelled wastelands: water-holes disappeared, creeks dried up, and trees turned into combustible timber. Clouds of smoke filled the air; forests and ranges became one large "sheet of flames". The hot north wind was so strong that thick black smoke reached northern Tasmania, creating a murky mist, resembling a combination of smoke and fog. Homes, crops and gardens were consumed by the rushing fire leaving a quarter of Victoria in a heap of desolate ruins. The community fled to water to escape the suffocating air around them, returning after everything was over to the sight of "blackened homesteads" and the charred bodies of animals that could not escape. The weather at sea was even "more fearful than on shore". The intense heat could be felt 32 km (20 mi) out to sea where a ship came under burning ember attack and was covered in cinders and dust.
Consequences and responses
I write only what I have seen, I might mention that pigs and dogs running loose were burned to death – birds were dropping down off the trees before the fire in all directions – oppossums, kangaroos, and all sorts of beasts can be had today ready roasted all over the bush. Fully one half of the timber in this neighbourhood has been burned or blown down, and all the grass has been burnt.
The catastrophic fire caused the loss of human life, cattle, and land for miles and affected many regions including Portland, Plenty Ranges, Western Port, the Wimmera and Dandenong districts, Gippsland, and Mount Macedon. Farms across the region were destroyed, along with a number of settlements in Gippsland, Western Port, Geelong, Heidelberg and east to Diamond Creek and Dandenong. Three men from Mount Macedon lost their lives. Overall, the disaster resulted in the death of twelve people, one million sheep, and thousands of cattle over 60 to 80 kilometres (40 to 50 mi).
The initial response to the calamity was a public meeting held on 11 February 1851 at Geelong. The community came together to discuss relief efforts for those affected, especially for citizens who lost everything. To assist the poor, many even cancelled outstanding debts.
More recently, the Australian government has made preparations and developed organisations to help Australians cope with the recurring disturbances. The World Wide Fund for Nature, Australia (WWF), has collaborated with the government on conservation efforts. The Council of Australian Governments (COAG), established a committee to determine measures that may be taken by governments, industry, and the community to minimize the effects of bushfires and their impact on society and the environment. In the Inquiry on Bushfire Mitigation and Management of 2003, several recommendations were submitted to the committee to help improve life in Australia. The WWF, for example, analysed the disturbance regime in Southern Australia and its causes, both natural and anthropogenic. Seeking to find a balance between asset protection and the conservation of biodiversity, the WWF recommended that the government’s committee examine the effects of human land use in order to determine the best methods for mitigation and management practices.
Intense bushfires are not uncommon in southern Australia. The region is one of the three most fire-prone in the world. Within the last two hundred years, the area has experienced and documented at least twenty-five major fires, beginning with Black Thursday in 1851. The intensity of these fires is due in part to natural fuels, such as sclerophyll forests in the region. While adapting to cope with drought and predators, the trees’ leaves turn into prime fuel for fires. They become tough as protection from dry conditions and to increase the efficiency of nutrient use. They also develop tough spikes and chemicals to protect themselves from small animals. The leaves’ tough surface allows them to last longer and build up on the forest floor and the chemical makes them flammable. The abundance of flammable fuel can cause an inferno with a single spark.
The area’s disturbance regime has shaped the landscape by causing the plant communities to evolve and develop mechanisms to aid in speedy recovery. The native species of the Australian bush, for example, have developed post fire seed release and smoke exposure germination. Other plants, such as acacia, eucalyptus, and Monotoca elliptica have adapted to survive in dry, nutrient poor soil.
Acacia oncinocarpa and Eucalyptus miniata, for example, and perennial herbs all have adaptive mechanisms that enable them to live in fire-prone areas of Australia. Both the acacia (a small spreading shrub) and eucalyptus (an overstorey tree) can regenerate from seeds and vegetatively regenerate new shoots from buds that escape fire. Reproduction and seed fall occur during the eight dry months. Due to the area’s frequent fires, the seeds are usually released onto a recently burnt seed bed.
Perennial herbs survive fire by avoidance. They make up the understorey and grow during seasons with lower temperatures and more rainfall. By dying back in the summer they avoid most fires. During a fire, they have a bulb or root mass that lives underground, and only the dead stems and leaves burn, so the plant survives and begins to grow again the following year.
- Picturesque Atlas of Australasia published in 1886
- Kiddle, Margaret (1980). Men of yesterday: A Social History of the Western District of Victoria, 1834–1890 (Reprinted with corrections. ed.). Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. p. 181. ISBN 0522842089.
- Ritchie, D. (2009). Things fall apart: the end of an era of systematic indigenous fire management. In: Russell-Smith J, Whitehead PJ, and Cooke PM (Eds). Culture, ecology and economy of savanna fire management in northern Australia: rekindling the wurrk tradition. Melbourne: CSIRO.
- "Bushfires in Victoria 1851 Black Thursday". Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- Maitland Mercury, and Hunter River General Advertiser (Tasmania), Saturday 22 February 1851
- "Black Thursday". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic.: 1848 – 1957). Melbourne, Vic. 28 June 1924. p. 6. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- "The Late Bushfires". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic.: 1848 – 1957). Melbourne, Vic. 10 February 1851. p. 2. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "COAG Inquiry on Bushfire Mitigation and Management" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Kellett, Dr. Mark. "Fire and the Australian Bush" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- Kozlowski, T.T.; S. G. Pallardy (April–June 2002). "Acclimation and adaptive responses of woody plants to environmental stresses". The Botanical Review. 68 (2): 276–277. doi:10.1663/0006-8101(2002)068[0270:aaarow]2.0.co;2.
- Ross, Karen; Barry J. Fox; Marilyn D. Fox (2002). "Changes to plant species richness in forest fragments: fragment age, disturbance and ﬁre history may be as important as area". Journal of Biogeography. 29 (5–6): 752. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2699.2002.00722.x.
- Setterfield, S.A. (December 2002). "Seedling Establishment in an Australian Tropical Savanna: Effects of Seed Supply, Soil Disturbance and Fire". Journal of Applied Ecology. 39 (6): 949–959. JSTOR 827282. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2664.2002.00772.x.
- "State Library of Victoria's Bushfires in Victoria Research Guide". Guide to locating books, government reports, websites, statistics, newspaper reports and images about the Black Thursday fires. Retrieved 2009-07-09.
- "Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment, Fire and Other Emergencies". Major Bushfires in Victoria. Archived from the original on 2 September 2006. Retrieved 2009-02-20.
- "Craigieburn Historical Interest Group". Bushfires of Black Thursday, 1851. Retrieved 2009-02-20.
- "Romsey Weather Database". Melbourne "Argus" Newspaper 8 February 1851. Retrieved 2009-02-20.
- "State Library of Victoria". Painting entitled "Black Thursday, 1851" by William Strutt, 1864. Retrieved 2011-02-08.