Black college football national championship

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The black college football national championship is a national championship won by the best football team(s) among Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the United States.

History[edit]

In college football's early years, HBCUs generally lacked the opportunity to compete against predominantly white schools due to segregation, which was practiced in much of the U.S. at the time—leaving HBCUs with few scheduling options other than to play themselves only and sponsor their own championships.

The first football game between HBCU schools was played on December 27, 1892. On that day Johnson C. Smith defeated Livingstone College. As it was the only game played by HBCU schools that year, Johnson C. Smith's team could no doubt claim to be that season's HBCU national champions by default. However, the earliest documented claim to such a title was Livingstone's 1906 team, led by captain Benjamin Butler "Ben" Church.[1] It is not immediately clear who exactly determined that Livingstone was the best team—or if they simply declared themselves champions.

Initially, starting in 1920, HBCU national champions were designated by the Pittsburgh Courier at the end of the season. The following year others more directly associated with the schools themselves made their own attempts to crown a champ, coordinating their efforts under the auspices of the Champion Aggregation of All Conferences. The CAAC's initiative was fostered by Paul Jones, who reported the champion annually in his column in Spalding's Intercollegiate Football Guide.[2]

The first game between an HBCU and predominantly white institution occurred in the 1948 Fruit Bowl when Southern defeated San Francisco State, 30–0.[3] Five years later HBCUs began to gravitate over to the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics because it offered numerous athletic competition options while also openly welcoming schools of varying demographic backgrounds as members.[4] At present most HBCUs are now members of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. However, designating an annual black national champion has remained a popular tradition, even as HBCUs have successfully challenged majority white schools for football championships for decades now, within the framework of both NCAA and NAIA competition; this includes Associated Press, United Press International, NCAA, and NAIA-sponsored titles for the 1962, 1973, 1978, 1990, 1992, and 1995 seasons, as well as runner-up finishes in 1963, 1983, 1991, 1994, and 2012.

Noteworthy team accomplishments include the sixteen championships won all-time by Tennessee State and the five won consecutively by Central State from 1986–90 (all five under coach Billy Joe). Florida A&M and Grambling State have won titles in seven different decades. Noteworthy coaching accomplishments include the nine championships won by Joe (seven at Central State and two at Florida A&M), John Merritt (one at Jackson State and eight at Tennessee State), and Eddie Robinson (all nine at Grambling). Rod Broadway won titles at three different schools (two at North Carolina Central, one at Grambling, and two at North Carolina A&T).

Championship bowl games[edit]

Attempts have been made over the years to determine a non-mythical national champion with an actual football game contested by leading teams among HBCUs throughout the United States. The Orange Blossom Classic was often billed as such a game, but Florida A&M, as its annual host, was guaranteed a spot in this game and was not necessarily national championship-caliber each and every year that it was played (indeed, the Rattlers were even accused of taking advantage of a system where most selectors—at the time—named their national champions before postseason bowl games; if the Rattlers were not named champs by any selector after the regular season, then they still got a second chance at the claim by winning the Orange Blossom Classic[5]).

Contests including the Colored Championship games of 1920 and 1923 (which happened to feature members of the Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association, although the games were not played for the conference title), the Chocolate Bowl (1935), the Steel and Vulcan bowls (1940–41), the National Bowl (1947), and the National Football Classic (1954) were attempted periodically but without any sustained success.

The Pelican Bowl, a bowl game that tried to match up the conference champions from the Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference and the Southwestern Athletic Conference, was another such example—and actually did manage to last several seasons—but even this venture failed to draw enough attendance and lasted only a few years in the 1970s. Similarly, the Heritage Bowl was played in the 1990s featuring teams from the MEAC and SWAC, but this bowl game has not been held since 1999 and was often snubbed by the conference champions in lieu of the NCAA's Division I-AA playoffs. The two conferences began negotiations in 2010 to create a successor called the "Legacy Bowl"—not to be confused with the later exhibition game with the same name—to begin during the 2011 postseason, but it was voted down by MEAC officials.[6] However, in 2015 the first Celebration Bowl was played, pitting the champions of both conferences. While the Celebration Bowl's trophy itself only includes the inscription "Celebration Bowl Champions,"[7] the bowl's creator (ESPN),[8][9] as well as its then-title sponsor (Air Force Reserve)[10][11] and other prominent sponsors,[12][13][14] have indicated that it is for the HBCU national title—as have coaches of participating teams.[15][16] However, with Tennessee State being a member of the Ohio Valley Conference, the Celebration Bowl cannot represent all HBCUs within the NCAA's Football Championship Subdivision. Further more, Hampton recently announced that it would withdraw from the MEAC and join the Big South Conference starting with the 2018 season[17]—despite TSU's program struggling to an overall record of 147–167–2 (.468) since joining the OVC in 1988.

In other sports[edit]

While black national champions have been crowned regularly in football for nearly a century now, the concept has only recently caught on with other sports. HBCU baseball and men and women's basketball teams now have their own respective ranking systems. There are also now HBCU tournaments for golf[18] and tennis.[19]

Selectors[edit]

Not all black national championships are determined the same way. Early poll rankings were for the best overall HBCU, while bowl games often matched champions of only two specific HBCU conferences. However, the NCAA and NAIA later split into divisions, and newer selectors have tended to rank HBCU members by division only (e.g., the FCS level of NCAA Division I, NCAA Division II).[20] The variations between how champions have been selected over the years has not been completely without controversy.[21][22]

Selector Name Seasons Eligible teams
ADW Atlanta Daily World & 100% Wrong Club–W. A. Scott II Memorial Trophy (1953–1992,[23] 2010[24]); Coca-Cola National Historical Black College Football Championship Award (1993–2009)[23] 1953[25]–2010[24]
(1970 and 2010 champions are not available)
all HBCU teams
AHSR-I Add's HBCU Sports Report (Add Seymour, Jr.)
for Division I teams[26]
2013–present[27] NCAA Division I–FCS HBCU teams only
AHSR-II Add's HBCU Sports Report (Add Seymour, Jr.)
for Division II teams[28]
2013–present[27] NCAA Division II HBCU teams only
ANP Associated Negro Press (Pigskin Huddle) 1948–1960
(1955–1957 champions are not available)
all HBCU teams
ASW American Sports Wire (Dick Simpson[29]) 1990–2013[30] NCAA Division I–FCS HBCU teams only[31]
B-CP Boxtorow (& formerly Black Athlete Sports Network)–Coaches Poll 2009–present[32] all HBCU teams
B-MP Boxtorow (& formerly Black Athlete Sports Network)–Media Poll 2007–present[32] all HBCU teams
BAA Baltimore Afro-American 1947[33]–1948,[34] 1953[5] all HBCU teams
BCASB Black College All Star Bowl—Eddie Hurt National Championship Trophy[35][36] 1978[35]–1979[36] all HBCU teams
BCNC-I Black College National Championship
for Division I teams[37]
2016–present[37] NCAA Division I–FCS HBCU teams only
BCNC-II Black College National Championship
for Division II teams[37]
2016–present[37] NCAA Division II HBCU teams only
BCSP Black College Sports Page (Carl "Lut" Williams & formerly Major Broadcasting Cable) 1994–present[38]
(1995–1999 champions are not available)
all HBCU teams
CAAC Champion Aggregation of All Conferences (William Lawrence "Paul" Jones)[2] 1921–1949[38]
(1921–1923, 1925, 1927–1928, 1930–1932, and 1936–1949 champions are not available)
all HBCU teams
CC Colored Championship game 1920,[39] 1923[40] all HBCU teams
"Celebration Bowl"
  AFRCB
  CeB


  Air Force Reserve Celebration Bowl
  Celebration Bowl

2015–present
  2015–2016
  2017–present

MEAC and SWAC champions only
ChB Chocolate Bowl 1935[41] all HBCU teams
DCCC-M Dr. Cavil's Classic Cuts (Jafus Kenyatta Cavil & formerly SWAC Page Network)–Major Division Poll 2002–present[42]
(2002 champion is not available)
NCAA Division I–FCS HBCU teams only
DCCC-MM Dr. Cavil's Classic Cuts (Jafus Kenyatta Cavil & formerly SWAC Page Network)–Mid-Major Division Poll 2002–present[42] NCAA Division II and NAIA HBCU teams only
"Heritage Bowl"
  AHB
  HB


  Alamo Heritage Bowl
  Heritage Bowl

1991, 1994 *
  1991
  1994

MEAC and SWAC champions only
HBCUS-PFP HBCUSports.com–Playoff Fan Poll 2014[43] all HBCU teams
HBCUS-UP HBCUSports.com–Ultimate Poll 2015[44] all HBCU teams
HSRN-I Heritage Sports Radio Network–HSRN Conaway Cup
for Division I teams[45]
2011–present[45] NCAA Division I–FCS HBCU teams only
HSRN-II&N Heritage Sports Radio Network–HSRN Conaway Cup
for Division II[45] and NAIA[46] teams
2011–present[45] NCAA Division II and NAIA HBCU teams only
J Jet (Frank T. Bannister, Jr.[47][48])—Paul Robeson Perpetual Trophy[49][36] 1973–1987, 1990–1992 all HBCU teams
JBM John B. "Johnny" McLendon, Jr.
based on the Dickinson System[50]
1953[50] all HBCU teams
LAFCF Los Angeles Football Classic Foundation (Fred H. Cooper)–Eddie G. Robinson Trophy[51] 1988[51] all HBCU teams
MBN Mutual Black Network 1972–1977
(1973 champion is not available)
all HBCU teams[52]
NB National Bowl 1947[53] all HBCU teams[54]
NBTV National Black Television 2011[55] all HBCU teams
NFC National Football Classic 1954[56] CIAA and Midwestern Conference champions only[57]
PB Pelican Bowl 1972, 1974–1975 * MEAC and SWAC champions only
PCWDC Pigskin Club of Washington, DC—William G. "Billy" Coward Award[58] 2006–present[58]
(2014–2016 champions are not available)
all HBCU teams
"Sheridan Poll"[59]
  PC
  NPC
  SBN
  AURN

Jake Gaither National Championship Trophy[60]
  Pittsburgh Courier
  New Pittsburgh Courier
  Sheridan Broadcasting Network
  American Urban Radio Networks

1920–present[61]
  1920–1965
  1966–1978
  1979[62]–1990
  1991–present

all HBCU teams
TAJTT T. A. Jones' Talented 10th (Trevin A. "T. A." Jones)[63] 2014[63] all HBCU teams
"Vulcan Bowl"
  SB
  VB


  Steel Bowl
  Vulcan Bowl

1940–1941 **
  1940[64]
  1941[65]

all HBCU teams, but with the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference champion holding an automatic bid[65]

Notes: *—the Pelican Bowl (played 1972 and 1974–75) and Heritage Bowl (played 1991–99) were intended as black national championship games matching the outright champions or top-seeded co-champions of the MEAC and SWAC conferences, but in practice the top seeds often declined their automatic bids to participate in the NCAA playoffs instead—only the 1972, 1975, and 1994 games matched the top seeds of both conferences as originally intended, although the Pelican Bowl is known to have been promoted as a black national championship game all three seasons[66][67][68][69][70][71] (in 1991, however, the bowl's committee intentionally issued the MEAC's bid to its second-seeded co-champion,[72] because one of the top-seeded co-champion's conference wins had been determined by a forfeit);[73] **—the Steel Bowl/Vulcan Bowl (played after the 1940–48 and 1951 seasons) is known to have been promoted as a black national championship game after the 1940 and 1941 seasons

Yearly national championship selections[edit]

Season Champion(s) Record Coach Selector(s) Note(s)
1920 Howard 7–0 W. Edward "Ed" Morrison CC, PC
Talladega College 5–0–1 Jubie Bragg PC
1921 Talladega College 6–0–1 Jubie Bragg PC
Wiley College 7–0–1 Jason Grant PC
1922 Hampton 6–1 Gideon Smith PC
1923 Howard 7–0–1 Louis L. "Lou" Watson CC tied Lincoln (PA) in the Colored Championship game, 6–6[74]
Lincoln (PA) 5–1–2 James Hezekiah "Jim" Law CC tied Howard in the Colored Championship game, 6–6[74]
Virginia Union 6–0–1 Harold D. Martin PC
1924 Lincoln (PA) 7–1–1 U. S. Young CAAC[75] record includes forfeited game (was 8–0–1)[76]
Paul Quinn College 8–0–1 Harry Long PC
Tuskegee 9–0–1 Cleveland L. Abbott PC
1925 Howard 6–0–2 Louis L. "Lou" Watson PC
Tuskegee 8–0–1 Cleveland L. Abbott PC
1926 Howard 7–0 Louis L. "Lou" Watson CAAC,[75] PC
Tuskegee 10–0 Cleveland L. Abbott PC
1927 Bluefield State College 8–0–1 Harry Jefferson PC
Tuskegee 10–0–1 Cleveland L. Abbott PC
1928 Bluefield State College 8–0–1 Harry Jefferson PC
Wiley College 10–0–1 Fred T. Long PC
1929 Tuskegee 9–0 Cleveland L. Abbott CAAC,[77] PC
1930 Tuskegee 11–0–1 Cleveland L. Abbott PC
1931 Wilberforce 9–0 Harry Graves PC
1932 Wiley College 9–0 Fred T. Long PC
1933 Kentucky State 4–3 Henry Kean CAAC[78]
Morgan State 9–0 Edward P. Hurt PC
1934 Kentucky State 9–0 Henry Kean CAAC,[78] PC
1935 Kentucky State 9–1 Henry Kean CAAC[78]
Texas College 9–0–2 Ace Mumford ChB, PC
1936 Virginia State 7–0–2 Harry Jefferson PC
West Virginia State 8–0 Adolph P. "Ziggy" Hamblin PC
1937 Morgan State 7–0 Edward P. Hurt PC
1938 Florida A&M 8–0 William M. "Big Bill" Bell, Sr. PC
1939 Langston 9–0 Caesar Felton Gayles PC
1940 Morris Brown College 10–1 Artis P. Graves PC, SB
1941 Langston 10–1 Caesar Felton Gayles VB record includes forfeited game (was 9–1–1)[79]
Morris Brown College 8–1 Billy Nicks PC
1942 Florida A&M 9–0 William M. "Big Bill" Bell, Sr. PC
1943 Morgan State 5–0 Edward P. Hurt PC
1944 Morgan State 6–1 Edward P. Hurt PC
1945 Wiley College 10–0 Fred T. Long PC
1946 Morgan State 8–0 Edward P. Hurt PC
Tennessee State 10–1 Henry Kean PC
1947 Shaw 10–0 Howard K. "Brutus" Wilson NB, PC
Tennessee State 10–0 Henry Kean BAA, PC
1948 Central State 9–1–1 Gaston F. Lewis BAA
Southern 12–0 Ace Mumford ANP,[80] BAA, PC
1949 Morgan State 8–0 Edward P. Hurt PC
Southern 10–0–1 Ace Mumford ANP,[81] PC
1950 Florida A&M 8–1–1 Jake Gaither PC
Southern 10–0–1 Ace Mumford ANP,[81] PC
1951 Morris Brown College 10–1 Edward J. "Ox" Clemons PC
North Carolina A&T 7–1–1 William M. "Big Bill" Bell, Sr. ANP[82]
1952 Florida A&M 8–2 Jake Gaither ANP,[83] PC
Lincoln (MO) 8–0–1 Dwight T. Reed PC
Texas Southern 10–0–1 Alexander Durley PC
Virginia State 8–1 Sylvester R. "Sal" Hall PC
1953 Florida A&M 10–1 Jake Gaither BAA
Prairie View A&M 12–0 Billy Nicks ADW,[84] ANP,[5] PC
Tennessee State 8–0–1 Henry Kean JBM
1954 Florida A&M 8–1 Jake Gaither ADW,[85] PC
North Carolina Central 7–1–1 Herman Riddick NFC
Prairie View A&M 10–1 Billy Nicks ADW,[85] PC
Southern 10–1 Ace Mumford ADW,[85] PC
Tennessee State 10–1 Henry Kean ADW,[85] ANP,[86] PC
1955 Grambling State 10–0 Eddie Robinson ADW,[87] PC
1956 Tennessee State 10–0 Howard C. Gentry ADW,[88] PC
1957 Florida A&M 9–0 Jake Gaither ADW,[89] PC
1958 Prairie View A&M 10–0–1 Billy Nicks ADW,[85] ANP,[90] PC retired W. A. Scott II Memorial Trophy as first three-time winner[85]
1959 Florida A&M 10–0 Jake Gaither ADW,[91] ANP,[92] PC
1960 Southern 9–1 Ace Mumford ADW,[93] ANP,[94] PC
1961 Florida A&M 10–0 Jake Gaither ADW,[95] PC
1962 Florida A&M 9–1 Jake Gaither ADW[95] retired W. A. Scott II Memorial Trophy as first three-time winner since the previous trophy had been retired;[96] won AP Small College Poll National Championship
Jackson State 10–1 John Merritt PC
1963 Prairie View A&M 10–1 Billy Nicks ADW,[97] PC
1964 Prairie View A&M 9–0 Billy Nicks ADW,[96] PC
1965 Tennessee State 9–0–1 John Merritt ADW,[98] PC
1966 Tennessee State 10–0 John Merritt ADW,[99] NPC
1967 Grambling State 9–1 Eddie Robinson ADW,[100] NPC
Morgan State 8–0 Earl Banks NPC
1968 Alcorn State 9–1 Marino Casem ADW,[101] NPC
North Carolina A&T 8–1 Hornsby Howell NPC
1969 Alcorn State 8–0–1 Marino Casem ADW,[102] NPC
1970 Tennessee State 11–0 John Merritt NPC
1971 Tennessee State 9–1 John Merritt ADW,[103] NPC
1972 Grambling State 11–2 Eddie Robinson ADW,[104] MBN,[105] NPC, PB record includes forfeited game (was 10–2)[106]
1973 Tennessee State 10–0 John Merritt ADW,[107] J,[108] NPC retired W. A. Scott II Memorial Trophy as first three-time winner since the previous trophy had been retired;[107] won AP and UPI Small College Poll National Championships; had players ruled ineligible for NCAA Division II Playoffs and declined bid[109]
1974 Alcorn State 9–2 Marino Casem NPC
Grambling State 11–1 Eddie Robinson ADW, J,[110] MBN,[111] NPC, PB
1975 Grambling State 10–2 Eddie Robinson ADW, J,[112] MBN,[113] NPC record includes forfeited game (was 10–1)[114]
Southern 9–3 Charles Bates PB
1976 South Carolina State 10–1 Willie Jeffries ADW, J,[115] MBN,[116] NPC
1977 Florida A&M 11–0 Rudy Hubbard ADW, J,[117] MBN,[118] NPC
Grambling State 10–1 Eddie Robinson NPC
South Carolina State 9–1–1 Willie Jeffries NPC
1978 Florida A&M 12–1 Rudy Hubbard ADW, BCASB, J,[119] NPC won NCAA Division I-AA Pioneer Bowl National Championship
1979 Tennessee State 8–3 John Merritt ADW, BCASB, J,[120] SBN
1980 Grambling State 10–2 Eddie Robinson ADW, J,[121] SBN
1981 South Carolina State 10–3 Bill Davis ADW, SBN
Virginia Union 11–1 Willard Bailey J[122]
1982 South Carolina State 9–3 Bill Davis ADW
Tennessee State 9–0–1 John Merritt J,[123] SBN record does not include voided games (was 10–1–1)[124]
1983 Central State 12–1 Billy Joe J[125]
Grambling State 8–1–2 Eddie Robinson SBN
Tennessee State 8–2–1 John Merritt ADW
1984 Alcorn State 9–1 Marino Casem ADW, SBN
Tennessee State 11–0 William A. Thomas J[126]
1985 Hampton 10–2 Fred Freeman J[127]
Jackson State 8–3 W. C. Gorden ADW, SBN
1986 Central State 10–1–1 Billy Joe ADW, J,[128] SBN
1987 Central State 10–1–1 Billy Joe J,[129] SBN
Howard 0–10 Willie Jeffries ADW record includes forfeited games (was 9–1)[130]
1988 Central State 11–2 Billy Joe ADW, LAFCF, SBN
1989 Central State 10–3 Billy Joe ADW, SBN
1990 Central State 11–1 Billy Joe ADW, J,[131] SBN won NAIA Division I Champion Bowl National Championship
North Carolina A&T 9–2 Bill Hayes ASW
1991 Alabama State 11–0–1 Houston Markham, Jr. ADW, AHB, ASW, AURN, J[132]
1992 Central State 12–1 Billy Joe ADW won NAIA Division I Champion Bowl National Championship
Grambling State 10–2 Eddie Robinson ASW, AURN, J[133]
1993 Howard 11–1 Steve Wilson ADW, AURN[134]
Southern 11–1 Pete Richardson ASW
1994 Hampton 10–1 Joe Taylor AURN
South Carolina State 10–2 Willie Jeffries ADW, ASW,[135] BCSP,[136] HB
1995 Southern 11–1 Pete Richardson ADW, ASW, AURN
1996 Howard 10–2 Steve Wilson ADW, AURN[137]
Jackson State 10–2 James Carson ASW
1997 Southern 11–1 Pete Richardson ADW, ASW, AURN
1998 Florida A&M 11–2 Billy Joe ASW, AURN
Southern 9–3 Pete Richardson ADW
1999 North Carolina A&T 11–2 Bill Hayes ADW, ASW, AURN
2000 Grambling State 10–2 Doug Williams ASW
Tuskegee 12–0 Rick Comegy ADW, AURN, BCSP[138]
2001 Florida A&M 7–4 Billy Joe ADW
Grambling State 11–0 Doug Williams ASW, AURN, BCSP[139] record includes forfeited game (was 10–1)[140]
Tuskegee 11–1 Rick Comegy BCSP[139]
2002 Bethune–Cookman 11–2 Alvin Wyatt BCSP[141]
Fayetteville State 10–2 Kenny Phillips DCCC-MM[142]
Grambling State 11–2 Doug Williams ADW, ASW, AURN, BCSP[141]
2003 Albany State 10–2 Mike White DCCC-MM[142]
Southern 12–1 Pete Richardson ADW, ASW, AURN, BCSP,[143] DCCC-M[144]
2004 Albany State 11–1 Mike White ADW, BCSP,[145] DCCC-MM[146]
Hampton 10–2 Joe Taylor ASW, AURN, DCCC-M[147]
2005 Grambling State 11–1 Melvin Spears AURN, BCSP,[148] DCCC-M[149]
Hampton 11–1 Joe Taylor ADW, ASW
North Carolina Central 10–2 Rod Broadway DCCC-MM[150]
2006 Hampton 10–2 Joe Taylor ASW, BCSP,[151] DCCC-M[152]
North Carolina Central 11–1 Rod Broadway ADW, AURN, BCSP,[151] DCCC-MM,[152] PCWDC
2007 Delaware State 10–2 Al Lavan ASW, DCCC-M[153]
Tuskegee 12–0 Willie J. Slater ADW, AURN, B-MP, BCSP,[154] DCCC-MM,[155] PCWDC
2008 Grambling State 11–2 Rod Broadway ADW, ASW, AURN, B-MP, BCSP,[156] DCCC-M,[157] PCWDC
South Carolina State 10–3 Oliver Pough BCSP[156]
Tuskegee 10–1 Willie J. Slater DCCC-MM[158]
2009 Prairie View A&M 9–1 Henry Frazier, III ASW, BCSP,[159] DCCC-M[160]
South Carolina State 10–2 Oliver Pough ADW,[161] AURN, B-CP, B-MP, BCSP,[159] PCWDC
Tuskegee 10–2 Willie J. Slater DCCC-MM[162]
2010 Albany State 11–1 Mike White AURN, BCSP,[163] DCCC-MM,[164] PCWDC
Bethune–Cookman 10–2 Brian Jenkins ASW, B-CP, B-MP
Texas Southern 0–3 John "Johnnie" Cole DCCC-M[165] record does not include vacated games (was 9–3)[166]
2011 Alabama State 8–3 Reggie Barlow DCCC-M[167]
Norfolk State 0–3 Pete Adrian ASW, B-CP, HSRN-I[45] record does not include vacated games (was 9–3)[168]
Winston–Salem State 13–1 Connell Maynor AURN, B-MP, BCSP,[169] DCCC-MM,[167] HSRN-II&N,[45] NBTV, PCWDC
2012 Arkansas–Pine Bluff 10–2 Monte Coleman ASW, B-CP, HSRN-I[170]
Bethune–Cookman 9–3 Brian Jenkins AURN
Tennessee State 8–3 Rod Reed DCCC-M[171]
Winston–Salem State 14–1 Connell Maynor B-MP, BCSP,[172] DCCC-MM,[171] HSRN-II&N,[173] PCWDC
2013 Bethune–Cookman 10–3 Brian Jenkins AHSR-I,[27] B-CP, B-MP, DCCC-M,[174] PCWDC
Tennessee State 10–4 Rod Reed ASW, AURN, BCSP,[175] HSRN-I[173]
Winston–Salem State 10–2 Connell Maynor AHSR-II,[27] DCCC-MM,[176] HSRN-II&N[173]
2014 Alcorn State 10–3 Jay Hopson AHSR-I,[177] AURN, B-CP, B-MP, BCSP,[178] DCCC-M,[176] HSRN-I,[176] TAJTT
Virginia State 10–2 Latrell Scott AHSR-II,[179] DCCC-MM,[176] HBCUS-PFP[43] HSRN-II&N[176]
2015 North Carolina A&T 10–2 Rod Broadway AFRCB, AHSR-I,[180] AURN,[181] B-CP,[182] B-MP,[182] BCSP,[183] DCCC-M,[184] HBCUS-UP,[44] HSRN-I[46]
Tuskegee 10–3 Willie J. Slater AHSR-II,[185] DCCC-MM,[184] HSRN-II&N[46]
2016 Grambling State 12–1 Broderick Fobbs AFRCB,[186] AHSR-I,[26] AURN,[59] B-CP,[187] B-MP,[187] BCNC-I,[37] BCSP,[188] DCCC-M,[189] HSRN-I[190]
Tuskegee 9–3 Willie J. Slater AHSR-II[28]
Winston–Salem State 9–3 Kienus P. Boulware BCNC-II,[37] DCCC-MM,[142] HSRN-II&N[190]
2017 North Carolina A&T 12–0 Rod Broadway AURN,[191] B-CP,[192] B-MP,[192] BCNC-I,[193] BCSP,[194] CeB

National championships by school[edit]

School National championships Seasons
Tennessee State 16 1946, 1947, 1953, 1954, 1956, 1965, 1966, 1970, 1971, 1973, 1979, 1982, 1983, 1984, 2012, 2013
Grambling State 15 1955, 1967, 1972, 1974, 1975, 1977, 1980, 1983, 1992, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2016
Florida A&M 14 1938, 1942, 1950, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1957, 1959, 1961, 1962, 1977, 1978, 1998, 2001
Tuskegee 13 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927, 1929, 1930, 2000, 2001, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2015, 2016
Southern 11 1948, 1949, 1950, 1954, 1960, 1975, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1998, 2003
Central State 8 1948, 1983, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1992
Howard 7 1920, 1923, 1925, 1926, 1987, 1993, 1996
Morgan State 7 1933, 1937, 1943, 1944, 1946, 1949, 1967
South Carolina State 7 1976, 1977, 1981, 1982, 1994, 2008, 2009
Hampton 6 1922, 1985, 1994, 2004, 2005, 2006
North Carolina A&T 6 1951, 1968, 1990, 1999, 2015, 2017
Prairie View A&M 6 1953, 1954, 1958, 1963, 1964, 2009
Alcorn State 5 1968, 1969, 1974, 1984, 2014
Bethune–Cookman 4 2002, 2010, 2012, 2013
Wiley College 4 1921, 1928, 1932, 1945
Winston-Salem State 4 2011, 2012, 2013, 2016
Albany State 3 2003, 2004, 2010
Jackson State 3 1962, 1985, 1996
Kentucky State 3 1933, 1934, 1935
Morris Brown College 3 1940, 1941, 1951
North Carolina Central 3 1954, 2005, 2006
Virginia State 3 1936, 1952, 2014
Alabama State 2 1991, 2011
Bluefield State College 2 1927, 1928
Langston 2 1939, 1941
Lincoln (PA) 2 1923, 1924
Talladega College 2 1920, 1921
Texas Southern 2 1952, 2010
Virginia Union 2 1923, 1981
Arkansas–Pine Bluff 1 2012
Delaware State 1 2007
Fayetteville State 1 2002
Lincoln (MO) 1 1952
Norfolk State 1 2011
Paul Quinn 1 1924
Shaw 1 1947
Texas College 1 1935
West Virginia State 1 1936
Wilberforce 1 1931

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Images From The Past: Ben B. Church". theblackcollegefootballmuseum.org. Retrieved September 25, 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Gerald L. Smith; Karen Cotton McDaniel. John A. Hardin, ed. "Jones, Paul William Lawrence". The Kentucky African American Encyclopedia (p. 287). 
  3. ^ "Former Southern football great Warren Braden dies". theadvocate.com. June 21, 2016. Retrieved January 30, 2017. 
  4. ^ "About the NAIA". naia.org. Retrieved January 16, 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c Sam Lacy (December 19, 1953). "From A To Z". Baltimore Afro-American (p. 21). 
  6. ^ Sedrick Durr. "SWAC vs MEAC Postseason Bowl Game—Again?". jacksonadvocateonline.com. Retrieved December 23, 2015. 
  7. ^ "Trophy Stops". thecelebrationbowl.com. 2016. Retrieved December 29, 2016. 
  8. ^ "North Carolina A&T tops Alcorn State in season's first bowl". espn.com. 2015. Retrieved December 28, 2016. 
  9. ^ "Trophy presentation for Grambling's HBCU National Championship win". espn.com. December 17, 2016. Retrieved December 28, 2016. 
  10. ^ Hannah (September 1, 2016). "Air Force Reserve Renews Its Title Sponsorship Of The Celebration Bowl". thecelebrationbowl.com. Retrieved December 28, 2016. 
  11. ^ Master Sgt. Chance Babin (December 12, 2016). "Air Force Reserve Celebration Bowl teams set for a throw-back matchup". dobbins.afrc.af.mil. Retrieved December 28, 2016. 
  12. ^ "Join us in the Dome for the Inaugural Celebration Bowl on December 19th". tickets.atlantafalcons.com. 2015. Retrieved December 28, 2016. 
  13. ^ "CornerCap Pleased to Help Sponsor the Celebration Bowl in Atlanta". December 16, 2015. Retrieved December 28, 2016. 
  14. ^ "100 Black Men of Atlanta Teams Up With ESPN to Highlight the Excitement of HBCU Football With the New Celebration Bowl". August 27, 2015. Retrieved December 28, 2016. 
  15. ^ Sam Khan Jr. (December 18, 2015). "SC On The Road: What the Celebration Bowl means to HBCUs". espn.com. Retrieved December 28, 2016. 
  16. ^ Charles Odum (December 16, 2016). "Grambling ready to battle North Carolina Central HBCU title". ktbs.com. Retrieved December 29, 2016. 
  17. ^ "Hampton University Joins Big South Conference in 2018". news.hamptonu.edu. November 16, 2017. 
  18. ^ "Community Briefs". greensboro.com. March 29, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2018. 
  19. ^ "National Champions 2001-2012". hbcutennis.com. Retrieved February 7, 2018. 
  20. ^ "The SBN Black College Football Poll is Worthless". HBCU Sports Blog. September 16, 2008. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. 
  21. ^ Josh Moon (December 13, 2002). "Grambling still has shot at Black College national title". Shreveport Times (sec. C, p. 4). 
  22. ^ "The SBN Black College Football Poll is Worthless". hbcusportsblog.com. September 16, 2008. Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved January 30, 2018. 
  23. ^ a b "Awards". 100percentwrong.org. Retrieved January 13, 2016. 
  24. ^ a b Hal Lamar (February 4, 2012). "Hal Lamar's Blog: The Economy's Latest Victim—The 100% Wrong Club of Atlanta". onnidan.com. Retrieved January 13, 2016. 
  25. ^ "The 100% Wrong Club National Historical Black College Football Championship Award". 100percentwrong.org. Retrieved December 24, 2015. 
  26. ^ a b Add Seymour Jr. (December 20, 2016). "Grambling Claims Add's HBCU Sports Report's FCS HBCU Football National Championship; Final 2016 Top Ten Poll Released". addshbcusportsreport.blogspot.com. Retrieved December 26, 2016. 
  27. ^ a b c d Add Seymour Jr. (December 10, 2013). "Bethune-Cookman and Winston-Salem State Claim Add's HBCU Sports Report National Football Titles; Final Top Ten Polls Released". addshbcusportsreport.blogspot.com. Retrieved December 28, 2016. 
  28. ^ a b Add Seymour Jr. (November 30, 2016). "Tuskegee Tops Season-Ending Add's HBCU Sports Report Division II HBCU Football Poll; Crowned D-2 HBCU National Champs". addshbcusportsreport.blogspot.com. Retrieved December 5, 2017. 
  29. ^ Keith Lair (January 5, 2011). "Hyde to be honored". dailybreeze.com. Retrieved December 22, 2016. 
  30. ^ "Football Championship Subdivision Records" (PDF). fs.ncaa.org (p. 86). 2016. 
  31. ^ "NCAA Division I Black College Football Poll". usatoday30.usatoday.com. 2002. Retrieved December 21, 2015. 
  32. ^ a b "Alcorn State voted HBCU national champions: Coaches and Media agree". boxtorow.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved December 22, 2016. 
  33. ^ "Tenn. Wins '47 National Grid Crown". Baltimore Afro-American (p. 15). December 13, 1947. 
  34. ^ "1948 Sports Champs (table)". Baltimore Afro-American (sec. First News, p. 8). January 1, 1949. 
  35. ^ a b "Honor Fla. A&M As National Black Football Champions". Jet (v. 55, no. 16, p. 52). January 4, 1979. 
  36. ^ a b c "Black college grid wrapup". Indianapolis Recorder (p. 15). December 29, 1979. 
  37. ^ a b c d e f "2016 Final Rankings". blackcollegenationalchampionship.com. December 19, 2016. Retrieved December 29, 2016. 
  38. ^ a b Tex Noel (May–June 2007). "History of Annual Association's College Football Records Books". pasttimesports.biz. Retrieved December 25, 2015. 
  39. ^ "Howard Swamps Lincoln, 42–0". New York Age (p. 7). December 4, 1920. 
  40. ^ "Colored Universities Football Game Championship". genealogyimagesofhistory.com. 1923. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  41. ^ "Texas College Steers Beat Alabama State". Spokane Spokesman-Review (p. 12). December 28, 1935. 
  42. ^ a b "Dr. Cavil's HBCU Major and Mid-Major Football Polls—12/9/2012". December 10, 2012. Retrieved September 10, 2016. 
  43. ^ a b Kendrick Marshall (December 10, 2014). "Virginia State Wins HBCU Sports Football National Championship Fan Poll". hbcusports.com. Retrieved December 21, 2015. 
  44. ^ a b "North Carolina A&T Tops Ultimate HBCU Top 25 Football Poll". hbcusports.com. December 21, 2015. Retrieved December 23, 2015. 
  45. ^ a b c d e f "HSRN announces The Conaway Cup award". theciaa.com. January 6, 2012. Retrieved December 21, 2015. 
  46. ^ a b c "North Carolina A&T, Tuskegee Finish Season With No.1 Ranking In HSRN Poll". hbcusports.com. December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 23, 2015. 
  47. ^ "Frank Bannister, 54, Dies; Sportscaster, Educator". Jet (p. 18). November 10, 1986. 
  48. ^ "Notable Kentucky African Americans Database: Bannister, Frank T., Jr". nkaa.uky.edu. Retrieved December 22, 2016. 
  49. ^ "Black Pride Stands Tall At First College All Star Bowl". Jet (v. 55, no. 19, p. 53). January 25, 1979. 
  50. ^ a b Sam Lacy (December 19, 1953). "Figures Place Tennessee State No. 1: Dickinson rating crowns grid Tigers—Priairie View, second; Florida, coaches' poll choice, third". Baltimore Afro-American (p. 20). 
  51. ^ a b "Central State Marauders, 'Tank' Younger Feted in L.A." Jet (p. 49). May 22, 1989. 
  52. ^ "Black Grid Poll: Tigers stay on top, HU fourth". Washington Afro-American–Washington Tribune Red Star Ed. (p. 18). September 27, 1975. 
  53. ^ Fred Leigh (December 13, 1947). "Shaw Rips S.C. State In D.C.: Bears' 2nd Quarter Tallies Decide Tilt, CIAA Champs Fizzle On Early Drives Then Fight Gallanty to Hold Lead". Baltimore Afro-American (p. 17). 
  54. ^ "The Event: 1st National Championship Football Game (ad)". Baltimore Afro-American (p. 15). November 8, 1947. 
  55. ^ "Football: Rams To Close Out Spring Drills with Red & White Game". wssurams.com. April 12, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2017. 
  56. ^ "North Carolina College Eagles Defeat Tennessee State University Tigers 19–6 In National Classic". Durham Carolina Times (p. 5). December 11, 1954. 
  57. ^ "The Championship Game: National Football Classic (ad)". Durham Carolina Times (p. 5). November 13, 1954. 
  58. ^ a b "The Pigskin Club of Washington, Inc.: 75th Anniversary Awards Dinner" (PDF). Pigskin Club of Washington: William G. "Billy" Coward Award—National Black College Football Champions (p. 34). 
  59. ^ a b Trevin A. Jones (December 22, 2016). "Grambling State SBN Sports National Champs". aurn.com. Retrieved December 22, 2016. 
  60. ^ "40th Annual Black College All-American Weekend a success". newpittsburghcourieronline.com. March 17, 2014. Retrieved December 23, 2015. 
  61. ^ "Football Championship Subdivision Records" (PDF). fs.ncaa.org (p. 87). 
  62. ^ "Black top 10". Baton Rouge Morning Advocate (sec. C, p. 2). October 30, 1979. 
  63. ^ a b T. A. Jones (December 10, 2014). "It's Official! The 2014 National Black College Football Champions Are.....Say it with me!". Retrieved December 31, 2016. 
  64. ^ "Negro Elevens In Steel Bowl". New London, Conn. Evening Day (p. 11). January 1, 1941. 
  65. ^ a b "Vulcan Bowl Game Set". Tuscaloosa News (p. 11). November 7, 1941. 
  66. ^ "First Annual Pelican Bowl (game program)". 1972. 
  67. ^ "Grambling Wins And Claims Title". New York Times. December 3, 1972. 
  68. ^ "Grambling in Pel Bowl Today". Baton Rouge Morning Advocate (sec. C, p. 3). December 7, 1974. 
  69. ^ "Williams Propels Grambling To 28–7 Pelican Bowl Win". Baton Rouge Sunday Advocate (sec. C, p. 3). December 8, 1974. 
  70. ^ Joyce Davis Robinson (December 28, 1975). "Pelican Fans: Sugar Bowl Sign an Insult". New Orleans Times–Picayune (sec. 1, p. 34). 
  71. ^ Tom Aswell (December 29, 1975). "Jaguars Rally To Win Pelican Bowl By 15–12". Baton Rouge State–Times (sec. D, p. 2). 
  72. ^ "Heritage Bowl teams pumped". Baton Rouge Morning Advocate (sec. D, p. 2). December 19, 1991. 
  73. ^ Maggie Hayon, ed. (2012). "Delaware State: 2012 Football". Delaware State University Athletics Media Relations Office (p. 127). 
  74. ^ a b "Howard Yearly Results". cfbdatawarehouse.com. Retrieved December 21, 2016. 
  75. ^ a b Raymond Schmidt (November 2004). "Another Football World (Part III Of III)" (PDF). College Football Historical Society (v. XVIII, no. 3, p. 10). 
  76. ^ "Lincoln Yearly Results". cfbdatawarehouse.com. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved January 22, 2018. 
  77. ^ "Blackcolleges". picssr.com. Retrieved September 17, 2016. 
  78. ^ a b c Austin Edwards Jr. (1936). "History Of The Kentucky State Industrial College For Negroes (master's thesis)" (PDF). Contribution of the Graduate School—Indiana State Teachers College (no. 264, p.70). 
  79. ^ "Langston Yearly Results". Retrieved January 15, 2016. 
  80. ^ "Pigskin Huddle". Washington Afro-American (p. 19). September 20, 1949. 
  81. ^ a b "Pigskin Huddle". Baltimore Afro-American (p. 16). December 16, 1950. 
  82. ^ "Pigskin Huddle". Baltimore Afro-American (p. 15). December 15, 1951. 
  83. ^ "Press Syndicate Rates Fla. Top Eleven; Va. State 4th". Baltimore Afro-American (p. 17). December 20, 1952. 
  84. ^ "100 Per Cent Wrong Club Honors Sports Figures". Jet (p. 54). February 4, 1954. 
  85. ^ a b c d e f "Prairie View Formally Presented W. A. Scott II Memorial Trophy: Moss H. Kendrix Principal Speaker At PV Grid Banquet". Memphis World. February 28, 1959. 
  86. ^ Luix Virgil Overbea (December 25, 1954). "Pigskin Huddle". Baltimore Afro-American (p. 16). 
  87. ^ "Trophy For The Champions (caption)". Indianapolis Recorder (p. 8). January 14, 1956. 
  88. ^ "Calhoun To Be Honored By Atlanta Group". Durham Carolina Times (p. 5). December 15, 1956. 
  89. ^ "100 Per Cent Wrong Winners (caption)". Jet (p. 57). February 20, 1958. 
  90. ^ Luix Virgil Overbea (December 27, 1958). "Prairie View, Southern, Florida placed 1, 2, 3 in grid rankings". Baltimore Afro-American (p. 14). 
  91. ^ "Florida A & M Wins National Championship Trophy". Jet (p. 57). December 24, 1959. 
  92. ^ Luix Virgil Overbea (December 18, 1959). "The Huddle—Top 25: Final Pigskin Ratings". San Antonio Register (p. 3). 
  93. ^ "100% Wrong Fete Draws Top Stars". Pittsburgh Courier (p. 12). February 4, 1961. 
  94. ^ Luix Virgil Overbea (December 30, 1960). "AMP Lists Final Grid Ratings Of 1960 Season". San Antonio Register (p. 5). 
  95. ^ a b "Rattlers To Receive W. A. Scott Trophy". Jacksonville Florida Star (p. 6). January 19, 1963. 
  96. ^ a b "Prairie View named champ". Washington Afro-American (p. 13). December 15, 1964. 
  97. ^ "Bear-Pack & Panthers 100% Wrong Club Honorees (caption)" (PDF). Brooklyn New York Recorder (p. 39). February 1, 1964. 
  98. ^ "Tennessee State Tigers Get Scott Trophy". Miami Times (p. 15). January 21, 1966. 
  99. ^ James A. Talley, ed. (1967). "Big Blues Crack Four School Records" (PDF). 1967 Tennessean (p. 63). 
  100. ^ James D. Heath (December 30, 1967). "1967 Atlanta Daily World All-America Football Team, Grambling College Tigers Named Nat'l Champions". Memphis World. 
  101. ^ "Alcorn grid mentor SAC 'coach of the year'" (PDF). New Pittsburgh Courier (p. 15). January 2, 1971. 
  102. ^ "Atlanta 100% Wrong Club Picks Right Winners". Jet (p. 48). February 12, 1970. 
  103. ^ "Wrong Is Right (caption)". Jet (p. 53). March 2, 1972. 
  104. ^ "untitled (caption)". Pittsburgh Courier (p. 9). March 24, 1973. 
  105. ^ "Grambling black nat'l champs". Pittsburgh Courier (p. 9). December 23, 1972. 
  106. ^ "Grambling Yearly Results". cfbdatawarehouse.com. Retrieved December 27, 2015. 
  107. ^ a b "Trophy Retired (caption)". Durham Carolina Times (sec. B, p. 7). March 23, 1974. 
  108. ^ Frank Bannister (December 6, 1973). "Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (p. 83). 
  109. ^ "Tennessee State Bows From Post-Season Championships Because Of NCAA Rule". Jet (p. 76). December 6, 1973. 
  110. ^ Frank Bannister (December 26, 1974). "Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (p. 52). 
  111. ^ "Final Ranking". Pittsburgh Courier (p. 9). December 14, 1974. 
  112. ^ Frank Bannister (December 18, 1975). "Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (p. 52). 
  113. ^ "Grambling Heads Number of Players On All-America Football Team". Durham Carolina Times (p. 7). January 31, 1976. 
  114. ^ "Grambling State Yearly Results". cfbdatawarehouse.com. Retrieved December 27, 2015. 
  115. ^ Frank Bannister (December 16, 1976). "Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (p. 50). 
  116. ^ "Bro. Stanley Clinkscale Enters S.C.S.U. Athletic Hall of Fame". greenvillesckappas.com. February 22, 2013. Retrieved September 17, 2016. 
  117. ^ Frank Bannister (December 22, 1977). "Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (p. 51). 
  118. ^ Randy Beard (November 27, 1978). "Rattlers Shook, Wildcats Rolled Over". St. Petersburg Evening Independent (sec. C, p. 4). 
  119. ^ Frank Bannister (December 28, 1978). "Final Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (p. 51). 
  120. ^ "Final Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (p. 49). December 27, 1979. 
  121. ^ "Final Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (p. 52). December 18, 1980. 
  122. ^ "Final Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (p. 49). December 24, 1981. 
  123. ^ "Final Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (p. 50). December 20, 1982. 
  124. ^ "Tennessee State University Football: 2014 Media Guide". tsutigers.com (p. 117). 
  125. ^ "Final Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (p. 42). December 19, 1983. 
  126. ^ "Final Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (p. 52). December 10, 1984. 
  127. ^ "Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (p. 50). December 23, 1985. 
  128. ^ "Final Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (p. 50). December 22, 1986. 
  129. ^ "Final Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (p. 50). December 28, 1987. 
  130. ^ "Howard Yearly Results". cfbdatawarehouse.com. Retrieved December 25, 2015. 
  131. ^ "Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (vol. 79, no. 9, p. 55). December 10, 1990. 
  132. ^ "Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (vol. 81, no. 14, p. 51). January 27, 1992. 
  133. ^ "Top 20 Black Colleges". Jet (vol. 83, no. 12, p. 51). January 18, 1993. 
  134. ^ Scott Gremillion (January 5, 1994). "Howard U. wins crown; SU second". Baton Rouge Advocate (sec. D, p. 1). 
  135. ^ "S.C. State finishes atop final BCF poll". postandcourier.com. December 15, 2009. Retrieved January 13, 2016. 
  136. ^ "Final BCSP Football Top Ten". Indianapolis Recorder (p. 36). January 7, 1995. 
  137. ^ Scott Gremillion (January 8, 1997). "Howard claims national crown by slim margin". Baton Rouge Advocate (sec. D, p. 3). 
  138. ^ Lut Williams (2001). "Tuskegee dominant in PB; Shares top spot". onnidan.com. Retrieved January 30, 2018. 
  139. ^ a b "Final 2001 BCSP Top 10". onnidan.com. 2001. Retrieved December 25, 2015. 
  140. ^ "Grambling State Yearly Results". cfbdatawarehouse.com. Retrieved January 31, 2016. 
  141. ^ a b Lut Williams (2002). "Bethune-Cookman, Grambling tie for BCSP top spot". onnidan.com. Retrieved December 25, 2015. 
  142. ^ a b c "'Inside The HBCU Huddle'—Dr. Cavil's 2016 HBCU Mid-Major Division Poll Rankings—Final". onnidan.com. December 7, 2016. Retrieved December 22, 2016. 
  143. ^ "Final BCSP Top 10". onnidan.com. 2003. Retrieved December 25, 2015. 
  144. ^ "Cavil's Classic Cuts/TSPN Mid-Major Top 10 Poll". swacpage.com. December 15, 2003. Archived from the original on March 18, 2004. Retrieved December 27, 2015. 
  145. ^ Lut Williams (2004). "Albany State, Hampton top final ranking". onnidan.com. Retrieved December 25, 2015. 
  146. ^ "Cavil's Classic Cuts Football—BCF Major Top 10 Poll". swacpage.com. December 14, 2004. Archived from the original on December 23, 2004. Retrieved December 27, 2015. 
  147. ^ "Cavil's Classic Cuts/TSPN Major Top 10 Poll". swacpage.com. December 14, 2004. Archived from the original on December 23, 2004. Retrieved December 27, 2015. 
  148. ^ "Final BCSP Top 10". onnidan.com. 2005. Retrieved December 25, 2015. 
  149. ^ "Black College Football 2005: TSPN (SWACPage.com) & Cavil's Classic Cuts Football Final HBCU Major Program Top 10 Poll". onnidan.com. December 13, 2005. Retrieved January 4, 2016. 
  150. ^ "Black College Football 2005: TSPN (SWACPage.com) & Cavil's Classic Cuts Football HBCU Mid-Major Program Final Top 10 Poll". onnidan.com. December 7, 2005. Retrieved January 4, 2016. 
  151. ^ a b "BCSP Final Football Top 10". onnidan.com. Retrieved December 25, 2015. 
  152. ^ a b "TSPNsports.com/Cavil's Classic Cuts HBCU Major Division Football Top 10 Poll". hbcusports.com. October 29, 2007. Retrieved January 4, 2016. 
  153. ^ "TSPNsports.com/Cavil's Classic Cuts Final HBCU Major Division Football Pre-season Top 10 Poll". hbcusports.com. December 17, 2007. Retrieved January 5, 2016. 
  154. ^ "BCSP Top 10". onnidan.com. 2007. Retrieved December 25, 2015. 
  155. ^ "TSPNsports.com/Cavil's Classic Cuts Final HBCU Mid-Major Division Football Top 10 Poll". hbcusports.com. December 17, 2007. Retrieved January 5, 2016. 
  156. ^ a b "Final BCSP Football Top 10". onnidan.com. 2008. Retrieved December 25, 2015. 
  157. ^ "Black College Football 2008". onnidan.com. 2008. Retrieved January 5, 2016. 
  158. ^ "Black College Football 2008: TSPNSports.com & Cavil's Classic Cuts Final HBCU Mid-Major Division Football Top 10 Poll (12-1-2008)". onnidan.com. December 1, 2008. Retrieved January 5, 2016. 
  159. ^ a b "Final BCSP Top 10". onnidan.com. Retrieved December 25, 2015. 
  160. ^ "Black College Football—2009: TSPNSports.com & Cavil's Classic Cuts 2009 Final HBCU Major Division Football Top 10 Poll (12-14-2009)". onnidan.com. December 14, 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2016. 
  161. ^ "SC State 2009 Football Team to be Honored at Statehouse". scsu.edu. February 18, 2010. Retrieved December 25, 2015. 
  162. ^ "Black College Football—2009: TSPNSports.com & Cavil's Classic Cuts Final HBCU Mid-Major Division Football Top 10 Poll (12-10-2009)". onnidan.com. December 10, 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2016. 
  163. ^ Lut Williams (December 16, 2010). "Albany State finishes as 2010's best". Black College Sports Page (vol. 17, no. 20). 
  164. ^ "Dr. Cavil's HBCU Mid-Major Football Poll—(12/6/2010)". hbcusports.com. December 6, 2010. Retrieved January 5, 2016. 
  165. ^ "Dr. Cavil's HBCU Division 1 Football Poll—(12/13/2010)". hbcusports.com. December 13, 2010. Retrieved January 5, 2016. 
  166. ^ "Texas Southern Faces 2013 & 2014 Postseason Ban". businessinsider.com. October 9, 2012. Retrieved December 27, 2015. 
  167. ^ a b "Dr. Cavil's 2011 Major & Mid-Major Division HBCU Football Awards". hbcusports.com. December 19, 2011. Retrieved January 3, 2016. 
  168. ^ "Norfolk State put on probation, loses 2011 MEAC football championshipfor NCAA violations". hbcugameday.com. June 20, 2016. Retrieved December 31, 2016. 
  169. ^ Lut Williams (December 14, 2011). "Winston-Salem State is final BCSP No. 1". Black College Sports Page (vol. 18, no. 20). 
  170. ^ "UAPB Golden Lions, UCA Bears Make Preseason FCS Poll". sportinglifearkansas.com. Retrieved December 23, 2015. 
  171. ^ a b "Dr. Cavil's 2012 Major & Mid-Major Division HBCU Football Award". hbcusports.com. December 21, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2016. 
  172. ^ Lut Williams (December 19, 2012). "WSSU wire-to-wire BCSP No. 1". Black College Sports Page (vol. 19, no. 20). 
  173. ^ a b c "Tigers Win 2013 Conaway Cup". tsutigers.com. December 13, 2013. Retrieved December 21, 2015. 
  174. ^ J. Kenyatta Cavil (September 11, 2014). "Dr. Cavil's HBCU Major Division Football Top 10 Poll Rankings—Week 1". sheltonmedia.blogspot.com. Retrieved December 27, 2015. 
  175. ^ "Tennessee State finishes at No. 1". Black College Sports Page (vol. 20, no. 19). December 11, 2013. 
  176. ^ a b c d e "Alcorn State, Virginia State Named HBCU Football National Champions In Multiple Polls". hbcusports.com. December 9, 2014. Retrieved December 21, 2015. 
  177. ^ Add Seymour Jr. (December 8, 2014). "Alcorn State Tops Final Adds (sic) HBCU Sports Report HBCU FCS Football Top Ten Poll and Named National Champions". addshbcusportsreport.blogspot.com. Retrieved December 28, 2016. 
  178. ^ Lut Williams (December 10, 2014). "Alcorn emerges as final No. 1". Black College Sports Page (vol. 21, no. 19). 
  179. ^ Add Seymour Jr. (November 24, 2014). "Virginia State Named Add's HBCU Sports Report 2014 HBCU Division II Football Naitonal (sic) Champions". addshbcusportsreport.blogspot.com. Retrieved December 28, 2016. 
  180. ^ Add Seymour Jr. (December 19, 2015). "SWAC's Alcorn State and MEAC's North Carolina A&T Battle in the First Celebration Bowl". addshbcusportsreport.blogspot.com. Retrieved December 28, 2016. 
  181. ^ "North Carolina A&T Captures SBN National Championship". hbcusports.com. December 22, 2015. Retrieved December 23, 2015. 
  182. ^ a b "Boxtorow HBCU Football Top 10 Coaches and Media Poll: North Carolina A&T crowned BOXTOROW national champions". boxtorow.com. Retrieved December 22, 2015. 
  183. ^ Lut Williams (December 23, 2015). "NC A&T, Cohen go out on top". Black College Sports Page (vol. 22, no. 21). 
  184. ^ a b "Inside The HBCU Huddle: Dr. Cavil's Final 2015 HBCU Football Rankings". onnidan.com. December 22, 2015. Retrieved January 3, 2016. 
  185. ^ Add Seymour Jr. (December 4, 2015). "Tuskegee Tops Final 2015 Add's HBCU Sports Report Division II Top Ten Football Poll; Crowned As AHSR HBCU D-2 National Champions". addshbcusportsreport.blogspot.com. Retrieved December 28, 2016. 
  186. ^ Mark W. Sanchez (December 17, 2016). "Team ironically loses Celebration Bowl by celebrating too much". Retrieved December 21, 2016. 
  187. ^ a b "Grambling Crowned BOXTOROW HBCU National Champions". onnidan.com. December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 21, 2016. 
  188. ^ "BCSP Final Football Top Ten". Black College Sports Page (vol. 23, no. 21). December 21, 2016. 
  189. ^ "'Inside The HBCU Huddle'—Grambling State Tigers Win Dr. Cavil's HBCU Major Division Football Poll Rankings Championship". onnidan.com. December 19, 2016. Retrieved December 21, 2016. 
  190. ^ a b "Grambling St. Joins Winston-Salem St. as HSRN National Champions". onnidan.com. December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 21, 2016. 
  191. ^ "SBNs' 2017 Final BCF Poll". twitter.com. December 19, 2017. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  192. ^ a b "BOXTOROW Final: North Carolina A&T crowned HBCU champs for second time in three seasons". boxtorow.com. December 18, 2017. Retrieved December 19, 2017. 
  193. ^ "North Carolina A&T Aggies win 2017 Black College National Championship". blackcollegenationalchampionship.com. December 22, 2017. Retrieved January 23, 2018. 
  194. ^ "2017 BCSP Final Football Top Ten". Black College Sports Page (vol. 24, no. 21). December 20, 2017. Retrieved December 21, 2017.