Black people and Mormonism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

While at least two black men held the priesthood in the early church, from the mid-1800s until 1978, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) had a policy which prevented most men of black African descent from being ordained to the church's lay priesthood. Under the temple and priesthood restrictions before 1978, black members of African descent could not receive the priesthood or participate in temple ordinances besides baptisms for the dead. For a time in the 1960s and 1970s, they were not allowed to perform baptisms for the dead either. For young men and men in the LDS church, holding the priesthood is required to hold leadership roles, perform baptisms, to bless the sacrament, to bless babies and to bless the sick. Since black men could not hold the priesthood, they were excluded from holding leadership roles and performing these rituals. Temple ordinances are necessary for members to receive the endowment and marriage sealings necessary for exaltation, and black members could not enjoy these privileges. Church leaders taught that these restrictions were commanded by God. In 1978, the First Presidency and the Twelve, led by Spencer W. Kimball, declared they had received a revelation instructing them to reverse the racial restriction policy. After this revelation, black men could receive the priesthood and black people could receive temple ordinances.

As early as 1908, a church publication stated that blacks could not receive the priesthood because their spirits were less valiant in the pre-existence. Church leaders used this explanation until 1978, when Church President Spencer W. Kimball publicly refuted it; later church leaders have called the explanation a List of Mormon folk beliefs.

Joseph Smith and Brigham Young reasoned that black skin was a result of the Curse of Cain or the Curse of Ham. They used these Biblical curses to justify slavery. Young believed the curse made black people ineligible to vote, marry white people, or hold the priesthood. Successive presidents continued to use the Biblical curses to justify excluding black men from the priesthood. The idea that black skin was a curse was not officially contradicted until 2013.

Young was instrumental in officially legalizing slavery in Utah Territory, teaching that the doctrine of slavery was connected to the priesthood ban. Slavery in Utah ended in 1862 when Congress abolished it. Blacks gained the right to vote in 1867, also through an act of Congress. Young and other church leaders were against interracial marriage. Utah's anti-miscegenation law was repealed in 1963. There has never been a written church policy against interracial marriage. Church publications from 2003 still recommended that young people marry those with similar racial backgrounds. Black people in the LDS Church suffered exclusion and discrimination even after the 1978 revelation, and still feel the effects of racist attitudes.

Before the civil rights movement, the LDS Church's doctrine-based policy went largely unnoticed and unchallenged for around a century with the First Presidency stating in 1947 that the doctrine of the LDS Church which banned interracial marriage and black people from entering the temple or receiving the priesthood was never questioned by any of the Church leaders. In the 1960s, the NAACP twice threatened to protest the LDS Church if they did not support civil rights. The first time, Hugh B. Brown made a statement in general conference supporting civil rights; the second time, the LDS church refused to support a piece of legislation and the NAACP led an anti-discrimination march in Salt Lake City to protest. In response to a NAACP lawsuit in 1974, the LDS Church changed their policy to allow any boy to be troop leader in Boy Scouting troops. Apostle Ezra Taft Benson was vocally against civil rights. In 1968 and 1969, various collegiate athletic teams refused to play matches with Brigham Young University. In the 1970s, three LDS church members were excommunicated for criticizing church's racial exclusion policies. Church president Kimball refuted racism in the 1970s, and in 2017 the LDS Church denounced racism and white supremacy.

Though the LDS Church had an open membership policy for all races, they avoided opening missions in areas with large black populations and discouraged people with black ancestry from investigating the church. After the 1978 revelation, the LDS Church actively proselyted to blacks, and black membership greatly increased. Six temples are planned or built in Africa outside of South Africa. In 2008, there were about 1 million black members worldwide. Compared to other churches, the LDS church is not growing as fast as other religions in Africa.

The priesthood of most other Mormon denominations, such as the Community of Christ, Bickertonite and Strangite, have always been open to persons of all races.

Temple and priesthood restrictions[edit]

Jane Manning was an early African American member who was a servant[1] in Joseph Smith's household in Nauvoo and later followed Brigham Young to Utah Territory. She petitioned church leadership to allow her to obtain the endowment, but was repeatedly denied because of the ban.[2]:154

During the early years of the Latter Day Saint movement, at least two black men held the priesthood and became priests: Elijah Abel and Walker Lewis.[3] After Smith's death in 1844, Brigham Young became president of the main body of the church and led the Mormon pioneers to what would become the Utah Territory. Like many Americans at the time, Young, who was also the territorial governor, promoted discriminatory views about black people.[4] On January 16, 1852, Young made a pronouncement to the Utah Territorial Legislature, stating that "any man having one drop of the seed of [Cain] ... in him [could not] hold the priesthood."[5]:70 As recorded in the Journal of Discourses, Young taught that black people's position as "servant of servants" was a law under heaven and it was not the church's place to change God's law.[6]:172[7]:290

Under the racial restrictions that lasted from Brigham Young's presidency until 1978, persons with any black African ancestry could not receive church priesthood or any temple ordinances including the endowment and eternal marriage or participate in any proxy ordinances for the dead. An important exception to this temple ban was that (except for a complete temple ban period from the mid-1960s until the early 70s under McKay)[8]:119 black members had been allowed a limited use recommend to act as proxies in baptisms for the dead.[9]:95[10]:164[11] The priesthood restriction was particularly limiting, because the LDS Church has a lay priesthood and most male members over the age of 12 have received the priesthood. Holders of the priesthood officiate at church meetings, perform blessings of healing, and manage church affairs. Excluding black people from the priesthood meant that men could not hold any significant church leadership roles or participate in many important events such as performing a baptism, blessing the sick, or giving a baby blessing.[10]:2 Between 1844 and 1977, most black people were not permitted to participate in ordinances performed in the LDS Church temples, such as the endowment ritual, celestial marriages, and family sealings. These ordinances are considered essential to enter the highest degree of heaven, so this meant that they could not enjoy the full privileges enjoyed by other Latter-day Saints during the restriction.[10]:164

For Latter-day Saints, a celestial marriage is not required to get into the celestial kingdom, but is required to obtain a fullness of glory or exaltation within the celestial kingdom.[12] The righteous who do not have a celestial marriage would still live eternally with God, but they would be "appointed angels in heaven, which angels are ministering servants."[13] As black people were banned from entering celestial marriage prior to 1978,[14] some interpreted this to mean that they would be treated as unmarried whites, being confined to only ever live in God's presence as a ministering servant. Mark E. Petersen[15] and Apostle George F. Richards taught that blacks could not achieve exaltation because of their priesthood and temple restrictions.[16] Several leaders, including Joseph Smith,[17] Brigham Young,[18] Wilford Woodruff,[19] George Albert Smith,[20] David O. McKay,[21] Joseph Fielding Smith,[22] and Harold B. Lee[23] taught that black people would eventually be able to receive a fullness of glory in the celestial kingdom. In 1973 church spokesperson Wendell Ashton stated that Mormon prophets have stated that the time will come when black Mormon men can receive the priesthood.[24]

In the LDS church, a patriarch gives patriarchal blessings to members to help them know their strengths and weaknesses and what to expect in their future life. The blessings also tell members which tribe of Israel they are descended from. Members who are not literally descended from the tribes are adopted into a tribe, usually Ephraim. In the early 19th and 20th centuries, members were more likely to believe they were literally descended from a certain tribe.[25] The LDS church keeps copies of all patriarchal blessings. In Elijah Abel's 1836 patriarchal blessing, no lineage was declared, and he was promised that in the afterlife he would be equal to his fellow members, and his "soul be white in eternity". Jane Manning James's blessing in 1844 gave the lineage of Ham.[26]:106 Later, it became church policy to declare no lineage for black members. In 1934, the Presiding Patriarch James H. Wallis stated that black people could not receive a patriarchal blessing because of the priesthood ban, but that they could receive a blessing without a lineage.[27] In Brazil, this was interpreted to mean that if a patriarch pronounced a lineage, then the member was not a descendant of Cain and was therefore eligible for the priesthood, despite physical or genealogical evidence of African ancestry.[28] Actual patriarchs did not strictly adhere to Wallis's statement. In 1961, the Church Historian's Office reported that other lineages had been given, including from Cain. In 1971, the Presiding Patriarch stated that non-Israelite tribes should not be given as a lineage in a patriarchal blessing. In a 1980 address to students at Brigham Young University, James E. Faust attempted to assure listeners that if they had no declared lineage in their patriarchal blessing, that the Holy Ghost would "purge out the old blood, and make him actually of the seed of Abraham."[27] After the 1978 revelation, patriarchs sometimes declared lineage in patriarchal blessings for black members, but sometimes they did not declare a lineage. Some black members have asked for and received new patriarchal blessings including a lineage.[29]

On June 8, 1978, the First Presidency of the LDS church released an official declaration which would allow "all worthy male members of the church [to] be ordained to the priesthood without regard to race or color."[30] According to the accounts of several of those present, while praying in the Salt Lake Temple, the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles received the revelation relating to the lifting of the priesthood ban. The apostle McConkie wrote that all present "received the same message" and were then able to understand "the will of the Lord."[31][10]:116 There were many factors that led up to the publication of this declaration[improper synthesis?]: trouble from the NAACP because of priesthood inequality,[32] the announcement of the first LDS temple in Brazil,[33] and other pressures from members and leaders of the church.[34]:94–95 After the publication of Lester Bush's seminal article in Dialogue, "Mormonism's Negro Doctrine: An Historical Overview", BYU vice-president Robert K. Thomas feared that the church would lose its tax exemption status. The article described the church's racially discriminatory practices in detail. The article inspired internal discussion among church leaders, weakening the idea that the priesthood ban was doctrinal.[10]:95

Direct commandment of God[edit]

Church leaders taught for decades that the priesthood ordination and temple ordinance ban was commanded by God. In 1949 the First Presidency under George Smith officially stated that it "remains as it has always stood" and was "not a matter of the declaration of a policy but of direct commandment from the Lord".[35]:222-223[36][5]:221 A second First Presidency statement (this time under McKay) in 1969 reemphasized that this "seeming discrimination by the Church towards the Negro is not something which originated with man; but goes back into the beginning with God".[37][35]:223[5]:222 As president of the church, Kimball also emphasized in a 1973 press conference that the ban was "not my policy or the Church’s policy. It is the policy of the Lord who has established it."[38]

Teachings about black people[edit]

Teachings on black people and the pre-existence[edit]

One of the justifications that the LDS church used for the discriminatory policy was that black individual's pre-existence spirits were not as virtuous as white pre-existence spirits. Brigham Young rejected the idea that Africans were cursed because they had been less valiant in a premortal life, but Orson Pratt supported it.[39] Formally, this justification appeared as early as 1908 in a Liahona magazine article.[10]:56 Joseph Fielding Smith supported the idea in his 1931 book The Way to Perfection, stating that the priesthood restriction on black was a "punishment" for actions in the pre-existence.[40] In a letter in 1947, the First Presidency wrote in a letter to Lowry Nelson that blacks were not entitled to the full blessings of the Gospel, and referenced the "revelations [...] on the preexistence" as a justification.[41][42][43]:67 In 1952 Lowry published a critique of the what he termed a racist policy in an article in The Nation.[44] Lowry believes it was the first time the folk doctrine that blacks were less righteous in the pre-existence was publicized to the non-Mormon world.[45]

The LDS church also used this explanation in their 1949 statement explicitly barring blacks from holding the priesthood.[10]:66 An address by Mark E. Peterson was widely circulated by BYU religion faculty in the 1950s and 60s and used the "less valiant in the pre-existence" explanation to justify segregation, a view which Lowell Bennion and Kendall White, among other members, heavily criticized.[10]:69 The apostle Joseph Fielding Smith also taught that black people were less faithful in the preexistence.[46][47]

After the priesthood ban ended in 1978, church leaders refuted the idea that black people were less valiant in the pre-existence. In a 1978 interview with Time Magazine, President Spencer W. Kimball stated that the LDS Church no longer held to the theory that those of African descent were any less valiant in the pre-earth life.[10]:134 Jeffrey R. Holland in a 2006 interview for the PBS documentary The Mormons stated that inaccurate racial "folklore" was invented to justify the priesthood ban, and that reasons for the previous ban are unknown.[10]:134[48][49]:60 The LDS Church explicitly denounced any justification for the priesthood restriction based in views on events in the pre-mortal life in the "Race and the Priesthood" essay published in 2013.[14]

Curse of Cain and Ham[edit]

Joseph Smith and Brigham Young taught that blacks were under the Curse of Ham.

According to the Bible, after Cain killed Abel, God cursed him and put a mark on him, although the Bible does not state what the nature of the mark was.[50] The Pearl of Great Price, another book of Mormon scripture, describes the descendants of Cain as dark-skinned.[10]:12 In another biblical account, Ham discovered his father Noah drunk and naked in his tent. Because of this, Noah cursed Ham's son, Canaan to be "servants of servants".[51][35]:125 Although the scriptures do not mention Ham's skin color, a common Judeo-Christian interpretation of these verses, which pre-dates Mormonism, was used to justify slavery.[35]:125

Both Joseph Smith[35]:126 and Brigham Young referred to the curse as a justification for slavery.[52] In addition, Brigham Young used the curse to bar blacks from the priesthood, ban interracial marriages, and oppose black suffrage.[5]:70[53][54][55] He stated that the curse would one day be lifted and that black people would be able to receive the priesthood post-mortally.[10]:66

Young once taught that the devil was black,[56] and his successor as church president, John Taylor, taught on multiple occasions that the reason that black people (those with the curse of Cain) were allowed to survive the flood was so that the devil could be properly represented on the earth through the children of Ham and his wife Egyptus.[35]:158[57][58] The next president, Wilford Woodruff also affirmed that millions of people have Cain's mark of blackness drawing a parallel to modern Native American's "curse of redness".[59]

In a 1908 Liahona article for missionaries, an anonymous but church-sanctioned author reviewed the scriptures about blackness in the Pearl of Great Price. The author postulated that Ham married a descendant of Cain. Therefore Canaan received two curses, one from Noah, and one from being a descendant of Cain.[10]:55 The article states that Canaan was the "sole ancestor of the Negro race" and explicitly linked his curse to be "servant of servants" to black priesthood denial.[10]:55 To support this idea, the article also discussed how Pharaoh, a descendant of Canaan according to LDS scripture, could not have the priesthood, because Noah "cursed him as pertaining to the Priesthood".[10]:58[60]

In 1931, Joseph Fielding Smith wrote on the same topic in The Way to Perfection: Short Discourses on Gospel Themes, generating controversy within and without Mormonism. For evidence that modern blacks were descended from Cain, Smith wrote that "it is generally believed that" Cain's curse was continued through his descendants and through Ham's wife. Smith states that "some of the brethren who were associate with Joseph Smith have declared that he taught this doctrine." General authorities in the LDS church favored Smith's explanation until 2013, when an LDS Church-published essay "disavowed" the idea that black skin is the sign of a curse.[10]:59[14] The Old Testament student manual, which is published by the Church and is the manual currently used to teach the Old Testament in LDS Institutes, teaches that Canaan could not hold the priesthood because of his race.[61]

One Mormon scholar, Alma Allred, points out that according to Mormon scripture, Ham himself was not cursed, but his fourth son Canaan was. Before Canaan was cursed, but after Ham married, Ham "walked with God," suggesting that Ham was not cursed for marrying a Canaanite woman as some Mormon leaders believed. Allred further notes the inconsistency of the curse on descendants of Canaan by observing that Abraham and Joseph of Egypt both married Egyptian, Canaanite women. According to LDS theology, both prophets had birthrights passed down to their posterity. Allred further argues that Pharoh was not denied holding the priesthood, but the "right of the priesthood", interpreting this scriptural phrase as a specific right to be the presiding high priest, which was given to Ephraim through Shem.[5]:41–46

Antediluvian people of Canaan[edit]

According to the Pearl of Great Price, the people of Canaan were a group of people that lived during the time of Enoch, before the Canaanites mentioned in the Bible. Enoch prophesied that the people of Canaan would war against the people of Shum, and that God would curse their land with heat, and that a blackness would come upon them. When Enoch called the people to repentance, he taught everyone except the people of Canaan. Later, the Book of Abraham identifies Pharaoh as a Canaanite. There is no explicit connection from the antediluvian people of Canaan to Cain's descendants, the Canaanites descended from Ham's son Canaan or modern black people.[5]:41–42 However, the Pearl of Great Price identifies both Cain's descendants and the people of Canaan as black and cursed, and they were frequently used interchangeably.[5][62] Bruce R. McConkie justified restrictions on teaching black people because Enoch did not teach the people of Canaan.[63]

Civil rights[edit]

Initial Mormon converts were from the north and opposed slavery. This caused contention in the slave state of Missouri, and the church began teaching pro-slavery doctrine and distancing itself from abolitionism. During this time, several slave owners joined the church, and brought their slaves with them when they moved to Nauvoo. As mayor of Nauvoo, Joseph Smith prohibited blacks from holding office, joining the Nauvoo Legion, voting or marrying whites. Also during this time, Joseph Smith began his presidential campaign on a platform for the government to buy slaves into freedom over several years. He was killed during his presidential campaign.

Some slave owners brought their slaves with them to Utah, though several slaves escaped. The church put out a statement of neutrality towards slavery, stating that it was between the slave owner and God. A few years later, Brigham Young began teaching that slavery was ordained of God and that equality efforts were misguided. Under his direction, Utah passed laws supporting slavery and making it illegal for blacks to vote, hold public office, join the Nauvoo legion, or marry whites. The church's position was criticized by abolitionists and the republican party. The US government freed the slaves and overturned laws prohibiting blacks from voting.

After the Civil War, issues of civil rights went largely unnoticed until the civil rights movement. In 1954, church apostle Mark E. Petersen gave a speech at BYU opposing interracial marriages and supporting segregation, sparking criticism. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) criticized the church's position on civil rights, led anti-discrimination marches and filed a lawsuit against the church's practice of not allowing black children to be troop leaders. Several athletes began protesting BYU over civil right issues. In response the Church issued a statement supporting civil rights and changed its policy on boy scouts. Apostle Ezra Taft Benson began criticizing the civil rights movement and challenging accusations of police brutality. After the reversal of the priesthood ban in 1978, the church has stayed relatively silent on matters of civil rights.

Slavery[edit]

The first known slaves to enter the Utah Territory came west with the congregations of Mississippi. By 1850, 100 blacks had arrived, the majority of whom were slaves.[64] After the pioneers arrived in Utah, they continued to buy and sell slaves as property. Many prominent members of the church were slave owners, including William H. Hooper, Abraham O. Smoot, and Charles C. Rich.[10]:33 Church members would use their slaves as tithing, both lending out their slaves to work for the church[65] as well as giving their slaves to the church.[66][67]:34 Though initially opposed to it, by the early 1850's Brigham Young was a "firm believer in slavery".[10]:32-33[68][69] Brigham Young and Heber C. Kimball used the slave labor that had been donated as tithing and then eventually granted their freedom.[66][67]:52 The church opposed slaves who wanted to escape their masters.[70][71]:268

Statements from church leaders[edit]

The period from 1830 to 1844 was of fundamental importance in shaping Mormon beliefs and customs with regard to race.[10]:18 Joseph Smith supported and opposed slavery at different points in his life. In 1835, he wrote an official declaration that opposed baptizing slaves against the will of their masters. In the statement, he also wrote that it was not right to make slaves "dissatisfied with their situations." The statement became part of the Doctrine and Covenants.[10]:17

Smith wrote an essay in 1836, published in Latter Day Saints' Messenger and Advocate, which was strongly anti-abolitionist.[10]:22 In the essay, he gave five reasons for opposing the abolition of slavery:[10]:22

  1. He feared racial miscegenation and race war, stating that abolitionism was "calculated to... set loose, upon the world a community of people who might peradventure, overrun our country and violate the most sacred principles of human society, chastity and virtue."
  2. He believed that any evil inherent in slavery would already have been known and realised by "men of piety" from the Southern slave states - but they had no objection to it.
  3. He "did not believe that the people of the North have any more right to say that the South shall not hold slaves, than the South have to say the North shall."
  4. He believed that abolitionism went against the "decree of Jehovah" whereby the Old Testament, in his understanding, decreed that blacks were cursed and destined to be slaves.
  5. He placed great importance on biblical precedents for slavery, for example in Abraham, Leviticus, Ephesians, and Timothy; and he quoted Paul in the New Testament: "Servants be obedient to them that are your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, the singleness of your heart."[10]:37

Smith probably wanted to distance Mormons from abolitionists, since many Mormons were living in Missouri, a pro-slavery state.[10]:18 After the Mormons were forced out of Missouri, they lived in Illinois, a free state. Smith's position on slavery changed, and he was vocally against slavery from 1842 until his death.[10]:18[43]:18-19

Because of slave owners who were converting to the church in Missouri, there was much confusion regarding the church's position on slavery. These same feelings arose during the migration to Utah. In 1851, apostle Orson Hyde stated that there was no law in Utah prohibiting or authorizing slavery, and that the decisions on the topic were to remain between slaves and their masters. He also clarified that individuals' choices on the matter were not in any way a reflection of the church as a whole or its doctrine.[72]:2 Brigham Young taught that slavery was "of Divine institution, and not to be abolished until the curse pronounced on Ham shall have been removed from his descendants."[10]:40

Utah Territory (1850)

In Utah Territory[edit]

After the Compromise of 1850 allowed California into the Union as a free state while permitting Utah and New Mexico territories the option of deciding the issue by popular sovereignty, the Utah Territorial Legislature took up the issue of legalizing slavery. At that time, Brigham Young was governor, and the Utah Territorial Legislature was dominated by church leaders.[73] In 1852, Brigham Young addressed the joint session of the legislature advocating slavery. He made the matter religious by declaring that if members of the church believe in the Bible and the priesthood then they should also believe in slavery.[74]:28 Following the speech, the Utah Legislature passed an Act in Relation to Service, which officially sanctioned slavery in Utah Territory.[64] The Utah slavery law stipulated that slaves would be freed if their masters had sexual relations with them; attempted to take them from the territory against their will; or neglected to feed, clothe, or provide shelter to them. In addition, the law stipulated that slaves must receive schooling.[10]:33

Utah was the only western state or territory that had slaves in 1850,[75] but slavery was never important economically in Utah, and there were fewer than 100 slaves in the territory.[4] In 1860, the census showed that 29 of the 59 black people in Utah Territory were slaves. When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, Utah sided with the Union, and slavery ended in 1862 when the United States Congress abolished slavery in the Utah Territory.[35][76]

Biddy Mason was one of 14 blacks who sued for their freedom after being illegally held captive in San Bernardino

In San Bernardino[edit]

In 1851, a company of 437 Mormons under direction of Elders Amasa M. Lyman and Charles C. Rich of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles settled at what is now San Bernardino. This first company took 26 slaves,[77] and more slaves were brought over as San Bernardino continued to grow.[78] Since California was a free state, the slaves should have been freed when they entered. However, slavery was openly tolerated in San Bernardino.[79] Many wanted to be free,[80] but were still under the control of their masters and ignorant of the laws and their rights. Judge Benjamin Hayes freed 14 slaves who had belonged to Robert Smith.[81] Other slaves were freed by their masters.[77]

Interracial marriages and interracial sexual relations[edit]

U.S States, by the date of repeal of anti-miscegenation laws:
  No laws passed
  Repealed before 1887
  Repealed from 1948 to 1967
  Overturned on June 12, 1967[82]

The church's stance against interracial marriage held consistent for over a century while attitudes towards black people and the priesthood, slavery, or equal rights saw considerable changes. Nearly every decade beginning with the church's formation until the '70s saw some denunciation against miscegenation. Church leaders' views stemmed from the priesthood policy and racist "biological and social" principles of the time.[5]:89-90[43]:42-43

Early church leaders[edit]

One of the first times that anti-miscegenation feelings were mentioned by church leaders, occurred on February 6, 1835. An assistant president of the church, W. W. Phelps, wrote a letter theorizing that Ham's wife was a descendant of Cain and that Ham himself was cursed for "marrying a black wife".[83][35][5]:59[84] Joseph Smith wrote that he felt that black peoples should be "confined by strict law to their own species," which some have said directly opposes Smith's advocacy for all other civil rights.[10]:98 In Nauvoo, it was against the law for black men to marry whites, and Joseph Smith fined two black men for violating his probation of intermarriage between blacks and whites.[85]

In 1852, the Utah legislature passed Act in Relation to Service which carried penalties for whites who had sexual relations with blacks. The day after it passed, church president Brigham Young explained that that if someone mixes their seed with the seed of Cain, that both they and their children will have the Curse of Cain. He then prophesied that if the Church were approve of intermarriage with blacks, that the Church would go on to destruction and the priesthood would be taken away.[86] The seed of Cain generally referred to those with dark skin who were of African descent.[10]:12 In 1863 during a sermon criticizing the federal government, Young said that the penalty for interracial reproduction between whites and blacks was death.[10]:43[87]:54

20th century[edit]

In 1946, J. Reuben Clark called racial intermarriage a "wicked virus" in an address by in the church's official Improvement Era magazine (a predecessor to the current New Era).[88] The next year, church member Virgil H. Sponberg asked if members of the church should be required to interact with blacks. The First Presidency under George Albert Smith sent a reply on May 5 stating that social interaction with blacks should not be encouraged because it would lead to interracial marriage.[5]:89[43]:42 Two months later in a 17 July 1947 letter to Lowry Nelson,[42] the First Presidency stated that marriage between a black person and a white person is not sanctioned by the church and is "contrary to church doctrine".[89]:276[87]:54,89[90] Two years later in response to inquiries from a Californian stake president about whether white members were required to associate with black people the apostle Clark wrote that the church discouraged social interaction with black people since it could lead to marriage with them and interracial children.[10]:171[91] Church apostle Mark E. Petersen said in a 1954 address that he wanted to preserve the purity of the white race and that Blacks desired to become white through intermarriage. The speech was circulated among BYU religion faculty, much to embarrassment of fellow LDS scholars. Petersen later denied giving the address.[10]:68–69[15] In 1958, church apostle Bruce McConkie published "Mormon Doctrine" in which he stated that "the whole negro race have been cursed with a black skin, the mark of Cain, so they can be identified as a caste apart, a people with whom the other descendants of Adam should not intermarry."[10]:73 The quote remained, despite many other revisions,[10]:73 until the church's Deseret Book ceased printing the book in 2010.[92]

Utah's anti-miscegenation law was repealed in 1963 by the Utah state legislature.[35]:258 In 1967, the Supreme Court ruling on the case of Loving v. Virginia determined that any prohibition of interracial marriages in the United States was unconstitutional.[93] The official newspaper of the LDS Church,[94] the Church News, printed an article entitled "Interracial marriage discouraged". This article was printed on June 17, 1978, in the same issue that announced the policy reversal for blacks and the priesthood.

In a 1965 address to BYU students, apostle Spencer W. Kimball advised BYU students on interracial marriage: "Now, the brethren feel that it is not the wisest thing to cross racial lines in dating and marrying. There is no condemnation. We have had some of our fine young people who have crossed the lines. We hope they will be very happy, but experience of the brethren through a hundred years has proved to us that marriage is a very difficult thing under any circumstances and the difficulty increases in interrace marriages."[95] A church lesson manual for boys 12–13, published in 1995, contains a 1976 quote from Spencer W. Kimball that recommended the practice of marrying others of similar racial, economic, social, educational, and religious backgrounds.[96]:169[97] In 2003, the church published the Eternal Marriage Student Manual, which uses the same quote.[98]

There was no written church policy on interracial marriages, which had been permitted since before the 1978 Revelation on the Priesthood.[95] In 1978, church spokesman Don LeFevre said, "So there is no ban on interracial marriage. If a black partner contemplating marriage is worthy of going to the Temple, nobody's going to stop him ... if he's ready to go to the Temple, obviously he may go with the blessings of the church."[99]

21st century[edit]

Speaking on behalf of the church, Robert Millet wrote in 2003: "[T]he Church Handbook of Instructions ... is the guide for all Church leaders on doctrine and practice. There is, in fact, no mention whatsoever in this handbook concerning interracial marriages. In addition, having served as a Church leader for almost 30 years, I can also certify that I have never received official verbal instructions condemning marriages between black and white members."[100]

Black suffrage[edit]

As in other places in Illinois, only free white males could vote in Nauvoo.[85]

When Utah territory was created, suffrage was only granted to free white males.[101] At that time, only a few states had allowed black suffrage. Brigham Young explained that this was connected to the priesthood ban. He argued that black suffrage would help make blacks equal to whites, which would result in a curse.[10]:39 On January 10, 1867, Congress passed the Territorial Suffrage Act, which prohibited denying suffrage based on race or previous condition of servitude, which nullified Utah's ban on black suffrage.[102]

Civil rights movement[edit]

Before the civil rights movement, the LDS Church's doctrine-based policy went largely unnoticed and unchallenged for around a century[4][103] with the First Presidency stating in 1947 that the doctrine of the Church which banned interracial marriage and black people from entering the temple or receiving the priesthood was never questioned by any of the Church leaders.[104][5]:90 In 1958, apostle Joseph Fielding Smith published Answers to Gospel Questions, which stated that blacks should "receive all the rights and privileges [...] as declared in the Declaration of Independence." He went on to say that black people should not be barred from any type of employment or education, and should be free "to make their lives as happy as it is possible without interference from white men, labor unions, or from any other source."[105]

NAACP involvement[edit]

In the 1960s, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) attempted to convince LDS Church leaders to support civil rights legislation and to reverse its practices in relation to African American priesthood holding and temple attendance during the Civil Rights era. In early 1963, NAACP leadership attempted to arrange meetings with church leadership, but were rebuffed in their efforts.[32] Later that year, University of Utah professor Sterling McMurrin arranged a meeting between the NAACP and church leaders.[9] N. Eldon Tanner and Hugh B. Brown, the two counselors to David O. McKay in the First Presidency, met with the head of the Utah NAACP. The NAACP threatened to protest at the October 1963 General Conference if the LDS church did not make a statement about civil rights. Brown promised that a statement would be made.[10]:76 Sterling McMurrin wrote the statement, which McKay approved.[9] McKay did not want their statement to be an "official pronouncement of the First Presidency," perhaps because some apostles were against civil rights. During the ensuing General Conference, Brown read the statement in support of civil rights legislation before beginning his talk, in a way that made the statement seem official. The NAACP did not protest at the conference.[10]:76

In 1965, the church leadership met with the NAACP, and agreed to publish an editorial in church-owned newspaper the Deseret News, which would support civil rights legislation pending in the Utah legislature. The church failed to follow-through on the commitment, and Tanner explained, "We have decided to remain silent".[32] In March 1965, the NAACP led an anti-discrimination march in Salt Lake City, protesting church policies.[32] In response, McKay agreed to let the Deseret News reprint the civil rights statement from 1963 as an "official" statement. In 1966, the NAACP issued a statement criticizing the church, saying the church "[had] maintained a rigid and continuous segregation stand" and that the church had made "no effort to counteract the widespread discriminatory practices in education, in housing, in employment, and other areas of life."[9]:71

Since the early part of the 20th century, each ward of the LDS Church in the United States has organized its own Boy Scouting troop. Some LDS Church-sponsored troops permitted black youth to join, but a church policy required that the troop leader to be the deacons quorum president, which had the result of excluding black children from that role.[106] The NAACP filed a federal lawsuit in 1974 challenging this practice, and soon thereafter the LDS Church reversed its policy.[107][108]

Benson against the civil rights movement[edit]

After Hugh B. Brown's statement in support of civil rights in 1963, Ezra Taft Benson began to tell others in speeches that the civil rights movement was a Communist plot. Ralph R. Harding, a congressmen from Idaho, criticized Benson's extreme views. Soon afterward, the first presidency appointed Benson to oversee the European states mission. Joseph Fielding Smith privately expressed that he hoped the appointment would help to temper Benson's extreme political views. Benson returned in 1965 and had not changed his political views. He gave an inflammatory speech in General Conference, parts of which were removed when the talk appeared in official church publications.[10]:78

In the October 1967 General Conference Apostle Ezra Benson declared that the civil rights movement was a tool of Communist revolutionaries, and that it was led by mostly white male Communists who want to "destroy America by spilling Negro blood". He also stated that accusing law enforcement of "police brutality" against black people should be recognized as attempts to discredit and discourage law enforcement.[109] His talk was re-published the next year by the church's Deseret Book as a pamphlet titled "Civil Rights: Tool of Communist Deception".[110]

Sports protests[edit]

African-American athletes protested against LDS Church policies by boycotting several sporting events with Brigham Young University. In 1968, after the assassination of Martin Luther King, black members of the UTEP track team approached their coach and expressed their desire not to compete against BYU in an upcoming meet. When the coach disregarded the athletes' complaint, the athletes boycotted the meet.[111] In 1969, 14 members of the University of Wyoming football team were removed from the team for planning to protest the policies of the LDS church.[111] In November 1969, Stanford University President Kenneth Pitzer suspended athletic relations with BYU.[112] Athletes protested Mormon racial policies at Arizona State University, San Jose State University, the University of New Mexico, and others.[10]:79

Racial attitudes of LDS members[edit]

Between the 19th and mid-20th centuries, some Mormons held racist views, and exclusion from priesthood was not the only discrimination practiced toward black people. With Joseph Smith as the mayor of Nauvoo, blacks were prohibited from holding office or joining the Nauvoo Legion.[85] Brigham Young taught that equality efforts were misguided, claiming that those who fought for equality among blacks were trying to elevate them "to an equality with those whom Nature and Nature's God has indicated to be their masters, their superiors", but that instead they should "observe the law of natural affection for our kind."[113]

The First Presidency under Heber J. Grant sent a letter to then Stake President Ezra Benson in Washington D.C. advising that if two black Mormon women were "discreetly approached" they would be happy sit in the back or side so as not to upset some white women who had complained about sitting near them in relief society.[43]:43 In the 1950s, the San Francisco mission office took legal action to prevent black families from moving into the church neighborhood.[32] A black man living in Salt Lake City, Daily Oliver, described how, as a boy in the 1910s, he was excluded from an LDS-led boy scout troop because they did not want blacks in their building.[114][115] At least one black family was forbidden from attending church after white members complained about their attendance.[10]:68 Anti-black jokes commonly circulated among Mormons before the 1978 revelation.[116]

In 1943, the LDS Hospital opened a blood bank where kept separate blood stocks for whites and blacks. It was the second-largest in-hospital blood bank. After the 1978 ending of the priesthood ban, Consolidated Blood Services agreed to supply hospitals with connections to the LDS Church, including LDS Hospital, Primary Children's and Cottonwood Hospitals in Salt Lake City, McKay-Dee Hospital in Ogden, and Utah Valley Hospital in Provo. Racially segregated blood stocks reportedly ended in the 1970s, although white patients worried about receiving blood from a black donor were reassured that this would not happen even after 1978.[117]

During the 1960s and 1970s, Mormons in the western United States were close to averages in the United States in racial attitudes.[4] In 1966, Armand Mauss surveyed Mormons on racial attitudes and discriminatory practices. He found that "Mormons resembled the rather 'moderate' denominations (such as Presbyterian, Congregational, Episcopalian), rather than the 'fundamentalists' or the sects."[118] Negative racial attitudes within Mormonism varied inversely with education, occupation, community size of origin, and youth, reflecting the national trend. Urban Mormons with a more orthodox view of Mormonism tended to be more tolerant.[118] The American racial attitudes caused difficulties when the church tried to apply the one-drop rule to other areas. For example, many members in Brazil did not understand American classifications of race and how it applied to the priesthood ban, causing a rift between the missionaries and members.[28]

In the early 1970s, apostle Spencer W. Kimball began preaching against racism. In 1972, he said: "Intolerance by church members is despicable. A special problem exists with respect to black people because they may not now receive the priesthood. Some members of the Church would justify their own un-Christian discrimination against black people because of that rule with respect to the priesthood, but while this restriction has been imposed by the Lord, it is not for us to add burdens upon the shoulders of our black brethren. They who have received Christ in faith through authoritative baptism are heirs to the celestial kingdom along with men of all other races. And those who remain faithful to the end may expect that God may finally grant them all blessings they have merited through their righteousness. Such matters are in the Lord's hands. It is for us to extend our love to all."[119] In a study covering 1972 to 1996, church members in the United States has been shown to have lower rates of approval of segregation than others from the United States, as well as a faster decline in approval of segregation over the periods covered, both with statistical significance.[120]:94–97

In August 2017, the LDS church released a statement about the Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia condemning racism in general.[121] Following the statement, the LDS Church released an additional statement, specifically condemning white supremacy as morally wrong. Black Mormon blogger Tami Smith said that she joyfully heard the statement and felt that the church was standing with black church members.[122][123]

Opposition to the church policies[edit]

Some LDS Church members protested against excluding black members from the priesthood. Three members, John Fitzgerald, Douglas A. Wallace, and Byron Marchant, were excommunicated by the LDS Church in 1973, 1976, and 1977 respectively, after criticizing the church's practices.[71]:345–346 Wallace had given the priesthood to a black man on 2 April 1976 without authorization and the next day attempted to enter the general conference to stage a demonstration. After being legally barred from the following October conference, his house was put under surveillance during the April 1977 conference by police at the request of the LDS church and the FBI.[10]:107[124] Marchant was excommunicated for signaling the first vote in opposition to sustaining the church president in modern history during the April 1977 general conference. His vote was motivated by the temple and priesthood ban.[10]:107–108[125] He had also received previous media attention as an LDS scoutmaster of a mixed-faith scout troop involved in a 1974 lawsuit that changed the church's policy banning even non-Mormon black Boy Scouts from acting as patrol leaders as church-led scouting troop policy had tied scouting position with Aaronic Priesthood authority.[126][108][127] Church members Grant Syphers and his wife objected to the church's racial policies and in a temple recommend renewal interview their San Francisco bishop said, "Anyone who could not accept the Church's stand on Negroes ... could not go to the temple." Their stake president agreed and they were denied the renewal.[128] In 1967 prominent LDS politician Stewart Udall who was then acting as the United States Secretary of the Interior wrote a strongly-worded public letter criticizing LDS policies around black members[129][130] to which he received hundreds of critical response letters, including ones from apostles Delbert Stapley and Spencer Kimball.[89]:279–283

Racial discrimination after 1978 revelation[edit]

LDS historian Wayne J. Embry interviewed several black LDS Church members in 1987 and reported that all the participants reported "incidents of aloofness on the part of white members, a reluctance or a refusal to shake hands with them or sit by them, and racist comments made to them." Embry further reported that one black church member attended church for three years, despite being completely ignored by fellow church members. Embry reports that "she [the same black church member] had to write directly to the president of the LDS Church to find out how to be baptized" because none of her fellow church members would tell her.[131]:371

Despite the end of the priesthood ban in 1978, racist beliefs in the church prevailed. White church member Eugene England, a professor at Brigham Young University, wrote in 1998 that most Mormons still held deeply racist beliefs, including that blacks were descended from Cain and Ham and subject to their curses. England's students at BYU who reported these beliefs learned them from their parents or from instructors at church, and had little insight into how these beliefs contradicted gospel teachings.[132] In 2003, black LDS Church member Darron Smith noticed a similar problem, and wrote in Sunstone about the persistence of racist beliefs in the LDS church. Smith wrote that racism persisted in the church because church leadership had not addressed the ban's origins. This racism persisted in the beliefs that blacks were descendants of Cain, that they were neutral in the war in heaven, and that skin color was tied to righteousness.[133] In 2007, journalist and church member, Peggy Fletcher Stack, wrote that black Mormons still felt separate from other church members because of how other members treat them, ranging from calling them the "n-word" at church and in the temple to small differences in treatment. The dearth of blacks in Mormon church leadership also contributes to black members' feelings of not belonging.[134][135]

Black Membership[edit]

The first statement regarding proselyting towards blacks was about slaves. In 1835, the Church's policy was to not proselyte to slaves unless they had permission from their masters. This policy was changed in 1836, when Smith wrote that slaves should not be taught the gospel at all until after their masters were converted.[43]:14 Though the church had an open membership policy for all races, they avoided opening missions in areas with large black populations and discouraged people with black ancestry from investigating the church.[28]:27[9]:76 Relatively few black people who joined the church retained active membership prior to 1978.[136]

Despite interest from a few hundred Nigerians, proselyting efforts were delayed in Nigeria in the 1960s. After the Nigerian government stalled the church's visa, apostles did not want to proselyte there.[9]:85–87; 94 In Africa, there were only active missionaries among whites in South Africa. Blacks in South Africa who requested baptism were told that the church was not working among the blacks.[9]:76 In the South Pacific, the church avoiding missionary work among native Fijians until 1955 when the church determined they were related to other Polynesian groups.[9]:80 In Brazil, LDS officials discouraged individuals with black ancestry from investigating the church. They instituted an mission-wide genealogy program to discover black ancestry, and their official records were marked if any black ancestry was discovered.[137]:27 In the 1970s "lineage lessons" were added to determine that interested persons were eligible for teaching.[10]:102[138] After 1978, there were no restrictions against proselytizing to blacks. Shortly after, missionaries began entering areas of Africa that were more predominately black.

Accra Ghana Temple, the second in Africa.

The church does not currently keep official records on the race of its membership[35]:269, so exact numbers are unknown. Black people have been members of Mormon congregations since its foundation, but in 1964 its black membership was small, with about 300 to 400 black members worldwide.[139] In 1970, the officially-sanctioned black LDS support group, the Genesis Group, was formed in Salt Lake City, Utah.[10]:84 In 1997, there were approximately 500,000 black members of the church (about 5% of the total membership), mostly in Africa, Brazil and the Caribbean.[140] Since then, black membership has grown, especially in West Africa, where two temples have been built,[141] doubling to about 1 million black members worldwide by 2008.[139] In April 2017 the LDS Church announced plans to build a temple in Nairobi, Kenya bringing to 6 the temples planned or built in Africa outside South Africa.[142] In 2017 two black South African men were called to serve as mission presidents[143]. Regarding the LDS Church in Africa, professor Philip Jenkins noted in 2009 that LDS growth has been slower than that of other churches due to a number of reasons, one being the white face of the church due to the priesthood ban, and another being the church's refusal to accommodate local customs like polygamy.[144]:2,12

Other Latter Day Saint groups' positions[edit]

Community of Christ[edit]

Joseph Smith III opposed slavery.

Joseph Smith III, son of Joseph Smith, founded the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1860, now known as the Community of Christ. Smith was a vocal advocate of abolishing the slave trade, and followed Owen Lovejoy, an anti-slavery congressman from Illinois, and Abraham Lincoln. He joined the Republican party and advocated for their antislavery politics. He rejected the fugitive slave law, and openly stated that he would assist slaves trying to escape.[145] While he was a strong opponent of slavery, he still viewed whites as superior to blacks, and held that they must not “sacrifice the dignity, honor and prestige that may be rightfully attached to the ruling races.”[146]

The priesthood has always been open to men of all races, and women since 1984. They reject the Pearl of Great Price, including the teachings on priesthood restrictions.[147]

Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints[edit]

In 2005, the Intelligence Report published the following statements made by Warren Jeffs, President of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints:

  • "The black race is the people through which the devil has always been able to bring evil unto the earth."
  • "[Cain was] cursed with a black skin and he is the father of the Negro people. He has great power, can appear and disappear. He is used by the devil, as a mortal man, to do great evils."
  • "Today you can see a black man with a white woman, et cetera. A great evil has happened on this land because the devil knows that if all the people have Negro blood, there will be nobody worthy to have the priesthood."
  • "If you marry a person who has connections with a Negro, you would become cursed."[148]

Bickertonite[edit]

The Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite) has advocated full racial integration throughout all aspects of the church since its organization in 1862. While America disputed over civil liberties and racial segregation, the church claimed their message was for all races.[149] In 1905, the church suspended an elder for opposing the full integration of all races.[150]

Historian Dale Morgan wrote in 1949: "An interesting feature of the Church's doctrine is that it discriminates in no way against ... members of other racial groups, who are fully admitted to all the privileges of the priesthood. It has taken a strong stand for human rights, and was, for example, uncompromisingly against the Ku Klux Klan during that organization's period of ascendancy after the First World War."[151]

At a time when racial segregation or discrimination was commonplace in most institutions throughout America, two of the most prominent leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ were African American. Apostle John Penn, member of the Quorum of Twelve from 1910 to 1955, conducted missionary work with many Italian Americans, and was often referred to as "The Italian's Doctor".[150] Matthew Miller, an evangelist ordained in 1937, traveled throughout Canada establishing missions with Native Americans.[150]

Strangite[edit]

Strangites welcomed African Americans into their church during a time when some other factions (such as the Utah LDS church, until 1978) denied them the priesthood, or certain other benefits of membership. Strang ordained at least two African Americans to the eldership during his lifetime.[152]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Saints, Slaves, and Blacks" by Bringhurst. Table 8 on p.223
  2. ^ Coleman, Ronald G. (2008). "'Is There No Blessing For Me?': Jane Elizabeth Manning James, a Mormon African American Woman". In Taylor, Quintard; Moore, Shirley Ann Wilson. African American Women Confront the West, 1600–2000. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 144–162. ISBN 978-0-8061-3979-1. Jane Elizabeth James never understood the continued denial of her church entitlements. Her autobiography reveals a stubborn adherence to her church even when it ignored her pleas. 
  3. ^ Mauss, Armand L. (2003). All Abraham's Children: Changing Mormon Conceptions of Race and Lineage. University of Illinois Press. p. 213. ISBN 0-252-02803-1. At least until after Smith's death in 1844, then, there seems to have been no church policy of priesthood denial on racial grounds, and a small number of Mormon blacks were actually given the priesthood. The best known of these, Elijah Abel, received the priesthood offices of both elder and seventy, apparently in the presence of Smith himself. 
  4. ^ a b c d Mauss, Armand (2003). "The LDS Church and the Race Issue: A Study in Misplaced Apologetics". FAIR. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bush, Lester E., Jr.; Mauss, Armand L., eds. (1984). Neither White Nor Black: Mormon Scholars Confront the Race Issue in a Universal Church. Salt Lake City, Utah: Signature Books. ISBN 0-941214-22-2. 
  6. ^ Watt, G. D.; Long, J. V. (1855). "The Constitution and Government of the United States—Rights and Policy of the Latter-Day Saints". In Young, Brigham. Journal of Discourses Vol. 2. Liverpool: F. D. Richards. ISBN 978-1-60096-015-4. 
  7. ^ Watt, G. D. (1880). "Intelligence, Etc.". In Young, Brigham. Journal of Discourses Vol. 7. Liverpool: Amasa Lyman. ISBN 978-1-60096-015-4. 
  8. ^ Reiter, Tonya (October 2017). "Black Saviors on Mount Zion: Proxy Baptisms and Latter-day Saints of African Descent". Journal of Mormon History. 43 (4). doi:10.5406/jmormhist.43.4.0100. Presidents of the Church, with their counselors, consistently gave permission for this level of temple service to be extended to members of African descent, while also forbidding their participation in the endowment ritual. By the mid-1960s, it appears that ... President McKay seems to have agreed that vicarious ordinances should only be done by white proxies, a practice that seems to have been instigated earlier. By the early 1970s, records indicate that black members, once again, had free access to temple fonts in Utah. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Prince, Gregory A. (2005). David O. McKay and the Rise of Modern Mormonism. Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press. ISBN 0-87480-822-7. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar Harris, Matthew L.; Bringhurst, Newell G. (2015). The Mormon Church and Blacks: A Documentary History. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-08121-7. 
  11. ^ In her autobiography, Jane Elizabeth Manning James says she "had the privilege of going into the temple and being baptized for some of my dead." http://www.blacklds.org/manning Life History of Jane Elizabeth Manning James as transcribed by Elizabeth J.D. Round
  12. ^ "Gospel Principles Chapter 38: Eternal Marriage". www.lds.org. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Retrieved 2 August 2017. 
  13. ^ D&C 132:16
  14. ^ a b c "Race and the Priesthood". www.lds.org. 
  15. ^ a b Petersen, Mark E.Race Problems — As They Affect The Church, Convention of Teachers of Religion on the College Level, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, August 27, 1954
  16. ^ Elder George F. Richards, Conference Report, April 1939, p. 58.
  17. ^ In regards to black people, Joseph Smith taught that "They have souls, and are subjects of salvation."Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, selected by Joseph Fielding Smith, (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1976), 269. ISBN 0-87579-243-X
  18. ^ Brigham Young said "when all the rest of the children have received their blessings in the Holy Priesthood, then that curse will be removed from the seed of Cain, and they will then come up and possess the priesthood, and receive all the blessings which we are now entitled to." quoted by the First Presidency, August 17, 1949.
  19. ^ Wilford Woodruff said "The day will come when all that race will be redeemed and possess all the blessings which we now have" quoted by the First Presidency on August 17, 1949 Archived June 24, 2017[Date mismatch], at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ George Albert Smith reiterated what was said by both Brigham Young and Wilford Woodruff in a statement by the First Presidency on August 17, 1949 Archived June 24, 2017[Date mismatch], at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ David McKay taught "Sometime in God's eternal plan, the Negro will be given the right to hold the priesthood. In the meantime, those of that race who receive the testimony of the Restored Gospel may have their family ties protected and other blessings made secure, for in the justice of the Lord they will possess all the blessings to which they are entitled in the eternal plan of Salvation and Exaltation."(Mormonism and the Negro, pp. 23)
  22. ^ In reference to black people, Apostle Joseph Fielding Smith taught: "Every soul coming into this world came here with the promise that through obedience he would receive the blessings of salvation. No person was foreordained or appointed to sin or to perform a mission of evil. No person is ever predestined to salvation or damnation. Every person has free agency." (Joseph Fielding Smith Jr., Doctrines of Salvation, Vol.1, p. 61)
  23. ^ In 1972, Harold B. Lee said, "It's only a matter of time before the black achieves full status in the Church. We must believe in the justice of God. The black will achieve full status, we're just waiting for that time." (Kimball, Lengthen Your Stride, working draft chapter 20, page 22; citing Goates, Harold B. Lee, 506, quoting UPI interview published November 16, 1972.)
  24. ^ Thompson, Howard (12 May 1973). "TV: A Study of Mormons". New York Times. One disclosure, with Mr. Reynolds in the office of Wendell J. Ashton, a Mormon executive, offers a distinct jolt. Mr. Ashton confirms that 'our black brothers are not permitted to hold the priesthood.' He added that Mormon prophets 'have indicated that that time will come.' 
  25. ^ Barney, Kevin (29 July 2015). "Patriarchal Blessing Lineages". By Common Consent, a Mormon Blog. Retrieved 13 November 2017. 
  26. ^ Max Perry Mueller (2017). Race and the Making of the Mormon People. UNC Press Books. ISBN 1-469-63376-0. 
  27. ^ a b Bates, Irene M. (1993). "Patriarchal Blessings and the Routinization of Charisma" (PDF). Dialogue. 26 (3). Retrieved 13 November 2017. 
  28. ^ a b c Grover, Mark. "Religious Accommodation in the Land of Racial Democracy: Mormon Priesthood and Black Brazilians" (PDF). Dialogue. Retrieved 20 April 2016. 
  29. ^ Stuart, Joseph (8 June 2017). "Patriarchal Blessings, Race, and Lineage: History and a Survey". By Common Consent, a Mormon Blog. Retrieved 13 November 2017. 
  30. ^ Official Declaration 2.
  31. ^ Priesthood, pp. 127–128, Deseret Book Co., 1981.
  32. ^ a b c d e Glen W. Davidson, "Mormon Missionaries and the Race Question," The Christian Century, September 29, 1965, pp. 1183–86.
  33. ^ Mark L. Grover, "The Mormon Priesthood Revelation and the São Paulo Brazil Temple", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 23:39–53 (Spring 1990).
  34. ^ Bushman, Claudia (2006). Contemporary Mormonism: Latter-day Saints in Modern America. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-98933-X. OCLC 61178156. 
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Reeve, W. Paul (2015). Religion of a Different Color: Race and the Mormon Struggle for Whiteness. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-975407-6. 
  36. ^ LeBaron, E. Dale. "23. Official Declaration 2: Revelation on the Priesthood". rsc.byu.edu. BYU Religious Studies Center. Retrieved 12 October 2017. 
  37. ^ "Letter of First Presidency Clarifies Church's Position on the Negro". Improvement Era. 73 (2): 70–71. February 1970. Retrieved 12 October 2017. 
  38. ^ Mitchell, David. "President Spencer W. Kimball Ordained Twelfth President of the Church". lds.org. LDS Church. Retrieved 12 October 2017. 
  39. ^ Matthew Bowman (2012). The Mormon People. Random House. p. 176. 
  40. ^ Terryl L. Givens; Reid L. Neilson (12 August 2014). The Columbia Sourcebook of Mormons in the United States. Columbia University Press. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-231-14942-6. that the Negro race, for instance, have been placed under restrictions because of their attitude in the world of spirits, few will doubt. It cannot be looked upon as just that they should be deprived of the power of the Priesthood without it being a punishment for some act, or acts, performed before they were born. 
  41. ^ McNamara, Mary Lou (24 January 2001). Contemporary Mormonism: Social Science Perspectives (Reprint ed.). Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press. p. 318. ISBN 0252069595. Retrieved 8 June 2017. 
  42. ^ a b "Lowry Nelson and First Presidency Letter Exchange". archiveswest.orbiscascade.org. Utah State University, Merrill-Cazier Library, Special Collections and Archives Division. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 
  43. ^ a b c d e f Bush, Lester E. (1973). "Mormonism's Negro Doctrine: An Historical Overview" (PDF). Dialogue. 8 (1). 
  44. ^ "The Lowry Nelson Exchange". Thoughts on Things and Stuff. 1 December 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  45. ^ Taylor, Samuel. "The Ordeal of Lowry Nelson and the Mis-spoken Word" (PDF). Dialogue. 26 (3). Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  46. ^ McConnkie, Bruce (1954). Doctrines of Salvation. Bookcraft. p. 61,66. ISBN 0884940411. Retrieved 9 September 2017. There is a reason why one man is born black and with other disadvantages while another is born white with great advantages. The reason is that we once had an estate before we came here, and we were obedient, more or less, to the laws that were given us there. Those who were faithful in all things there received greater blessings here, and those who were not faithful received less. ...All took sides either with Christ or with Satan. Every man had his agency there, and men receive rewards here based upon their actions there .... The Negro, evidently, is receiving the reward he merits. 
  47. ^ McKeever, Bill; Johnson, Eric (April 2000). Mormonism 101: Examining the Religion of the Latter-day Saints. Baker Books. p. 245. ISBN 0801063353. Retrieved 9 September 2017. 
  48. ^ "The Mormons . Interviews . Jeffrey Holland - PBS". www.pbs.org. 
  49. ^ Campbell, David E.; Green, John C.; Monson, J. Quin (2014). Seeking the Promised Land: Mormons and American Politics. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-02797-8. 
  50. ^ Genesis 4:8-15
  51. ^ Genesis 9:20-27
  52. ^ Young, Brigham (1863). Wikisource link to Journal of Discourses/Volume 10/Necessity for Watchfulness, etc.. Wikisource. pp. 248–250. 
  53. ^ Collier, Fred C. (1987). The Teachings of President Brigham Young Vol. 3 1852–1854. Colliers Publishing Co. pp. 41–50. ISBN 0934964017. Retrieved 19 August 2017. The Lord said, I will not kill Cain, but I will put a mark upon him, and it is seen in the face of every Negro on Earth. And it is the decree of God that that mark shall remain upon the seed of Cain (and the curse) until all the seed of Abel should be redeemed; and Cain will not receive the Priesthood or Salvation until all the seed of Abel are redeemed. Any man having one drop of the seed of Cain in him cannot hold the Priesthood and if no other Prophet ever spake it before, I will say it now—in the name of Jesus Christ, I know it is true, and others know it! ...Let me consent today to mingle my seed with the seed of Cain—it would bring the same curse upon me and it would upon any man. ... The Negro should serve the seed of Abraham—but it should be done right—don't abuse the Negro and treat him cruel. ...As an ensample—let [some] say now, "We will all go and mingle with the seed of Cain.... I will never admit of it for a moment. ... The Devil would like to rule part of the time, but I am determined he shall not rule at all, and Negros [sic] shall not rule us. I will not admit of the Devil ruling at all—I will not consent for the seed of Cain to vote for me or my brethren. ...The Canaanite cannot have wisdom to do things as the white man has. 
  54. ^ Skousen, Cleon (5 December 2011). Treasures from the Book of Mormon, Volume Two: Enos 1 to Alma 29 (3rd ed.). Brigham City, Utah: Brigham Distributing. pp. 2–214. ISBN 0934364176. Retrieved 20 August 2017. Why are so many of the inhabitants of the earth cursed with a skin of blackness? It comes in consequence of their fathers rejecting the power of the Holy Priesthood, and the law of God. They will go down to death. And when all the rest of the children have received their blessings in the Holy Priesthood, then that curse will be removed from the seed of Cain, and they will then come up and possess the priesthood, and receive all the blessings which we now are entitled to. 
  55. ^ Smith Jr., Joseph Fielding. "The Way to Perfection: Cain, Ham, and the Priesthood". emp.byui.edu. BYU-Idaho. Retrieved 20 August 2017. 
  56. ^ Young, Brigham (7 October 1857). "Testimony of the Spirit—Revelation Given According to Requirements—Spiritual Warfare and Conquest, Etc". Journal of Discourses. 5: 332. Retrieved 20 August 2017. You can see men and women who are sixty or seventy years of age looking young and handsome; but let them apostatize, and they will become grayhaired, wrinkled, and black, just like the Devil. 
  57. ^ Taylor, John (28 August 1881). "Duties of the Saints—The Atonement, Etc". Journal of Discourses. 22: 304. Retrieved 19 August 2017. And after the flood we are told that the curse that had been pronounced upon Cain was continued through Ham's wife, as he had married a wife of that seed. And why did it pass through the flood? Because it was necessary that the devil should have a representation upon the earth as well as God .... 
  58. ^ Taylor, John (29 October 1882). "Men Powerless Except as God Permits—Ordeals Necessary to Purify—Zion Will Triumph". Journal of Discourses. 23: 336. Retrieved 19 August 2017. Why is it, in fact, that we should have a devil? Why did not the Lord kill him long ago? Because he could not do without him. He needed the devil and a great many of those who do his bidding just to keep men straight, that we may learn to place our dependence upon God, and trust in Him, and to observe his laws and keep his commandments. When [God] destroyed the inhabitants of the antediluvian world, he suffered a descendant of Cain to come through the flood in order that [the devil] might be properly represented upon the earth. 
  59. ^ Winter, Arthur (3 June 1889). "Discourse Delivered by President Wilford Woodruff at the General Conference, Salt Lake City, on Sunday Afternoon, April 7, 1877". Millennial Star. 51 (22): 339. Retrieved 20 August 2017. What was that mark? It was a mark of blackness. That mark rested upon Cain, and descended upon his posterity from that time until the present. To day there are millions of the descendants of Cain, through the lineage of Ham, in the world, and that mark of darkness still rest upon them. ... The Lamanites, on this continent, suffered a similar experience. ... [T]he Lord put a curse of redness upon them. Hundreds of years have passed since then, but wherever you meet the Lamanites to-day, you see that mark upon them. 
  60. ^ Abraham 1:26
  61. ^ Old Testament Student Manual Genesis-2 Samuel. Therefore, although Ham himself had the right to the priesthood, Canaan, his son, did not. Ham had married Egyptus, a descendant of Cain (Abraham 1:21-24), and so his sons were denied the priesthood. 
  62. ^ Kidd, Colin (2006). The Forging of Races: Race and Scripture in the Protestant Atlantic World, 1600–2000. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521793247. 
  63. ^ Bringhurst, Newell G.; Smith, Darron T., eds. (2004). "Introduction". Black and Mormon. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. pp. 1–12. ISBN 0-252-02947-X. 
  64. ^ a b John David Smith. Dictionary of Afro-American Slavery. 
  65. ^ Flake, Joel. "Green Flake: His Life and Legacy" (1999) [Textual Record]. Americana Collection, Box: BX 8670.1 .F5992f 1999, p. 8. Provo, Utah: L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Brigham Young University.
  66. ^ a b Kristen Rogers-Iversen (September 2, 2007). "Utah settlers' black slaves caught in 'new wilderness'". The Salt Lake Tribune. 
  67. ^ a b Don B. Williams. Slavery in Utah Territory: 1847–1865. 
  68. ^ Collier, Fred C. (1987). The Teachings of President Brigham Young Vol. 3 1852–1854. Colliers Publishing Co. pp. 26–29. ISBN 0934964017. Retrieved 19 August 2017. [I]nasmuch as we believe in the Bible, … we must believe in Slavery. This colored race have [sic] been subjected to severe curses, which they have … brought upon themselves. … I am a firm believer in Slavery. … A strong abolitionist feeling has power over [many brethren] and they commence to whisper … ‘I am afraid it is not right.’ I know [slavery] is right, and there should be a law made to have the slaves serve their masters, because they are not capable of ruling themselves. … I am firm in the belief that they ought to dwell in servitude. … When a master has a Negro, and uses him well, [the slave] is much better off than if he was free. … good wholesome servitude, I know there is nothing better than that. 
  69. ^ Watt, George D. (23 January 1852). "Speech by Governor Young in Joint Session of the Legislature, giving counsel on a bill in relation to African Slavery, given at Salt Lake City, on Friday, January 23rd, 1852". Brigham Young Papers. History Department of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: 1–3. Retrieved 15 October 2017. 
  70. ^ Brigham Young told Greeley: "If slaves are brought here by those who owned them in the states, we do not favor their escape from the service of their owners." (see Greeley, Overland Journey 211–212) quoted in Terry L. Givens, Philip L. Barlow. The Oxford Handbook of Mormonism. p. 383. 
  71. ^ a b Stevenson, Russell W. (2014). For the Cause of Righteousness. Salt Lake City: Greg Kofford Books. ISBN 978-1-58958-529-4. 
  72. ^ Carter, Kate B. (1965). The Story of the Negro Pioneer. Salt Lake City, Utah: Daughters of Utah Pioneers. We feel it to be our duty to define our position in relation to the subject of slavery. There are several in the Valley of the Salt Lake from the Southern States, who have their slaves with them. There is no law in Utah to authorize slavery, neither any to prohibit it. If the slave is disposed to leave his master, no power exists there, either legal or moral, that will prevent him. But if the slave chooses to remain with his master, none are allowed to interfere between the master and the slave. All the slaves that are there appear to be perfectly contented and satisfied. When a man in the Southern states embraces our faith, the Church says to him, if your slaves wish to remain with you, and to go with you, put them not away; but if they choose to leave you, or are not satisfied to remain with you, it is for you to sell them, or let them go free, as your own conscience may direct you. The Church, on this point, assumes not the responsibility to direct. The laws of the land recognize slavery, we do not wish to oppose the laws of the country. If there is sin in selling a slave, let the individual who sells him bear that sin, and not the Church.Millennial Star, February 15, 1851. 
  73. ^ Bigler, David L. (1998). Forgotten Kingdom: The Mormon Theocracy in the American West, 1847–1896. Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 0-87062-282-X. 
  74. ^ Young, Brigham (1987), Collier, Fred C., ed., The Teachings of President Brigham Young: Vol. 3 1852–1854, Salt Lake City, Utah: Colliers Publishing Company, ISBN 0934964017, OCLC 18192348 
  75. ^ Negro Slaves in Utah by Jack Beller, Utah Historical Quarterly, vol. 2, no. 4, 1929, pp. 124–126
  76. ^ "Brief History Alex Bankhead and Marinda Redd Bankhead (mention of Dr Pinney of Salem)". The Broad Ax. March 25, 1899. 
  77. ^ a b Nicholas R. Cataldo (1998). "Former Slave Played Major Role In San Bernardino's Early History:Lizzy Flake Rowan". City of San Bernardino. 
  78. ^ "The Latter-Day Saints' Millennial Star, Volume 17". p. 63. Most of those who take slaves there pass over with them in a little while to San Bernardino ... How many slaves are now held there they could not say, but the number relatively was by no means small. A single person had taken between forty and fifty, and many had gone in with smaller numbers. 
  79. ^ Mark Gutglueck. "Mormons Created And Then Abandoned San Bernardino". San Bernadino County Sentinel. 
  80. ^ Camille Gavin (2007). Biddy Mason: A Place of Her Own. America Star Books. 
  81. ^ Benjamin Hayes. "Mason v. Smith". none of the said persons of color can read and write, and are almost entirely ignorant of the laws of the state of California as well as those of the State of Texas, and of their rights 
  82. ^ Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, South Carolina and Alabama repealed their laws during the Reconstruction period, but the laws were later reinstated and remained in force until 1967.
  83. ^ Persuitte, David (2000). Joseph Smith and the Origins of the Book of Mormon. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-7864-0826-9. 
  84. ^ John J Hammond. Vol IV AN INACCESSIBLE MORMON ZION: EXPULSION FROM JACKSON COUNTY. 
  85. ^ a b c Kass Fleisher. Bear River Massacre and the Making of History. p. 28. 
  86. ^ Young, Brigham (1987), Collier, Fred C., ed., The Teachings of President Brigham Young: Vol. 3 1852–1854, Salt Lake City, Utah: Colliers Publishing Company, ISBN 0-934964-01-7, OCLC 18192348, let my seed mingle with the seed of Cain, and that brings the curse upon me and upon my generations; we will reap the same rewards with Cain. In the priesthood I will tell you what it will do. Were the children of God to mingle their seed with the seed of Cain it would not only bring the curse of being deprived of the power of the priesthood upon themselves but they entail it upon their children after them, and they cannot get rid of it. 
  87. ^ a b Lund, John Lewis (1967). The Church and the Negro. Salt Lake City, Utah: Paramount Publishers. 
  88. ^ Clark, J. Reuben (August 1946). "Plain Talk to Girls". Improvement Era. 49 (8): 492. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 
  89. ^ a b Peterson, F. Ross (Spring 1999). "'Do Not Lecture The Brethren': Stewart L. Udall's Pro-Civil Rights Stance, 1967". Journal of Mormon History. 25 (1). Archived from the original on 7 June 2015. 
  90. ^ Whalen, William Joseph (1964). The Latter-Day Saints in the Modern Day World: An Account of Contemporary Mormonism. New York City: The John Day Company. p. 254. Retrieved 16 September 2017. We are not unmindful of the fact that there is a growing tendency ... toward the breaking down of race barriers in the matter of intermarriage between whites and blacks, but it does not have the sanction of the Church and is contrary to Church doctrine. 
  91. ^ Quinn, D. Michael (2002). Elder Statesman: A Biography of J. Reuben Clark. Signature Books. p. 345. ISBN 1560851554. Retrieved 9 October 2017. Since they are not entitled to the Priesthood, the Church discourages social intercourse with the negro race, because such intercourse leads to marriage, and the offspring possess negro blood and is therefore subject to the inhibition set out in our Scripture. 
  92. ^ Stack, Peggy Fletcher (21 May 2010). "Landmark 'Mormon Doctrine' goes out of print". Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved 2010-05-31. 
  93. ^ Coleman, Arica L. (4 November 2016). "The White and Black Worlds of Loving v. Virginia". Time Magazine. 
  94. ^ Paul T. Roberts (August 1983). "A History of the Development and Objectives of the LDS Church News Section of the Deseret News" (PDF). [Master's Thesis]. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University, Department of Communications: 7. Retrieved October 29, 2014. 
  95. ^ a b "Interracial Marriage Discouraged", Church News, June 17, 1978, p. 2.
  96. ^ Embry, Jessie L. (1994), Black Saints in a White Church: Contemporary African American Mormons, Salt Lake City, Utah: Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-044-2, OCLC 30156888 
  97. ^ "Lesson 31: Choosing an Eternal Companion". Aaronic Priesthood Manual 3. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1995. pp. 127–129. 
  98. ^ Eternal Marriage Student Manual. 2003. "We recommend that people marry those who are of the same racial background generally, and of somewhat the same economic and social and educational background (some of those are not an absolute necessity, but preferred), and above all, the same religious background, without question 
  99. ^ Don LeFevre, Salt Lake Tribune, June 14, 1978.
  100. ^ Robert L. Millet, "Church Response to Jon Krakauer's Under the Banner of Heaven", June 27, 2003.
  101. ^ Acts, Resolutions, and Memorials Passed at the ... Annual, and Special Sessions, of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah. Brigham H. Young, Printers. 1866. p. 26. 
  102. ^ Congressional Globe, 39th Congress, 2nd Session, pp. 381–82 - See more at: http://www.blackpast.org/primarywest/territorial-suffrage-act-1867#sthash.dqdUkXeh.dpuf
  103. ^ Richard Bushman (2008). Mormonism: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 111. 
  104. ^ McNamara, Mary Lou (24 January 2001). Contemporary Mormonism: Social Science Perspectives (Reprint ed.). Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press. p. 318. ISBN 0252069595. Retrieved 8 June 2017. [I]t has been the doctrine of the Church, never questioned by any of the Church leaders, that the Negroes are not entitled to the full blessings of the Gospel. 
  105. ^ "Black History Timeline - Blacklds.org". Blacklds.org. Archived from the original on 21 March 2017. Retrieved 18 September 2017. 
  106. ^ "Mormon Scout Troop Sued Over Treatment of Black". Reno Gazette. Associated Press. 24 July 1974. p. 3. Spokesmen for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People say they will take legal action against a rule of Mormon-sponsored Boy Scout troops that denied a black youth a leadership post. ... The issue came to light last week when Utah's black ombudsman, Don L. Cope, said an unidentified 12-year-old black Scout was denied the post of senior patrol leader because he was not a deacon's quorum president in the Mormon church. ... Church spokesmen acknowledged last week that 'one of the policies of the church in regard to scouting is that the deacon's quorum president also serves as senior patrol leader.' 
  107. ^ "Netfirms - This site is temporarily unavailable". www.bsa-discrimination.org. 
  108. ^ a b Mauss, Armand L. (2003). All Abraham's Children: Changing Mormon Conceptions of Race and Lineage. University of Illinois Press. p. 218. ISBN 0-252-02803-1. Even the long-standing and intimate association with the Boy Scouts of America was temporarily jeopardized when it became apparent that boy leadership roles in local Mormon troops were tied to the lay priesthood, thereby effectively barring from leadership any black boys belonging to church-sponsored Boy Scout troops. 
  109. ^ Benson, Ezra. "Trust Not in the Arm of Flesh". scriptures.byu.edu. Brigham Young University. Retrieved 15 January 2017. 
  110. ^ Benson, Ezra (1968). Civil Rights: Tool of Communist Deception. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book. pp. 1–13. Retrieved 15 January 2017. 
  111. ^ a b Fried, Gil; Michael Hiller (1997). "ADR in youth and intercollegiate athletics". Brigham Young University Law Review. , p. 1, p. 10
  112. ^ James J. Kilpatrick (December 11, 1969). "A Sturdy Discipline Serves Mormons Well". Evening Independent. 
  113. ^ Utah. Legislative Assembly. Journals of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah, of ... , Volume 1. pp. 109–110. 
  114. ^ Oliver, David (28 May 1965). "Negro Views". Newspapers.com. p. 2. Retrieved 11 September 2017. 
  115. ^ Oliver, David (1963). A Negro on Mormonism. 
  116. ^ Wilson, William A.; Poulsen, Richard C. (Nov–Dec 1980). "The Curse of Cain and Other Stories: Blacks in Mormon Folklore". Sunstone. 5 (6). Retrieved 25 October 2017. 
  117. ^ Lederer, Susan E. (2008). Flesh and Blood: Organ Transplantation and Blood Transfusion in 20th Century America. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-19-516150-2. 
  118. ^ a b Mauss, Armand L. (October 1966). "Mormonism and Secular Attitudes toward Negroes". The Pacific Sociological Review. 9 (2): 91–99. doi:10.2307/1388243. 
  119. ^ The Teachings of Spencer W. Kimball, p. 237, emphasis in original
  120. ^ Mauss, Armand L. (2004). "Casting off the 'Curse of Cain': The Extent and Limits of Progress since 1978". In Bringhurst, Newell G.; Smith, Darron T. Black and Mormon. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. pp. 82–115. ISBN 0-252-02947-X. 
  121. ^ "Church Statement against Racism Encourages Tolerance and Love following Violence in Virginia - Church News and Events". Lds.org. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  122. ^ "Church Releases Statement Condemning White Supremacist Attitudes - Church News and Events". Lds.org. Retrieved 2017-08-25. 
  123. ^ Graham, Ruth (18 August 2017). "The Mormon Church Condemned White Supremacists, and This Mormon White Supremacist Mom Is Very Mad About It". Slate. Retrieved 28 August 2017. 
  124. ^ Boardman, Jim (8 April 1977). "LDS Dissident Under Watch, Police Admit". Ogden Standard Examiner. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. 
  125. ^ "Mormon Voter is Excommunicated". Panama City News Herald. GateHouse Media, LLC. Associated Press. 16 October 1977. p. 2. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. 
  126. ^ Bringhurst, Newell G. (1981). Saints, Slaves, and Blacks: The Changing Place of Black People Within Mormonism. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 158. ISBN 9780313227523. Marchant was the scoutmaster of the Mormon Boy Scout troop that was the focal point of the 1974 NAACP controversy over the eligibility of blacks for leadership positions in Mormon-sponsored troops. Even though this issue was settled, Marchant continued to express his opposition to the general practice of Mormon priesthood denial ... by casting a dissenting vote against sustaining Spencer W. Kimball as church president during the Mormon General Conference in October 1977. A few days later Marchant was excommunicated from the church for his conference behavior and open opposition to Mormon racial practices. ... Marchant staged another protest on Temple Square during the Mormon General Conference in April 1978. Even though Marchant was arrested for trespassing on church property, he filed a civil suit against Spencer W. Kimball and promised to organize and stage a protest march on Temple Square during the next Mormon General Conference in October 1978. 
  127. ^ "Former Mormon Missionary Excommunicated from Church". The Daily Reporter. Associated Press. 15 October 1977. p. A5. Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. 
  128. ^ Syphers, Grant (Winter 1967). "Letters to the Editor" (PDF). Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. 2 (4): 6. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 
  129. ^ Udall, Stewart (Summer 1967). "Letters to the Editor" (PDF). Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. 2 (2): 5–6. [This race policy issue] must be resolved because we are wrong and it is past time that we should have seen the right. ... My fear is that the very character of Mormonism is being distorted and crippled by adherence to a belief and practice that denies the oneness of mankind. We violate the rights and dignity of our Negro brothers, and for this we bear a measure of guilt; but surely we harm ourselves even more. What a sad irony it is that a once outcast people, tempered for nearly a century in the fires of persecution, are one of the last to remove a burden from the most persecuted people ever to live on this continent. ... By comparison, the restriction now imposed on Negro fellowship is a social and institutional practice having no real sanction in essential Mormon thought. It is clearly contradictory to our most cherished spiritual and moral ideals. 
  130. ^ Wallace, Turner (26 May 1967). "Mormons Urged to Face Negro Issue". The Edwardsville Intelligencer. New York Times. p. 12. Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. 
  131. ^ Embry, Jessie L. (2004). "Spanning the Priesthood Revelation (1978): Two Multigenerational Case Studies". In Bringhurst, Newell G.; Smith, Darron T. Black and Mormon. University of Illinois Press. pp. 60–81. ISBN 0-252-02947-X. 
  132. ^ Musser, Donald W.; Paulsen, David L. (2007). Mormonism in Dialogue with Contemporary Christian Theologies. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press. ISBN 0-88146-083-4. 
  133. ^ Smith, Darron (March 2003). "The Persistence of Racialized Discourse in Mormonism". Sunstone. 
  134. ^ Peggy Fletcher Stack, "New film and revived group help many feel at home in their church", Salt Lake Tribune, July 6, 2007.
  135. ^ Graham-Russell, Janan (28 August 2016). "What Is It Like to Be Black and Mormon in the U.S.?". The Atlantic. Retrieved 18 September 2017. 
  136. ^ Harris, Hamil R. (February 17, 2012). "Mindful of history, Mormon Church reaches out to minorities". Washington Post. Retrieved February 29, 2012. a period of more than 120 years during which black men were essentially barred from the priesthood and few Americans of color were active in the faith. 
  137. ^ Grover, Mark. "Religious Accommodation in the Land of Racial Democracy: Mormon Priesthood and Black Brazilians" (PDF). Dialogue. Retrieved 20 April 2016. If at any point during the teaching process the missionaries had questions or found evidence indicating probable black lineage, they discouraged the person from continuing his or her investigation. 
  138. ^ "Lineage lesson, 1970 December". churchhistorycatalog.lds.org. Brazil North LDS Mission. Retrieved 2 August 2017.  An example of these missionary "lineage lessons" (in Portuguese) can be viewed at the Church History website here [1] with a document translation found here [2] and here [3]
  139. ^ a b "Margaret Blair Young and Darius Gray — Mormon Artist". mormonartist.net. 
  140. ^ Adherents.com quoting Deseret News 1999–2000 Church Almanac. Deseret News: Salt Lake City, UT (1998); pg. 119.
  141. ^ "Growth of Church in Africa". www.ldsgenesisgroup.org. 
  142. ^ "Church announces Nairobi, Kenya as home of Africa's next newest temple". 2 April 2017. 
  143. ^ "Two New Mission Presidents From South Africa". africase.lds.org. 
  144. ^ Jenkins, Philip (Spring 2009). "Letting Go: Understanding Mormon Growth in Africa". Journal of Mormon History. 35 (2). Retrieved December 16, 2012. 
  145. ^ Roger D. Launius. Joseph Smith III: Pragmatic Prophet. 
  146. ^ "The Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: Community of Christ and African-American members". 
  147. ^ Faith and Beliefs Archived 2007-04-09 at the Wayback Machine., webpage, retrieved June 17, 2006
  148. ^ [4], web page, retrieved, July 15, 2006
  149. ^ Martin, Idris (1858). Annotated History of The Church of Jesus Christ. USA: Official minutes of meetings of The Church. pp. 157, 180, 375. 
  150. ^ a b c The Church of Jesus Christ (2002). A History of The Church of Jesus Christ: Volume 2. Monongahela, PA: The Church of Jesus Christ. 
  151. ^ Morgan, Dale L. (Winter 1949–1950). "Volume IV, No.1". The Western Humanities. USA: University of Utah. p. 4. 
  152. ^ "African-Americans". Strangite.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-18.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]