|A blackbuck at the Blackbuck National Park in Gujarat, India|
A. c. cervicapra
The blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) is an ungulate species of antelope native to the Indian subcontinent that has been classified as near threatened by IUCN since 2003, as its range has decreased sharply during the 20th century. The native population is stable, with an estimated 50,000 individuals as of 2001.
The blackbuck is the only living species of the genus Antilope. Its generic name stems from the Latin word antalopus, a horned animal. The specific name cervicapra is composed of the Latin words capra, she-goat and cervus, deer.
Blackbucks generally resemble gazelles found on the Arabian peninsula. Blackbucks are slender with a head-to-body length of about 120 cm (47 in). They are about 73.7 to 83.8 cm (29.0 to 33.0 in) high at the shoulder. Males are larger than females. Adult males range in weight from 34 to 45 kg (75 to 99 lb); females weigh 31 to 39 kg (68 to 86 lb). Their tail is short and compressed. Both sexes are white around the eyes, on the belly, and on the inside of the legs. They differ in the coloration of the head and back. Female and young blackbucks are yellowish-fawn coloured on the back and on the outside of the limbs; the lower parts are white. The two colours are sharply divided by a distinct pale lateral band. Old bucks are blackish brown on the back, the sides, and the front of the neck. They become almost black with age; only the nape remains brownish rufous, and the pale lateral band disappears. Only males have horns that are diverging, cylindrical, spiral, and ringed throughout. The rings are closer together near the skull. The turns of the spiral vary from less than three to five. Horns are 45.6–68.5 cm (18.0–27.0 in) long.
Albinism in blackbuck is rare and caused by the lack of the pigment melanin. Wildlife experts say the biggest problem with these albinos is they are singled out by predators and hunted.
Distribution and habitat
In the 19th century, blackbucks ranged in open plains from the base of the Himalayas to the area of Cape Comorin, and from the Punjab to Lower Assam. They were abundant in the North-Western Provinces, Rajputana, parts of the Deccan, and on the plains near the coast of Orissa and Lower Bengal. Herds occasionally comprised several thousand animals of both sexes and all ages.
Today, the blackbuck population is confined to areas in Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka, with a few small pockets in central India. They occur in several protected areas of India including:
- Velavadar National Park is home to a large population estimated at 1500 individuals in the mid-1990s.
- Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary
- Tal Chhapar Sanctuary
- National Chambal Sanctuary
- Keoladeo National Park
- Ranebennur Wildlife Sanctuary
- Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary
- Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary
- Gir Forest National Park
- Guindy National Park
- Ranthambhore National Park
- Sorsan Blackbuck Conservation Reserve, Baran, Rajasthan
- Shergarh Sanctuary, Baran, Rajasthan
- Vallanadu Blackbuck Sanctuary, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu
In Pakistan, blackbucks are irregular vagrants, moving along the border areas with India. They are kept in enclosures in the Lal Suhanra National Park for possible reintroduction. They are considered extirpated in Bangladesh.
- A. c. cervicapra (nominate subspecies)
- A. c. rajputanae
Ecology and behaviour
Blackbucks generally live on open plains and open woodlands in herds of five to 50 animals with one dominant male. They are very fast. Speeds of more than 80 km/h (50 mph) have been recorded.
They are primarily grazers and avoid forested areas. They require water every day and may move long distances in search of water and forage in summer. Usually, they feed during the day. Their diet consists mostly of grasses, but they have occasionally been observed browsing on acacia trees in the Cholistan Desert. In the Velavadar National Park, they were observed feeding on pods of Prosopis juliflora during seasonal lows in forage quality.
Their chief predator was the Asiatic cheetah, now extinct in India. Currently, wolves are the main predators of both fawns and adults. Fawns are also hunted by jackals. Village dogs are reported to kill fawns, but are unlikely to successfully hunt and kill adults.
The maximum lifespan recorded is 16 years and the average is 12 years.
During the last century, blackbuck range and numbers have declined sharply due to excessive hunting. Increasing numbers of livestock and humans destroy blackbuck habitat. Some blackbucks are killed illegally especially where they co-occur with nilgai.
Blackbucks are hunted for their flesh and skin. Occasional incidents of poaching still occur. The remaining populations are under threat from inbreeding. The natural habitat of the blackbuck is being encroached upon by local people who need arable land and grazing ground for their livestock. Exposure to livestock also exposes them to bovine diseases.
Its protected status has gained publicity through a widely reported court case, in which one of India's leading film stars, Salman Khan, was sentenced to five years imprisonment for killing two blackbucks and several endangered chinkaras, in a protected area. The court case was prompted by intense protests from the Bishnoi ethnic group, which holds animals and trees sacred, and on whose land the hunting had taken place.
In another poaching incident, Mansoor Ali Khan Pataudi also killed a blackbuck, and then absconded as a fugitive. He finally surrendered only when the case was transferred from the criminal court to a special environment court, where he would face lighter sentencing.
Threats in the past
Until the late 19th century, large herds still roamed on the open plains of North India. William Thomas Blanford knew of herds comprising several thousand individuals, but more often herds numbered 10–50 blackbucks. Until India's independence in 1947, blackbucks and chinkaras were hunted in many princely states with specially trained captive Asiatic cheetahs. Today, only small herds are seen, largely inside reserves. Farmers of the expanding areas of cultivation considered blackbucks as crop-raiders, and further contributed to their decline. In the 1970s, blackbucks were extinct in several areas.
Blackbucks are protected in
- Bardia National Park, Bardia, Nepal
- Abohar Wildlife Sanctuary, Punjab
- Bagdara Wildlife Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh
- Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Tamil Nadu
- Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary, Gujarat
- Kanha National Park, Madhya Pradesh
- Kirthar National Park, Pakistan (kept in enclosures for possible reintroduction)
- Jayamangali Blackbuck Reserve, Karnataka
- Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park, Andhra Pradesh
- Rehakuri Sanctuary, Maharashtra
- Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu
- Vallanad Blackbuck Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu
They are also found in open areas near Dindori, Madhya Pradesh, at Karopani Black Buck Conservation Area, which is located about 15 km from Dindori and also near Koppal in Koppal District about 15 km from its headquarters. In Balaghat Lane, Kolar Gold Field blackbucks are found in unprotected area.
The blackbuck is known by various names, such as pulvaai, thirugumaan, velimaan, kadamaan, iralai, karinchikedai and murugumaan in Tamil. It is also known as Krishna mruga in Kannada and as Krishna jinka in Telugu, it has been declared as the state animal of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Other local names for the species include Krishnasar in Bengali, Kala Hiran, Sasin, Iralai Maan, and Kalveet in Marathi.
The skin of Krishna Mrugam plays an important role in Hinduism, and Brahmin boys are traditionally required to wear a strip of unleathered hide after performing Upanayanam. According to the Hindu mythology, blackbuck or Krishna Jinka is considered as the vehicle (vahana) of the Moon-god Chandrama. According to the Garuda Purana of Hindu mythology, Krishna Jinka bestows prosperity in the areas where they live.
- Mallon, D. P. (2008). "Antilope cervicapra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
- Blanford, W. T. (1888–1891). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. Taylor and Francis, London.
- Nowak, R. M. (1999). Blackbuck. Pages 1193–1194 in: Walker's Mammals of the World. Volume 1. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA and London, UK.
- Palmer, T. S.; Merriam, C. H. (1904). Antilope in: Index generum mammalium : a list of the genera and families of mammals. Government Printing Office, Washington.
- Palmer, T. S.; Merriam, C. H. (1904). Capra in: Index generum mammalium : a list of the genera and families of mammals. Government Printing Office, Washington.
- Ranjitsinh, M. K. (1989). The Indian Blackbuck. Natraj Publishers, Dehradun.
- Mallon, D. P., Kingswood, S. C. (compilers) (2001). Antelopes: Global Survey and Regional Action Plans, Volume 4. IUCN. p. 184. ISBN 2-8317-0594-0.
- Jhala, Y. V. (1997). Seasonal effects on the nutritional ecology of blackbuck Antelope cervicapra. Journal of Applied Ecology 34: 1348–1358.
- Singh, H. S., Gibson, L. (2011). "A conservation success story in the otherwise dire megafauna extinction crisis: The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) of Gir forest" (PDF). Biological Conservation 144 (5): 1753–1757. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2011.02.009.
- Isvaran, K. (2007). Intraspecific variation in group size in the blackbuck antelope: the roles of habitat structure and forage at different spatial scales. Oecologia 154(2): 435–444.
- Bagchi, S., Goyal, S. P., Sankar, K. (2003). Habitat separation among ungulates in dry tropical forests of Ranthambhore National Park, Rajasthan. Tropical Ecology 44 (2): 175–182.
- Bhatta, S. R. (2008). People and Blackbuck: Current Management Challenges and Opportunities. The Initiation 2 (1): 17–21.
- Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 678. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Gee, E. P. (1969). The wildlife of India. Collins, London.
- Blandford, W. T. (1891). The Fauna of British India including Ceylon and Burma. Mammalia. London: Taylor & Francis.
- Burton, M.; R. Burton (2002). International Wildlife Encyclopedia (Volume 9). Marshall Cavendish. p. 226. ISBN 0-7614-7266-5.
- Luna, R. K. (May 25, 2002). "Black bucks of Abohar". The Tribune.
- Walther, F. R.; Mungall, E. C.; Grau, G. A. (1983). Gazelles and their relatives: a study in territorial behavior. William Andrew. p. 74. ISBN 0-8155-0928-6.
- Steps Taken to Save Blackbucks the Hindu, Chinnai, 2011-1-6
- "After Black bucks, leopards to be bred in captivity". Business Line. Nov 18, 2008.
- Vidyarnava, R. B. S. C. (1918). The Sacred Books of the Hindus. Volume XXI. Yājñavalkya Smṛti. Sudhindra Nath Vasu, Allahabad.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Antilope cervicapra|
- Ultimate Ungulate: Antilope cervicapra
- BBC Nature: Blackbuck
- Ratish Naroor Photography: Images of Blackbuck