Several, See text
The blackspot tuskfish, Choerodon schoenleinii, is a wrasse native to the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean from Mauritius to Indonesia and Australia north to the Ryukyus. This species occurs on reefs, preferring areas with sandy substrates or areas of weed growth. It can be found at depths from 10 to 60 m (33 to 197 ft), though rarely deeper than 20 m (66 ft). It can reach 100 cm (39 in) in TL, and the greatest published weight for this species is 15.5 kg (34 lb). It is important to local commercial fisheries and is also farmed. It is popular as a game fish and can be found in the aquarium trade.
Documentation of tool use
In July 2011, a professional diver photographed a blackspot tuskfish bashing a clam on a rock to break the shell, apparently a use of the rock as a tool, the first documented example of tool use in Osteichthyes.
These described species have been determined to be junior synonyms of C. schoenleinii:
- Cossyphus schoenleinii Valenciennes, 1839
- Cossyphus cyanostolus J. Richardson, 1846
- Choerodon cyanostolus (J. Richardson, 1846)
- Cossyphus ommopterus J. Richardson, 1846
- Choerops unimaculatus Cartier, 1874
- Torresia australis Castelnau, 1875
- Chaerops notatus Alleyne & Macleay, 1877
- Torresia lineata De Vis, 1885
- Choerops nyctemblema D. S. Jordan & Evermann, 1902
- Choerodon rubidus T. D. Scott, 1959
- Choerodon quadrifasciatus M. J. Yu, 1968
- Fairclough, D. & Nakazono, A. (Grouper & Wrasse Specialist Group) 2004. Choerodon schoenleinii. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. <www.iucnredlist.org Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.>. Downloaded on 02 November 2013.
- Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Choerodon schoenleinii" in FishBase. August 2013 version.
- Brown, Mark (July 11, 2011). "Diver captures first image of fish using tools". Wired Magazine. Condé Nast Publications. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
Tool use in fish, however, is much more rare, and there's never been any photo or video evidence to prove it -- until now.
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