Blade Runner (franchise)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Blade Runner
Blade Runner franchise logo 2017.png
Official franchise logo
Created byPhilip K. Dick
Original workDo Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (1968)
OwnerAlcon Entertainment[1][2]
Print publications
Films and television
Short film(s)
Animated series
Video game(s)

Blade Runner is an American neo-noir science fiction media franchise originating from the 1968 novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick, about the character of Rick Deckard. The book has been adapted into several media, including films, comics, a stage play, and a radio serial. The first film adaptation was Blade Runner, directed by Ridley Scott in 1982. Although the film initially underperformed at the American box office, it became a cult classic, and has had a significant influence on science fiction. A novelization and a comic adaptation of the film were released in the same year. From 1995 to 2000, three novels serving as sequels to both Blade Runner and the original novel were written by K. W. Jeter, a friend of Dick's. A film sequel to Blade Runner, Blade Runner 2049, was released in 2017. To celebrate the 30th anniversary of Blade Runner in 2012, a short film was released, and in the lead up to the release of Blade Runner 2049, several more short films detailing events that occurred between 2019 and 2049 were released. The influence of the franchise has helped spawn the cyberpunk genre.

Fictional universe[edit]


"Electric sheep. But only sometimes."

Siri – Response to any dream-related question.
Included by Apple Inc. as a tribute to replicants and the concept of AI as a whole.[3]

A replicant is a fictional bioengineered or biorobotic android in the Blade Runner franchise. Virtually identical to adult humans, replicants typically have superior strength, agility, and variable intelligence depending on the model. Because of their similarity to humans, a replicant can only be detected by means of the fictional Voight-Kampff test in which emotional responses are provoked; replicants' responses differ from humans' responses. Nexus 6 replicants also have a safety mechanism, namely a four-year lifespan, to prevent them from developing empathic cognition and therefore immunity to a Voight-Kampff machine. Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, the inspiration for Blade Runner, used the term android (or "andy") rather than "replicant"; Blade Runner director Ridley Scott requested a new, separate term that did not have preconceptions from David Peoples. As Peoples was rewriting the film's screenplay he consulted his daughter, who was then involved in biochemistry and microbiology, who suggested the term "replicating", the biological process of a cell making a copy of itself. From that, either Peoples or his daughter (each would recall later it was the other) coined the term replicant, which was inserted into Hampton Fancher's screenplay.[4]

Voight-Kampff machine[edit]

A very advanced form of lie detector that measures contractions of the iris muscle and the presence of invisible airborne particles emitted from the body. The bellows were designed for the latter function and give the machine the menacing air of a sinister insect. The VK is used primarily by blade runners to determine if a suspect is truly human by measuring the degree of his empathic response through carefully worded questions and statements.

– Description from the original 1982 Blade Runner press kit.

The Voight-Kampff machine is a fictional interrogation tool, originating in the 1968 novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?. The Voight-Kampff is a polygraph-like machine used by blade runners to determine whether or not an individual is a replicant. It measures bodily functions such as blush response, respiration, heart rate and eye movement in response to questions dealing with empathy.[5] In the film two replicants take the test, Leon and Rachael, and Deckard tells Tyrell that it usually takes 20 to 30 cross-referenced questions to distinguish a replicant; in contrast with the book, where it is stated it only takes "six or seven" questions to make a determination. In Blade Runner, it takes Deckard more than one hundred questions to determine that Rachael is a replicant.


Spinner is a nickname given for the type of flying car featured throughout the Blade Runner universe; they are seen in Blade Runner and Blade Runner 2049. The police variant of the vehicle in the original movie features a small "Spinner" logo attached to driver's door between "caution" and Japanese "警察" labels; today the model can be seen in Seattle MoPOP. Since the logo was not clearly visible on low-resolution home-video copies, it was often misspelled as "Skimmer", before high-resolution editions of the movie were released. These vehicles can drive on the ground as a normal car, take off vertically, cruise and hover. Spinners use an unspecified form of jet propulsion, similar to Vertical Take-Off and Landing aircraft. In Blade Runner, they are used extensively by the LAPD to survey the general population, as well as by wealthy entrepreneurs. The Spinner was designed by Syd Mead. The Spinner has been replicated in films such as Back to the Future Part II, The Fifth Element and the Star Wars prequel trilogy.


A photograph of a building interior showing stairs climbing up five storeys to the final floor where we can see the glass roof
The Bradbury Building in Los Angeles was a filming location.

Interest in adapting Philip K. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? developed shortly after its 1968 publication. Director Martin Scorsese was interested in filming the novel, but never optioned it.[6] Producer Herb Jaffe optioned it in the early 1970s, but Dick was unimpressed with the screenplay written by Herb's son Robert: "Jaffe's screenplay was so terribly done ... Robert flew down to Santa Ana to speak with me about the project. And the first thing I said to him when he got off the plane was, 'Shall I beat you up here at the airport, or shall I beat you up back at my apartment?'"[7]

The screenplay by Hampton Fancher was optioned in 1977.[8] Producer Michael Deeley became interested in Fancher's draft and convinced director Ridley Scott to film it. Scott had previously declined the project, but after leaving the slow production of Dune, wanted a faster-paced project to take his mind off his older brother's death.[9] He joined the project on February 21, 1980, and managed to push up the promised Filmways financing from US$13 million to $15 million. Fancher's script focused more on environmental issues and less on issues of humanity and religion, which are prominent in the novel and Scott wanted changes. Fancher found a cinema treatment by William S. Burroughs for Alan E. Nourse's novel The Bladerunner (1974), titled Blade Runner (a movie).[nb 1] Scott liked the name, so Deeley obtained the rights to the titles. Eventually he hired David Peoples to rewrite the script and Fancher left the job over the issue on December 21, 1980, although he later returned to contribute additional rewrites.[10]

Having invested over $2.5 million in pre-production,[11] as the date of commencement of principal photography neared, Filmways withdrew financial backing. In ten days Deeley had secured $21.5 million in financing through a three-way deal between The Ladd Company (through Warner Bros.), the Hong Kong-based producer Sir Run Run Shaw and Tandem Productions.[12]

Philip K. Dick became concerned that no one had informed him about the film's production, which added to his distrust of Hollywood.[13] After Dick criticized an early version of Hampton Fancher's script in an article written for the Los Angeles Select TV Guide, the studio sent Dick the David Peoples rewrite.[14] Although Dick died shortly before the film's release, he was pleased with the rewritten script and with a 20-minute special effects test reel that was screened for him when he was invited to the studio. Despite his well-known skepticism of Hollywood in principle, Dick enthused to Ridley Scott that the world created for the film looked exactly as he had imagined it.[15] He said, "I saw a segment of Douglas Trumbull's special effects for Blade Runner on the KNBC-TV news. I recognized it immediately. It was my own interior world. They caught it perfectly." He also approved of the film's script, saying, "After I finished reading the screenplay, I got the novel out and looked through it. The two reinforce each other, so that someone who started with the novel would enjoy the movie and someone who started with the movie would enjoy the novel."[16] The motion picture was dedicated to Dick.[17] Principal photography of Blade Runner began on March 9, 1981, and ended four months later.[18]

In 1992, Ford revealed, "Blade Runner is not one of my favorite films. I tangled with Ridley."[19] Apart from friction with the director, Ford also disliked the voiceovers: "When we started shooting it had been tacitly agreed that the version of the film that we had agreed upon was the version without voiceover narration. It was a f**king [sic] nightmare. I thought that the film had worked without the narration. But now I was stuck re-creating that narration. And I was obliged to do the voiceovers for people that did not represent the director's interests."[20] "I went kicking and screaming to the studio to record it."[21] The narration monologues were written by an uncredited Roland Kibbee.[22]

In 2006, Scott was asked "Who's the biggest pain in the arse you've ever worked with?", he replied: "It's got to be Harrison ... he'll forgive me because now I get on with him. Now he's become charming. But he knows a lot, that's the problem. When we worked together it was my first film up and I was the new kid on the block. But we made a good movie."[23] Ford said of Scott in 2000: "I admire his work. We had a bad patch there, and I'm over it."[24] In 2006 Ford reflected on the production of the film saying: "What I remember more than anything else when I see Blade Runner is not the 50 nights of shooting in the rain, but the voiceover ... I was still obliged to work for these clowns that came in writing one bad voiceover after another."[25] Ridley Scott confirmed in the summer 2007 issue of Total Film that Harrison Ford contributed to the Blade Runner Special Edition DVD, and had already recorded his interviews. "Harrison's fully on board", said Scott.[26]

The Bradbury Building in downtown Los Angeles served as a filming location, and a Warner Bros. backlot housed the LA 2019 streets. Other locations included the Ennis-Brown House and the 2nd Street Tunnel. Test screenings resulted in several changes including adding a voice-over, a happy ending and the removal of a Holden hospital scene. The relationship between the filmmakers and the investors was difficult, which culminated in Deeley and Scott being fired but still working on the film.[27] Crew members created T-shirts during filming saying, "Yes Guv'nor, My Ass" that mocked Scott's unfavorable comparison of U.S. and British crews; Scott responded with a T-shirt of his own, "Xenophobia Sucks" making the incident known as the T-shirt war.[28][29]

In June 2009, The New York Times reported that Scott and his brother, director Tony Scott, were working on a series of 5–10 minute shorts, Purefold, inspired by Blade Runner and aimed first at the web and then perhaps television. Due to rights problems, the series was not to be linked too closely to the characters or events of the 1982 film.[30] On February 7, 2010, it was announced that production on Purefold had ceased, due to funding problems.

On March 3, 2011, it was reported that Alcon Entertainment, a production company financed by Warner Bros., was "in final discussions to secure film, television and ancillary franchise rights to produce prequels and sequels to the iconic 1982 science-fiction thriller Blade Runner."[31] It was also reported that month that Christopher Nolan was desired as director.[32]

On August 18, 2011, it was announced that Ridley Scott would direct and produce a new Blade Runner film, although work would not begin until at least 2013. Producer Andrew A. Kosove suggested that Harrison Ford, who had starred in the original film, was unlikely to be involved.[33][34] Scott said that the film was "liable to be a sequel" but without the previous cast, and that he was close to finding a writer who "might be able to help [him] deliver".[35] On February 6, 2012, Kosove stated: "It is absolutely, patently false that there has been any discussion about Harrison Ford being in Blade Runner. To be clear, what we are trying to do with Ridley now is go through the painstaking process of trying to break the back of the story ... The casting of the movie could not be further from our minds at this moment."[36] When Scott was asked about the possibility of a sequel in October 2012, he said, "It's not a rumor—it's happening. With Harrison Ford? I don't know yet. Is he too old? Well, he was a Nexus-6 so we don't know how long he can live. And that's all I'm going to say at this stage."[37]

Scott said in November 2014 that he would not direct the film and would instead produce; that filming would begin in late 2014 or 2015, and that Ford's character would only appear in "the third act" of the sequel.[38] On February 26, 2015, the sequel was confirmed, with Denis Villeneuve as its director. Ford was confirmed to be returning as Deckard; so too Hampton Fancher, one of the two writers of the original film. The film was expected to enter production in mid-2016.[39]


Blade Runner (1982)[edit]

Blade Runner, the first film in the franchise, is a 1982 neo-noir science fiction film, serving as a loose adaptation of Philip K. Dick's 1968 novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?.[40][41] The film is set in a dystopian Los Angeles of 2019, in which genetically bioengineered replicants, which are visually indistinguishable from adult humans, are manufactured by the Tyrell Corporation to work on off-world colonies. Those that escape and return to Earth are hunted down and "retired" by special police operatives known as "blade runners". The story focuses on burnt-out expert blade runner Rick Deckard, who reluctantly agrees to take on one last assignment to hunt down a group of recently escaped replicants led by Roy Batty. During his investigations, Deckard meets Rachael, an advanced experimental replicant who causes him to question his attitude towards replicants and what it means to be human. Starring Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, Sean Young, and Edward James Olmos, it was released in the United States on June 25, 1982. It underperformed in North American theaters, but has since become a cult film.[42] The year following its release, the film won the prestigious Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation. Hailed for its production design, depicting a "retrofitted" future,[43] it remains a leading example of neo-noir cinema.[44] The film's soundtrack, composed by Vangelis, was critically acclaimed and nominated in 1983 for a BAFTA and Golden Globe as best original score. In 1993, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress, being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". Blade Runner is now regarded by many critics as one of the all-time best science fiction films.

Blade Runner 2049 (2017)[edit]

On April 16, 2015, Ryan Gosling entered negotiations for a role in a Blade Runner sequel.[45] Gosling confirmed his casting in November 2015, citing the involvement of Villeneuve and Deakins as factors for his decision.[46] On May 20, Roger Deakins was hired as director of photography.[47] Principal photography was set to begin in July, with Warner Bros. distributing the film domestically and Sony Pictures Entertainment handling international release.[48] An official release date of January 12, 2018, was announced on February 18, 2016.[49] When interviewed at the 2015 Toronto International Film Festival, Villeneuve disclosed that the plot would include the ambiguity of whether or not Deckard is a human or a replicant.[50] On March 31, 2016, Robin Wright entered final negotiations for a role in the film,[51] and on April 2, Dave Bautista posted a picture of himself with an origami unicorn, hinting at a role in the film.[52] Bautista and Wright were confirmed to be joining the cast on April 4, and a filming start date of July was established.[53] In late April 2016, the film's release date was moved up to October 6, 2017,[54] as well as Ana de Armas and Sylvia Hoeks being added to the cast.[55][56] Carla Juri was cast in May 2016.[57] In June, Mackenzie Davis and Barkhad Abdi were cast,[58][59] with David Dastmalchian, Hiam Abbass and Lennie James joining in July.[60][61] Jared Leto was added to the cast in August.[62] In March 2017, Edward James Olmos confirmed he was in the film in a sequence playing original character Gaff.[63] In September 2015, Warner Bros. trademarked the name Blade Runner: Androids Dream, prompting speculation that this was the film's title;[64] this was revealed to have been an early title of the film by in October 2017.[65] However, after principal photography began in July 2016 and, as of September 2016, was filming in Budapest, Hungary,[66] Warner Bros. announced the title of the film to be Blade Runner 2049 in October 2016.[67] Shooting ended in November 2016 in Hungary,[68] and the film was released on October 6, 2017.


During an interview with Yahoo! during a promotional tour for the 2015 film The Martian, Ridley Scott expressed interest in making additional films.[69] In October 2017, Villeneuve said that he expected a third film would be made if 2049 was successful. Writer of both films Hampton Fancher also revealed that he was considering reviving an old story idea involving Deckard travelling to another country, and Ford said that he would be open to returning if he liked the script.[70] In January 2018, Scott stated that he had "another [story] ready to evolve and be developed, [that] there is certainly one to be done for sure", referring to a third Blade Runner film.[71]

Short films[edit]

On August 29, 2017, Denis Villeneuve, director of Blade Runner 2049, announced that he had organized for two filmmakers to direct several short films exploring incidents that occurred between the events of Blade Runner and Blade Runner 2049. These films were included as bonus features on most home video releases of Blade Runner 2049.

Blade Runner Black Out 2022 (2017)[edit]

On September 26, 2017, the first short film, Blade Runner Black Out 2022, was released on Crunchyroll.[72] It is a prequel to 2036: Nexus Dawn and 2048: Nowhere to Run, directed by Shinichirō Watanabe and produced by CygamesPictures.[73] The film is primarily set in 2022, following an EMP detonation that has caused a global blackout, which has had massive, destructive implications all over the world.[74] During a preview of the film, Watanabe said that the original film was "definitely the movie that influenced me the most as an anime director".[75] Edward James Olmos reprises his role as Gaff.[76]

2036: Nexus Dawn (2017)[edit]

The second short film released in the lead up to Blade Runner 2049, 2036: Nexus Dawn, is directed by Luke Scott, who had previously developed short films connecting the events of Ridley Scott films Prometheus and Alien: Covenant. The film stars Jared Leto as Niander Wallace and Benedict Wong as Lawmaker, following Wallace as he presents a new Nexus-9 replicant to the lawmakers in an attempt to have a prohibition on replicants lifted.[77][78]

2048: Nowhere to Run (2017)[edit]

The third and final short film, 2048: Nowhere to Run, also directed by Scott, follows Nexus-8 replicant Sapper Morton (Dave Bautista) as he protects a mother and daughter from thugs.[79]


Blade Runner: Black Lotus (2021)[edit]

Blade Runner: Black Lotus is an animated series being produced for Adult Swim and Crunchyroll. It was announced on November 29, 2018,[80][81] and was created in partnership with Alcon Television Group, part of Alcon Entertainment, the owners of the Blade Runner franchise. It has Shinichirō Watanabe as creative producer. Shinji Aramaki and Kenji Kamiyama directed the series, which has 13 episodes. It aired English dubbed on Adult Swim on its Toonami programming block and streamed by Crunchyroll.[80] The series has been produced by Japanese animation studio Sola Digital Arts.[82] It has premiered on November 14, 2021.[83]

The series takes place in the year 2032[80] and includes "familiar" characters from the Blade Runner universe.[84] The series is set ten years after the anime short Blade Runner Black Out 2022.[85]

Blade Runner 2099[edit]

In November 2021, Ridley Scott stated that a pilot for a Blade Runner television series and the show's bible had been written, with the project likely set to consist of 10 hour-long episodes.[86] In February 2022, the series was officially announced to be in development, with the title of Blade Runner 2099. Silka Luisa has signed onto the project as writer, and executive producer. Ridley Scott, Andrew Kosove, Broderick Johnson, Michael Green, Ben Roberts, Cynthia Yorkin, David W. Zucker, and Clayton Krueger will serve as additional executive producers. Scott is in early negotiations to serve as director for the episodes. The project is being developed as a joint-venture production between Scott Free Productions, Amazon Studios, and Alcon Entertainment. The series is intended to be released via streaming as an Amazon Prime Video exclusive.[87][88][89] On October 12, 2022, an apparent official approval to actually make a Blade Runner 2099 TV series was reported.[90]

Cast and crew[edit]


This table shows the characters and the actors who have portrayed them throughout the franchise. A dark grey cell indicates the character was not in the film, or that the character's presence in the film has not yet been announced.

Characters Films Video games Short films
Blade Runner Blade Runner 2049 Blade Runner Blade Runner 2049: Memory Lab Blade Runner:
Nexus Dawn
Nowhere to Run
Blade Runner Black Out 2022
1982 2017 1997 2017 2018 2017 2017 2017
Rick Deckard
ID: B-263-54
Harrison Ford Silent role
Gaff Edward James Olmos Javier Grajeda
(as Victor Gardell)
Kirk Thornton Edward James Olmos
NEXUS-7 N7FAA52318
Sean Young Sean Young[91] Sean Young
Loren Peta
Dr. Eldon Tyrell Joe Turkel Joe Turkel
Leon Kowalski
NEXUS-6 N6MAC41717
Brion James Brion James
Hannibal Chew James Hong James Hong
J.F. Sebastian William Sanderson William Sanderson
Howie Lee
Sushi Master
Robert Okazaki Toru Nagai
Dave Holden Morgan Paull Steve Prince
Harry Bryant M. Emmet Walsh
Zhora Salome
NEXUS-6 N6FAB61216
Joanna Cassidy
Abdul Ben Hassan Ben Astar Stephen Sorrentino
Cambodian Fish Dealer Kimiko Hiroshige Karen Maruyama
Bear Kevin Thompson Silent role
Kaiser John Edward Allen Gary Colombo
Taffey Lewis Hy Pyke
Lilith Tyrell Silent role Carolyn Hennesy
Niander Wallace Jared Leto Cory Todd Jared Leto
Sapper Morton
NEXUS-8 N8PSD32974
Dave Bautista Dave Bautista Silent role
Officer "Joe" K
NEXUS-9 KD6-3.7
Ryan Gosling
Lt. Joshi Robin Wright
Coco David Dastmalchian
Nandez Wood Harris
Ray McCoy Mark Benninghofen
Crystal Steele Lisa Edelstein
Lt. Edison Guzza Jeff Garlin
Blade Runner lead
NEXUS-9 NX96370.4
Nate Scholz
Harper Tyler Moore
Roy Batty
NEXUS-6 N6MAA10816
Rutger Hauer
Pris Stratton
NEXUS-6 N6FAB21416
Daryl Hannah
Sylvia Hoeks
Mariette Mackenzie Davis
Freysa Sadeghpour
NEXUS-8 DRV09817
Hiam Abbass
Rachael Clone Sean Young[91]
Loren Peta
Female replicant Sallie Harmsen
Clovis Mark Rolston
Zuben Gerald Okamura
Luther Jason Cottle
Eve Dina Meyer
Nexus-9 replicant Set Sjöstrand
Iggy Cygnus
NEXUS-8 BJ670228
Jovan Jackson
NEXUS-8 WDV71673
Luci Christian
Saleslady Carolyn DeMirjian
Joi Ana de Armas
Dr. Ana Stelline Carla Juri
Mister Cotton Lennie James
File Crerk Tómas Lemarquis
Doc Badger Barkhad Abdi
Lucy Devlin Pauley Perrette
Dektora Signy Coleman
Sadik Alexander Mervin
Gordo Frizz Bruno Oliver
Runciter Warren Burton
Izo Timothy Dang
Bullet Bob Vincent Schiavelli
Technician Evanne Friedmann
Phil Dante Harper
Holly Valerie Harem
Lawmaker Benedict Wong
Lawmaker #2 Ned Dennehy
Lawmaker #3 Adé Sapara
Lawmaker #4 Ania Marson
Salt Gerard Miller
Mother Orion Ben
Ella Gaia Ottman
Spectator Björn Freiberg
Shop patron Adam Savage
Ren Bryson Baugus
Note: A gray cell indicates character did not appear in that medium.


Role Films Short films
Blade Runner
Blade Runner 2049
2036: Nexus Dawn
2048: Nowhere to Run
Blade Runner Black Out 2022
Director(s) Ridley Scott Denis Villeneuve Luke Scott Shinichirō Watanabe
Screenwriter(s) David Peoples
Hampton Fancher
Michael Green
Hampton Fancher
Shinichirō Watanabe
Producer(s) Michael Deeley Bud Yorkin
Andrew A. Kosove
Broderick Johnson
Cynthia Sikes Yorkin
Joseph Chou
Shun Kashima
Nobuhiro Takenaka
Al-Francis Cuenca
Composer(s) Vangelis Hans Zimmer
Benjamin Wallfisch
Blitz//Berlin Flying Lotus
Cinematography Jordan Cronenweth Roger Deakins Shukou Murase
Editor(s) Terry Rawlings
Marsha Nakashima
Joe Walker Kiyoshi Hirose
Production companies Shaw Brothers
The Ladd Company
Blade Runner Partnership
Torridon Films
Columbia Pictures
16:14 Entertainment
Alcon Entertainment
Scott Free Productions
Thunderbird Entertainment
Columbia Pictures
Alcon Entertainment
Scott Free Productions
Thunderbird Entertainment
Alcon Entertainment
Distributor Warner Bros. Warner Bros.
Sony Pictures
Warner Bros.
Sony Pictures
(via YouTube)
Warner Bros.
(via Crunchyroll & YouTube)[92]
U.S. release date June 25, 1982 October 6, 2017 August 30, 2017 September 16, 2017 September 27, 2017
Duration 117 minutes 163 minutes 6 minutes 6 minutes 15 minutes


Box office performance[edit]

Film Release date Box office gross Box office ranking Budget Reference
North America Other territories Worldwide All time US and Canada All time worldwide
Blade Runner June 25, 1982 $32,868,943 $32,868,943 2,517 $28 million [93]
Blade Runner 2049 October 6, 2017 $92,071,675 $175,399,033 $267,570,708 806 564 $150 million [94]
Total $124,254,197 $167,185,499 $292,108,601 $178 million

Critical and public response[edit]

Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic CinemaScore
Blade Runner 89% (8.50/10 average rating) (126 reviews)[95] 84 (15 reviews)[96]
Blade Runner 2049 88% (8.30/10 average rating) (444 reviews)[97] 81 (54 reviews)[98] A−[99]

Cultural impact[edit]

An image of a spinner (police variant) on display at Disney-MGM Studios.

While not initially a success with North American audiences, the film was popular internationally and garnered a cult following.[100] The film's dark style and futuristic designs have served as a benchmark and its influence can be seen in many subsequent science fiction films, video games, anime, and television programs.[101] For example, Ronald D. Moore and David Eick, the producers of the re-imagining of Battlestar Galactica, have both cited Blade Runner as one of the major influences for the show.[102] Blade Runner continues to reflect modern trends and concerns, and an increasing number consider it one of the greatest science fiction films of all time.[103] It was voted the best science fiction film ever made in a poll of 60 eminent world scientists conducted in 2004.[104] Blade Runner is also cited as an important influence to both the style and story of the Ghost in the Shell film series, which itself has been highly influential to the future-noir genre.[105][106]

Blade Runner has been very influential to the cyberpunk movement.[107][108][109][110] It also influenced the cyberpunk derivative biopunk that revolves around biotechnology and genetic engineering.[111][112]

The film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry in 1993 and is used in university courses.[113] In 2007 it was named the second-most visually influential film of all time by the Visual Effects Society.[114]

Blade Runner is one of the most musically sampled films of the 20th century.[115] The 2009 album, I, Human, by Singaporean band Deus Ex Machina makes numerous references to the genetic engineering and cloning themes from the film, and even features a track titled "Replicant".[116]

Blade Runner has influenced adventure games such as the 2012 graphical text adventure Cypher,[117] Rise of the Dragon,[118][119] Snatcher,[119][120] the Tex Murphy series,[121] Beneath a Steel Sky,[122] Flashback: The Quest for Identity,[119] Bubblegum Crisis (and its original anime films),[123][124] the role-playing game Shadowrun,[119] the first-person shooter Perfect Dark,[125] and the Syndicate series of video games.[126][127] The film is also cited as a major influence on Warren Spector,[128] designer of the computer-game Deus Ex, which displays evidence of the film's influence in both its visual rendering and plot. The look of the film, darkness, neon lights and opacity of vision, is easier to render than complicated backdrops, making it a popular choice for game designers.[129][130]

Blade Runner has also been the subject of parody, such as the comics Blade Bummer by Crazy comics,[131] Bad Rubber by Steve Gallacci,[132] and the Red Dwarf 2009 three-part miniseries, "Back to Earth".[133][134]

Among the folklore that has developed around the film over the years has been the belief that the film was a curse to the companies whose logos were displayed prominently as product placements in some scenes.[135] While they were market leaders at the time, Atari, Bell, Cuisinart and Pan Am experienced setbacks after the film's release. The Coca-Cola Company suffered losses during its failed introduction of New Coke in 1985, but soon afterwards regained its market share.[136]

Oscar Pistorius, the double-amputee who dazzled the world by running in the 2012 Olympics on blade-like prosthetic legs, was given the nickname "Blade Runner" by the media for "literally running on blades",[137][138] leading him to later title his autobiography Blade Runner: My Story.[139]

Media recognitions for Blade Runner include:

Year Presenter Title Rank Notes
2001 The Village Voice 100 Best Films of the 20th Century 94 [140]
2002 Online Film Critics Society (OFCS) Top 100 Sci-fi Films of the Past 100 Years 2 [141]
Sight & Sound Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll 2002 45 [142]
50 Klassiker, Film None [143]
2003 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die [144]
Entertainment Weekly The Top 50 Cult Movies 9 [145]
2004 The Guardian, scientists Top 10 Sci-fi Films of All Time 1 [146][147][148]
2005 Total Film's editors 100 Greatest Movies of All Time 47 [149]
Time's critics "All-Time" 100 Best Movies None [150][151][152]
2008 New Scientist All-time favorite science fiction film (readers and staff) 1 [153][154]
Empire The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time 20 [155]
2010 IGN Top 25 Sci-Fi Movies of All Time 1 [156]
Total Film 100 Greatest Movies of All Time None [157]
2012 Sight & Sound Sight & Sound 2012 critics top 250 films 69 [158]
Sight & Sound Sight & Sound 2012 directors top 100 films 67 [159]
2014 Empire The 301 Greatest Movies of All Time 11 [160]
2018 IGN The 25 Best Sci Fi Movies 2 [161]



The Blade Runner soundtrack by Vangelis is a dark melodic combination of classic composition and futuristic synthesizers which mirrors the film-noir retro-future envisioned by Ridley Scott. Vangelis, fresh from his Academy Award-winning score for Chariots of Fire,[162] composed and performed the music on his synthesizers.[163] He also made use of various chimes and the vocals of collaborator Demis Roussos.[164] Another memorable sound is the haunting tenor sax solo "Love Theme" by British saxophonist Dick Morrissey, who performed on many of Vangelis's albums. Ridley Scott also used "Memories of Green" from the Vangelis album See You Later, an orchestral version of which Scott would later use in his film Someone to Watch Over Me.[165]

Along with Vangelis' compositions and ambient textures, the film's soundscape also features a track by the Japanese ensemble Nipponia – "Ogi No Mato" or "The Folding Fan as a Target" from the Nonesuch Records release Traditional Vocal and Instrumental Music – and a track by harpist Gail Laughton from "Harps of the Ancient Temples" on Laurel Records.[166]

Despite being well received by fans and critically acclaimed and nominated in 1983 for a BAFTA and Golden Globe for Best Original Score, and the promise of a soundtrack album from Polydor Records in the end titles of the film, the release of the official soundtrack recording was delayed for over a decade. There are two official releases of the music from Blade Runner. In light of the lack of a release of an album, the New American Orchestra recorded an orchestral adaptation in 1982 which bore little resemblance to the original. Some of the film tracks would, in 1989, surface on the compilation Vangelis: Themes, but not until the 1992 release of the Director's Cut version would a substantial amount of the film's score see commercial release.[164]

These delays and poor reproductions led to the production of many bootleg recordings over the years. A bootleg tape surfaced in 1982 at science fiction conventions and became popular given the delay of an official release of the original recordings, and in 1993, Off World Music, Ltd created a bootleg CD that would prove more comprehensive than Vangelis' official CD in 1994.[164] A set with three CDs of Blade Runner-related Vangelis music was released in 2007. Titled Blade Runner Trilogy, the first disc contains the same tracks as the 1994 official soundtrack release, the second features previously unreleased music from the film, and the third disc is all newly composed music from Vangelis, inspired by, and in the spirit of the film.[167]

Jóhann Jóhannsson, who had worked with Villeneuve on Prisoners, Sicario, and Arrival, was initially announced as composer for Blade Runner 2049.[168] However, Villeneuve and Jóhannsson decided to end the collaboration because Villeneuve felt the film "needed something different, and I needed to go back to something closer to Vangelis's soundtrack".[169] New composers Hans Zimmer and Benjamin Wallfisch joined in July 2017. In September, Jóhannsson's agent confirmed that he was no longer involved and that he was contractually forbidden from commenting on the situation.[170]

According to Epic Records, Zimmer and Wallfisch sought to continue the legacy of the original Blade Runner score by incorporating the Yamaha CS-80 synthesizer. Zimmer has said of the soundtrack: "First of all, I realized that Denis [Villeneuve] is a director who has a vision; he has a voice. Remember, I've done a lot of movies with Ridley Scott. So, it was important that this was an autonomous piece of work. Let's just be honest. Ridley is a hard act to follow—as is Vangelis. While Ben [Wallfisch] was four-years-old, I had actually experienced all of this. We watched and literally, as we stopped watching, we decided on the palette. We decided this wasn't going to be an orchestral thing. The story spoke to us."[171]

The Blade Runner 2049 soundtrack was released on October 5, 2017, and was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Film Music at the 71st British Academy Film Awards.[172]

Other media[edit]


Future Noir: The Making of Blade Runner

Before filming of Blade Runner began, Cinefantastique magazine commissioned Paul M. Sammon to write an article about Blade Runner's production. This article became the book Future Noir: The Making of Blade Runner.[173] The book chronicles Blade Runner's evolution, focusing on film-set politics, especially the British director's experiences with his first American film crew; of which producer Alan Ladd, Jr. has said, "Harrison wouldn't speak to Ridley and Ridley wouldn't speak to Harrison. By the end of the shoot Ford was 'ready to kill Ridley', said one colleague. He really would have taken him on if he hadn't been talked out of it."[174] Future Noir has short cast biographies and quotations about their experiences, and photographs of the film's production and preliminary sketches. A second edition of Future Noir was published in 2007.[175] To promote the then-upcoming Blade Runner 2049, Future Noir Revised & Updated Edition: The Making of Blade Runner was re-released on September 13, 2017.[176]

The Art and Soul of Blade Runner 2049

A behind-the-scenes guide to the film by Tanya Lapointe.[177][178]

Additional books
  • Blade Runner: The Inside Story by Don Shay.


  • BFI Modern Classics: Blade Runner by Scott Bukatman.
  • Blade Runner: New York Film Notes by Nick Lacey.
  • Retrofitting Blade Runner: Issues in Ridley Scott’s Blade Runner by Judith B. Kerman.
  • Blade Runner: Cultographies by Matt Hills
  • The Blade Runner Experience: The Legacy of a Science-Fiction Classic, edited by Will Brooker.
  • Film Architecture: From Metropolis to Blade Runner by Dietrich Neumann.


  • All Those Moments: Stories of Heroes, Villains, Replicants, and Blade Runners by Rutger Hauer.
  • Blade Runners, Deer Hunters, and Blowing the Bloody Doors Off: My Life in Cult Movies by Michael Deeley, co-written with Matthew Field.


Blade Runner: A Story of the Future[edit]

Philip K. Dick refused a $400,000 offer to write a Blade Runner novelization, saying: "[I was] told the cheapo novelization would have to appeal to the twelve-year-old audience" and it "would have probably been disastrous to me artistically". He added, "That insistence on my part of bringing out the original novel and not doing the novelization – they were just furious. They finally recognized that there was a legitimate reason for reissuing the novel, even though it cost them money. It was a victory not just of contractual obligations but of theoretical principles."[16] Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? was eventually reprinted as a tie-in, with the film poster as a cover and the original title in parentheses below the Blade Runner title.[179] Eventually, a novelization of the movie entitled Blade Runner: A Story of the Future, written by Les Martin, was released in 1982.[180]

Blade Runner 2: The Edge of Human[edit]

In 1994, K. W. Jeter, a personal friend of Philip K. Dick, began developing a series of Blade Runner novels that would serve as a continuation of both the film Blade Runner, and the novel upon which it was based, Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?. The first of these novels, Blade Runner 2: The Edge of Human, was published on October 1, 1995. The novel was set several months after the events of Blade Runner, following Deckard living in an isolated shack outside of Los Angeles, with Rachael with him in a Tyrell transport container, intended to slow down the replicant aging process. Deckard is called in by the human template of Rachael, Sarah Tyrell, to hunt down a missing replicant in exchange for technology allowing Rachael to live. Meanwhile, Roy Batty, the human template for the replicant of the same name, hires Dave Holden, a blade runner previously attacked by Leon, to help him hunt down the man that he believes to be the sixth replicant – Deckard.

Blade Runner 3: Replicant Night[edit]

In 1996, K. W. Jeter published science fiction novel Blade Runner 3: Replicant Night, the sequel to Blade Runner 2: The Edge of Human. The novel follows Rick Deckard, now living on Mars, as he is acting as a consultant to a film crew filming the story of his days as a blade runner. He finds himself drawn into a mission on behalf of the replicants he was once assigned to kill. Meanwhile, the mystery surrounding the beginnings of the Tyrell Corporation is being dragged out into the light.

Blade Runner 4: Eye and Talon[edit]

Blade Runner 4: Eye and Talon, also known as Blade Runner 4: Beyond Orion, is the third novel written by K. W. Jeter that continues the storyline started in the 1982 Blade Runner film. The novel was published in 2000. The story takes place concurrently with the events of Blade Runner 3: Replicant Night, following Iris, a Blade Runner who has been sent on an assignment to find Eldon Tyrell's "real owl", which appears to have special significance to the Tyrell Corporation and other organizations.


Year Title Genre Developer Publisher Platform(s)
1985 Blade Runner Shoot 'em up Andy Stodart, Ian Foster CRL Group PLC Microsoft Windows
1997 Blade Runner Point-and-click adventure game Westwood Studios Virgin Interactive Microsoft Windows
2018 Blade Runner: Revelations VR game Seismic Games Alcon Entertainment Google Daydream
2022 Blade Runner: The Roleplaying Game Tabletop Role-Playing Game Alcon Entertainment Free League Tabletop Game

There are three video games based on Blade Runner: one from 1985 for Commodore 64, ZX Spectrum, and Amstrad CPC by CRL Group PLC based on the music by Vangelis (due to licensing issues), another action adventure PC game from 1997 by Westwood Studios, and a VR game from 2018 by Seismic Games. Both the 1997 and 2018 video games feature new characters and branching storylines based on the Blade Runner world. Eldon Tyrell, Gaff, Leon, Rachael, Chew, J. F. Sebastian and Howie Lee appear in the 1997 video game, their voice files are recorded by the original actors, with the exception of Gaff, who is replaced by Javier Grajeda (as Victor Gardell) and Howie Lee, who is replaced by Toru Nagai.[181] The player assumes the role of McCoy, another replicant-hunter working at the same time as Deckard.[181][129][130] Gaff and Dave Holden both appear in the 2018 game, voiced respectively by Kirk Thornton and Steve Prince, while Carolyn Hennesy voices Lilith Tyrell, niece of Eldon Tyrell; Lilith previously appeared in Blade Runner in photographic form, actress unaccredited.[citation needed]

The PC game and VR game feature a non-linear plot, non-player characters that each ran in their own independent AI, and an unusual pseudo-3D engine (which eschewed polygonal solids in favor of voxel elements) that did not require the use of a 3D accelerator card to play the game.[182]

There is also a tabletop role-playing game set between the events of the original film and the sequel Blade Runner 2049.[183] The release came as part of a trend of increased tabletop games based on popular movies and television shows.[184]


The film has been the subject of a number of documentaries.

Blade Runner: Convention Reel (1982, 13 minutes)
Co-directed by Muffet Kaufman and Jeffrey B. Walker. Shot and screen in 16mm, featured no narrator, was filmed in 1981 while Blade Runner was still in production and featured short "behind-the-scenes" segments showing sets being built and sequences being shot, as well as interviews with Ridley Scott, Syd Mead and Douglas Trumbull. Appears on the Blade Runner Ultimate Collector's Edition.[185]
On the Edge of Blade Runner (2000, 55 minutes)
Directed by Andrew Abbott and hosted/written by Mark Kermode. Interviews with production staff, including Ridley Scott, give details of the creative process and the turmoil during preproduction. Insights into Philip K. Dick and the origins of Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? are provided by Paul M. Sammon and Hampton Fancher.[27]
Future Shocks (2003, 27 minutes)
A documentary by TVOntario.[186] It includes interviews with executive producer Bud Yorkin, Syd Mead, and the cast, and commentary by science fiction author Robert J. Sawyer and from film critics.
Dangerous Days: Making Blade Runner (2007, 213 minutes)
A documentary directed and produced by Charles de Lauzirika for The Final Cut version of the film. Its source material comprises more than 80 interviews, including extensive conversations with Ford, Young, and Scott.[187] The documentary is presented in eight chapters, with each of the first seven covering a portion of the filmmaking process. The final chapter examines Blade Runner's controversial legacy.[188]
All Our Variant Futures: From Workprint to Final Cut (2007, 29 minutes)
Produced by Paul Prischman, appears on the Blade Runner Ultimate Collector's Edition and provides an overview of the film's multiple versions and their origins, as well as detailing the seven-year-long restoration, enhancement and remastering process behind The Final Cut.[189]


A Marvel Comics Super Special: Blade Runner[edit]

Archie Goodwin scripted the comic book adaptation of Blade Runner, entitled A Marvel Comics Super Special: Blade Runner, published in September 1982[190] as the twenty-second issue of the Marvel Comics Super Special series of titles which, by the year 1982, only printed adaptations of films Marvel had obtained the rights to. It was later reprinted as a two-part miniseries, without the feature content contained in the special. In some printings, several pages of the comic were published out of order. Other printing set these pages in the correct order. In the UK it was reprinted as the Blade Runner Annual published by Grandreams. Again, the feature content of the original special was not reprinted.[191] The trade paperback was published in black and white and contains images from the film; it is one of the rarest Marvel Comics trades ever.[192]

The book was poorly received upon its initial release. It was ridiculed for what the critics perceived as bad writing and misquoted lines of dialogue from the film.[193][194]

Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?[edit]

In 2009, BOOM! Studios published Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, a 24 issue comic book limited series and direct adaptation of Philip K. Dick's novel by the same name. The series was drawn by Tony Parker, and was nominated for an Eisner Award in the category Best New Series. The characters in the adaptation were drawn in similar styles to the versions of the characters as presented in the original 1982 film.[195]

Dust to Dust[edit]

In 2010, BOOM! Studios published Dust to Dust, an 8-issue comic book limited series serving as a prequel to the events of both Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (1968), Blade Runner (1982) and Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? (2009).[196][197] The series was written by Chris Roberson and drawn by Robert Adler,[198][199] detailing the days after World War Terminus. The series was marketed with a sneak peek of an eight-page digital preview which was released on iPad, iPhone and iPod Touch.[200]

Blade Runner 2019[edit]

On October 4, 2018, The Hollywood Reporter published an announcement about a new Blade Runner comic series that would be set in the film universe. The comic was co-written by Michael Green (who had worked on the second film) together with Mike Johnson, who scripted the comic.[201] The first issue was released on July 17, 2019, with the twelfth and final issue released on November 18, 2020. The comic was collected into three volumes, with the first released on November 20, 2019, and the last on February 24, 2021.

Blade Runner 2029[edit]

On December 16, 2020, a sequel to Blade Runner 2019 was released, continuing the 2019 series of comics. Titan Comics again are publishing.[202][203]

Blade Runner Origins[edit]

On March 10, 2021, Blade Runner Origins was released by Titan Comics. Written by Mike Johnson, K. Perkins, and Mellow Brown, it is set ten years before Blade Runner.[204]

Cancelled projects[edit]


In the 2000s, Scott proposed a sequel to Blade Runner, entitled Metropolis. The project never came to fruition due to rights issues.[205]


In June 2009, The New York Times reported that Scott and his brother, director Tony Scott, were working on a series of 5–10 minute shorts, Purefold, inspired by Blade Runner and aimed first at the web and then perhaps television. Due to rights problems, the series was not to be linked too closely to the characters or events of the 1982 film.[30] On February 7, 2010, it was announced that production on Purefold had ceased, due to funding problems.

Unofficially related media[edit]

Soldier (1998)[edit]

Soldier is a 1998 American science fiction action film directed by Paul W. S. Anderson and written by David Peoples (credited as David Webb Peoples). The film tells the story of a highly skilled genetically-advanced soldier defying his commanders and facing a relentless and brutal rival soldier. In the DVD commentary of Soldier, Peoples revealed that he had written the film's script in 1982, during production of Blade Runner.[206] In 1998, while promoting Soldier (then recently released), Peoples then revealed that he had written Soldier as a "spin-off sidequel-spiritual successor" to Blade Runner, seeing both films as existing in the same fictional universe.[207][208] The film obliquely refers to various elements of stories written by Philip K. Dick, and film adaptations thereof. Connections to Blade Runner in the film are as follows:

  • A Spinner from Blade Runner can be seen in the wreckage on a junk planet in the film.[209]
  • One of the battles Kurt Russell's "Todd" character fought in, according to his battle records tattooed on his arm was "The Battle of Tannhäuser Gate", which Rutger Hauer's Roy Batty had mentioned having also fought in Blade Runner.[citation needed]
  • An implication in the film is that the genetically-engineered soldiers meant to replace Todd and his fellow soldiers are in fact replicants, continuing a theme from Blade Runner. The 2017 short film 2036: Nexus Dawn implies that Nexus-9 replicants were developed around 2036. Soldier takes place in 2036.[210]
  • Incidentally, "The Battle of Tannhäuser Gate" is shown onscreen in one of the film's deleted scenes.[citation needed]

Total Recall 2070 (1999)[edit]

The television film Total Recall 2070 was initially planned as a spin-off of the film Total Recall, and would eventually be transformed into a hybrid of Total Recall and Blade Runner.[211] The Total Recall film was also based on a Philip K. Dick story, "We Can Remember It for You Wholesale"; many similarities between Total Recall 2070 and Blade Runner were noted, as well as apparent inspiration from Isaac Asimov's The Caves of Steel and the TV series Holmes & Yoyo.[212]

Alien franchise[edit]

Debates by the movie press and science fiction communities have suggested the Blade Runner and Alien films (at least those in which Ridley Scott is involved) may share a joint universe. Recent franchise installments (Prometheus and Alien: Covenant) lean heavily toward the themes of artificial intelligence and humanoid robots as opposed to 'creature features'. The tone of Alien: Covenant in particular has been noted as having a much more Blade Runner than Alien feel to it. A joint universe has not been publicly endorsed by Ridley Scott though he has indicated future Alien films will lean further towards the use of A.I.[213][214][215][216][217]

Fan films[edit]

What Might Have Been: Snake Dance (2012)

On December 12, 2012, in celebration of the 30th anniversary of the release of Blade Runner, Joanna Cassidy, who portrayed the replicant Zhora Salome in the film, released a short film on her YouTube channel entitled What Might Have Been: Snake Dance.[218] Directed by Tamela D'Amico, based on an unfilmed scene from Blade Runner written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, with Cassidy reprising her role as Zhora, the film depicts the replicant performing the "snake dance", a dance Salome was stated to do for a living in Blade Runner. The song "Touched a Dream" by R. Kelly plays over the course of the film. The film, set shortly before the events of the original 1982 film, originated from Cassidy's infrequent unsuccessful requests to have the "snake dance" scene mentioned in Blade Runner filmed for Blade Runner: The Final Cut; despite this, Cassidy was successful in having Zhora's death scene refilmed, as a stunt double had filmed the scene in the theatrical version of the film.[219]

Blade Runner – The Aquarelle Edition (2013)

Blade Runner – The Aquarelle Edition is a 2013 film reinterpretation of Blade Runner (1982). Running 35 minutes, the film follows the general storyline of the original film while taking certain liberties, with the film creator, Anders Ramsell referring to the film as a "paraphrase" of the original Blade Runner.[220] The animated film, developed over the course of one and a half years, consists of 12,597 handmade aquarelle paintings. Archival audio from various characters from Blade Runner is reused during the film. Critic Mike Krumboltz observed of the film: the "result is like a Monet painting come to dystopian life".[221]

Tears in the Rain (2017)

Tears in the Rain is a 2017 short film set in the fictional universe established by Blade Runner (1982), set before the events of the film.[222] Written and directed by Christopher Grant Harvey on a budget of $1,500,[223] Tears in the Rain follows John Kampff (Sean Cameron Michael), the future inventor of the Voight-Kampff machine, as he heads up the Tyrell Retirement Division. Following the recent rebellion of Nexus-3 replicants off-world, Kampff confronts Nexus-3 Andy Smith (Russel Savadier) a replicant janitor unaware of his true nature, as his body is about to shut down.[224] Eleven minutes and eleven seconds in length, the film has won multiple awards.[225]

Slice of Life (2019)

Slice of Life is a short film set in the fictional universe established by Blade Runner (1982), set in 2019, the same year as the events of Blade Runner. The film was developed over the course of three years, directed by Luka Hrgović and written by Anton Svetić. All special effects in Slice of Life are made using miniatures, back projections, matte paintings and practical effects. The film is approximately 25 minutes long. Although described as a fan movie, Slice of Life does not include Rick Deckard. It is simply an homage, using the same universe and telling its own original story with original characters. The film follows "low-life drug dealer who tries to turn his life around, but finds himself at the mercy of fate when he encounters a cop with an agenda of his own".[226]


  1. ^ Some editions of Nourse's novel use the two-word spacing Blade Runner, as does the Burroughs book.


  1. ^ Anders, Charlie Jane (March 4, 2011). "'Blade Runner' Sequel (or Prequel) in Development Now". io9. Archived from the original on June 15, 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
  2. ^ Sharf, Zack (September 21, 2021). "'Blade Runner' Studio Has Two Employees Hired to Keep Franchise's Timeline Organized". IndieWire. Retrieved September 23, 2021. Alcon owns the "Blade Runner" IP.
  3. ^ Schulman, Michael (September 14, 2017). "The Battle for Blade Runner". HWD. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  4. ^ Interview with David Peoples in Sacrificial Sheep: The Novel vs. the Film. Enhancement Archive of Blade Runner Ultimate Collector's Edition
  5. ^ Sammon, pp. 106–107
  6. ^ Bukatman, p. 13; Sammon, p. 23
  7. ^ Dick quoted in Sammon, p. 23
  8. ^ Sammon, pp. 23–30
  9. ^ Sammon, pp. 43–49
  10. ^ Sammon, pp. 49–63
  11. ^ Sammon, p. 49
  12. ^ Bukatman, pp. 18–19; Sammon, pp. 64–67
  13. ^ Sammon, pp. 63–64
  14. ^ Sammon, pp. 67–69
  15. ^ Sammon, p. 284
  16. ^ a b Boonstra, John (June 1982), "A final interview with science fiction's boldest visionary, who talks candidly about Blade Runner, inner voices and the temptations of Hollywood", Rod Serling's the Twilight Zone Magazine, 2 (3): 47–52, archived from the original on May 28, 2013, retrieved July 27, 2011
  17. ^ Blade Runner film, dedication after credits, 1:51:30
  18. ^ Sammon, p. 98
  19. ^ Sammon, p. 211
  20. ^ Ford: "'Blade Runner' Was a Nightmare",, July 5, 2007, archived from the original on February 24, 2012, retrieved July 27, 2011
  21. ^ Sammon, p. 296
  22. ^ Pahle, Rebecca (August 28, 2015), 10 Fascinating Facts About 'Blade Runner', Mental Floss, archived from the original on August 29, 2015, retrieved March 24, 2015
  23. ^ Carnevale, Rob (September 2006), "Getting Direct With Directors ... Ridley Scott", BBC, archived from the original on April 13, 2014, retrieved July 27, 2011
  24. ^ Kennedy, Colin (November 2000), "And beneath lies, the truth", Empire (137): 76
  25. ^ "In Conversation with Harrison Ford", Empire (202): 140, April 2006
  26. ^ Smith, Neil (Summer 2007), "The Total Film Interview", Total Film, no. 130
  27. ^ a b Ingels, Nicklas, On The Edge Of Blade Runner (Documentury), Los Angeles, 2019, archived from the original on April 7, 2014, retrieved July 27, 2011
  28. ^ Sammon, p. 218
  29. ^ Davis, Cindy (November 8, 2011), Mindhole Blowers: 20 facts about Blade Runner that might leave you questioning Ridley Scotts humanity,, archived from the original on August 2, 2014, retrieved September 21, 2014
  30. ^ a b Stone, Brad (June 4, 2009), "Web Series Tied to 'Blade Runner' Is in the Works", The New York Times, archived from the original on February 23, 2014, retrieved July 27, 2011
  31. ^ Anders, Charlie Jane (March 4, 2011), "Blade Runner Sequel (or Prequel) in Development Now", io9, retrieved July 27, 2011
  32. ^ Orange, B. Alan (March 4, 2011), Christopher Nolan Wanted for Blade Runner Sequel or Prequel,, archived from the original on November 4, 2013, retrieved May 15, 2011
  33. ^ Fleming, Mike (August 18, 2011), "Ridley Scott To Direct New 'Blade Runner' Installment For Alcon Entertainment", Deadline Hollywood, archived from the original on April 18, 2014, retrieved August 19, 2011
  34. ^ "Ridley Scott to direct new Blade Runner film", BBC, August 19, 2011, archived from the original on April 20, 2014, retrieved August 19, 2011
  35. ^ Chai, Barbara (November 4, 2011), Ridley Scott Says He'll Direct 'Blade Runner' Sequel, Speakeasy, retrieved November 6, 2011
  36. ^ Vejvoda, Jim (February 6, 2012), Harrison Ford in Blade Runner 2?,, retrieved February 6, 2012
  37. ^ Sullivan, Kevin P. (October 12, 2012), "Ridley Scott Gives 'Prometheus 2' And 'Blade Runner 2' Updates", MTV Movies Blog, archived from the original on October 4, 2013, retrieved October 13, 2012
  38. ^ Jacob Kastrenakes (November 25, 2014). "Ridley Scott won't direct 'Blade Runner' sequel". The Verge. Vox Media, Inc. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
  39. ^ Joseph, Matt (2015), "Blade Runner Sequel Confirmed, Harrison Ford To Return", We Got This Covered
  40. ^ Johnson, David (2005). "Chapter 3". The Popular & the Canonical: Debating Twentieth-century Literature. Psychology Press. p. 142.
  41. ^ Caldwell, Thomas (2011). "Intertextuality". Film Analysis Handbook: Essential Guide to Understanding, Analysing and Writing on Film. Insight Publications. p. 152.
  42. ^ Sammon, pp. xvi–xviii
  43. ^ Bukatman, p. 21; Sammon, p. 79
  44. ^ Conard, Mark T. (2006), The Philosophy of Neo-Noir, University Press of Kentucky, ISBN 978-0-8131-2422-3, retrieved July 27, 2011
  45. ^ Fleming, Mike Jr. (April 16, 2015), "Ryan Gosling To Star In 'Blade Runner' Sequel", Deadline Hollywood, retrieved April 16, 2015
  46. ^ Goldberg, Matt (November 16, 2015), "Ryan Gosling Confirms He's in 'Blade Runner 2'; Talks Shane Black's 'The Nice Guys'", Collider, retrieved November 16, 2015
  47. ^ Geier, Thom (May 20, 2015), "'Blade Runner' Sequel Hires Roger Deakins as Cinematographer", The Wrap, retrieved May 20, 2015
  48. ^ Jagernauth, Kevin (January 25, 2016), "Denis Villeneuve's 'Blade Runner 2' Starring Ryan Gosling & Harrison Ford Officially Starts Filming in July", Indiewire, retrieved January 25, 2016
  49. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (February 18, 2016), "'Blade Runner' Sequel To Blast Off On MLK Weekend 2018", Deadline Hollywood, retrieved February 18, 2016
  50. ^ Eisenberg, Eric (September 2015), "Blade Runner 2 Will Take Care of the Original's Biggest Mystery", Cinemablend, retrieved April 28, 2016
  51. ^ Kit, Borys (March 31, 2016), "Robin Wright in Final Talks to Join Harrison Ford in 'Blade Runner' Sequel", The Hollywood Reporter, retrieved March 31, 2016
  52. ^ Anderson, Ethan (April 2, 2016), "Dave Bautista Likely Bringing Some Muscle to 'Blade Runner 2'", Slash Film, retrieved April 2, 2016
  53. ^ Pedersen, Erik (April 4, 2016), "Dave Bautista Joins 'Blade Runner' Sequel", Deadline Hollywood, retrieved April 4, 2016
  54. ^ Kroll, Justin (April 20, 2016), "'Blade Runner' Sequel Moves to October 2017", Variety, retrieved April 20, 2016
  55. ^ Kroll, Justin (April 21, 2016), "'Blade Runner 2' Casts 'Knock Knock' Star Ana De Armas", The Wrap, retrieved April 22, 2016
  56. ^ Galuppo, Mia (April 26, 2016), "Dutch Actress Sylvia Hoeks Joins Cast of 'Blade Runner'", The Hollywood Reporter, retrieved April 26, 2016
  57. ^ McNary, Dave (April 26, 2016), "'Blade Runner' Sequel Casts 'Wetlands' Star Carla Juri", Variety, retrieved April 26, 2016
  58. ^ Kit, Borys (June 7, 2016), "'Martian' Actress Mackenzie Davis Joins 'Blade Runner' Sequel (Exclusive)", The Hollywood Reporter, retrieved June 7, 2016
  59. ^ Pedersen, Erik (June 28, 2016), "'Blade Runner' Sequel Adds 'Captain Phillips' Co-Star Barkhad Abdi", Deadline Hollywood, retrieved June 28, 2016
  60. ^ McNary, Dave (July 13, 2016). "'Blade Runner' Sequel Adds Two New Cast Members". Variety. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  61. ^ Hipes, Patrick (July 26, 2016). "'Walking Dead's Lennie James Cast In 'Blade Runner's Sequel". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  62. ^ Kroll, Justin (August 18, 2016). "Jared Leto Joins 'Blade Runner' Sequel". Variety. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  63. ^ McMillan, Graeme (March 14, 2017). "Edward James Olmos Returning For 'Blade Runner 2049'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
  64. ^ "Have Warner Bros. just let slip the title of the Blade Runner sequel?". September 23, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  65. ^ Topel, Fred (October 12, 2017). "Exclusive: Blade Runner 2049's alternate title revealed". Monsters & Critics. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  66. ^ Foutch, Haleigh (January 25, 2016). "'Blade Runner 2' Officially Starts Filming This July". Collider. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  67. ^ Olsen, Mark (October 6, 2016). "The 'Blade Runner' sequel finally has a title – 'Blade Runner 2049' – but what does it mean?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  68. ^ Grater, Tom (December 21, 2016). "'Blade Runner 2049' will be R-rated, confirms Denis Villeneuve". Media Business Insight.
  69. ^ "Ridley Scott on Bringing The Martian to Life and How He's Reviving Blade Runner". Yahoo! Movies. September 15, 2015. Retrieved October 7, 2017.
  70. ^ Wakeman, Gregory (October 6, 2017). "Will there be a 'Blade Runner 3'? The cast and crew give us the inside scoop". Metro. Retrieved October 7, 2017.
  71. ^ Davies, Megan; Fletcher, Rosie (January 6, 2018). "Ridley Scott has plans for another Blade Runner sequel: "I've got another one ready to evolve"". Digital Spy.
  72. ^ "Blade Runner Black Out 2022". Crunchyroll. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  73. ^ "Shinichiro Watanabe to direct a Blade Runner short film!". September 15, 2017. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  74. ^ ""Blade Runner Black Out 2022" Anime to Debut Worldwide First on Crunchyroll (Updated)". Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  75. ^ Crunchyroll (September 19, 2017). "BLADE RUNNER BLACK OUT 2022 - Official Preview". Retrieved October 1, 2017 – via YouTube.
  76. ^ "'Blade Runner 2049' Anime Prequel Introduces New NEXUS 8 Replicants". September 26, 2017. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  77. ^ Chitwood, Adam (August 29, 2017). "Exclusive: Watch a 'Blade Runner 2049' Prequel Short Film Starring Jared Leto". Collider. Retrieved August 29, 2017.
  78. ^ Anderton, Ethan (August 29, 2017). "'Blade Runner 2049' Short Film Reveals Jared Leto's Contribution to Replicant Technology in 2036". /Film. Retrieved August 31, 2017.
  79. ^ "'Blade Runner 2049' Short Film Introduces the Backstory of Dave Bautista's Sapper". September 14, 2017. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  80. ^ a b c Gurwin, Gabe (November 29, 2018). "BLADE RUNNER ANIME SERIES COMING TO CARTOON NETWORK, CRUNCHYROLL". IGN. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  81. ^ Yoo, Noah (November 29, 2018). "Adult Swim Announces New "Blade Runner" Anime Series". Pitchfork. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  82. ^ Otterson, Joe (November 29, 2018). "'Blade Runner' Anime Series Set at Adult Swim, Crunchyroll". Variety. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  83. ^ Mateo, Alex (October 7, 2021). "Blade Runner: Black Lotus Anime Premieres on November 13". Anime News Network. Retrieved October 9, 2021.
  84. ^ Petski, Denise (November 29, 2018). "'Blade Runner' Anime Series Inspired By Movie Heads To Adult Swim's Toonami". Deadline. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  85. ^ Barder, Ollie (December 2, 2018). "'Blade Runner' Will Be Getting A New Anime Series". Forbes. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  86. ^ Ritman, Alex (November 22, 2021). "Ridley Scott Says Pilots for 'Blade Runner,' 'Alien' TV Spin-Offs Are Written". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on November 22, 2021. Retrieved November 22, 2021.
  87. ^ White, Peter & Nellie Andreeva (February 11, 2022). "'Blade Runner 2099' Live-Action Sequel Series From Ridley Scott, Silka Luisa & Alcon In Works At Amazon Studios". Deadline. Retrieved February 15, 2022.
  88. ^ Hibberd, James (February 11, 2022). "'Blade Runner 2099' TV Series in the Works at Amazon with Ridley Scott". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
  89. ^ Saifi, Rahis (February 16, 2022). "Blade Runner 2099 TV Series Will Release on Amazon Soon". Retrieved February 18, 2022.
  90. ^ Caddy, Becca (October 12, 2022). "Blade Runner 2099: everything we know so far - Everything we know about Amazon's upcoming Blade Runner 2099 series". TechRadar. Retrieved October 12, 2022.
  91. ^ a b "Sean Young secretly filmed scenes for 'Blade Runner' sequel". Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  92. ^ Barder, Ollie (September 27, 2017). "'Blade Runner Black Out 2022' Is Finally Released And It Is A Fantastic Piece Of Anime". Forbes.
  93. ^ "Blade Runner (1982)". Box Office Mojo.
  94. ^ "Blade Runner 2049 (2017)". Box Office Mojo.
  95. ^ "Blade Runner". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
  96. ^ "Blade Runner". Metacritic. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
  97. ^ "Blade Runner 2049". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  98. ^ "Blade Runner 2049". Metacritic. Retrieved October 2, 2017.
  99. ^ "CinemaScore". CinemaScore. Archived from the original on April 13, 2022. Retrieved April 15, 2022.
  100. ^ Sammon, pp. 318–329
  101. ^ Barlow, Aaron "Reel Toads and Imaginary Cities: Philip K. Dick, Blade Runner and the Contemporary Science Fiction Movie" in Brooker, pp. 43–58
  102. ^ Moore, Ronald D.; Eick, David (February 21, 2008). "Battlestar Galactica Interview". Concurring Opinions (Interview). Interviewed by Daniel Solove, Deven Desai and David Hoffman. Archived from the original on November 1, 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
  103. ^ Jha, Alok; Rogers, Simon; Rutherford, Adam (August 26, 2004), "'I've seen things...': Our expert panel votes for the top 10 sci-fi films", The Guardian, UK, archived from the original on May 13, 2007, retrieved July 27, 2011
  104. ^ "Blade Runner tops scientist poll", BBC News, August 26, 2004, archived from the original on May 13, 2014, retrieved September 22, 2012
  105. ^ Omura, Jim (September 16, 2004), "Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence", FPS Magazine, archived from the original on October 29, 2013, retrieved July 27, 2011
  106. ^ Rose, Steve (October 19, 2009), "Hollywood is haunted by Ghost in the Shell", The Guardian, London, archived from the original on March 8, 2013, retrieved July 27, 2011
  107. ^ Coplan, Amy; Davies, David (2015). Blade Runner. Routledge. ISBN 9781136231445. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
  108. ^ Booker, M. Keith (2006). Alternate Americas: Science Fiction Film and American Culture. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780275983956. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
  109. ^ Milner, Andrew (2005). Literature, Culture and Society. Psychology Press. ISBN 9780415307857. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
  110. ^ Brown, Steven T. (2016). Tokyo Cyberpunk: Posthumanism in Japanese Visual Culture. Springer. ISBN 9780230110069. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
  111. ^ Evans, Josh (September 18, 2011). "What Is Biopunk?". Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  112. ^ Wohlsen, Marcus (2011). Biopunk: Solving Biotech's Biggest Problems in Kitchens and Garages. Current Hardcover. ISBN 978-1617230028.
  113. ^ Rapold, Nicolas (October 2, 2007), "Aren't We All Just Replicants on the Inside?", The New York Sun, archived from the original on September 5, 2008, retrieved July 27, 2011
  114. ^ The Visual Effects Society Unveils "50 Most Influential Visual Effects Films of All Time" (PDF), Visual Effects Society, archived from the original (PDF) on June 4, 2012, retrieved July 27, 2011
  115. ^ Cigéhn, Peter (September 1, 2004), The Top 1319 Sample Sources (version 60),, archived from the original on October 27, 2013, retrieved July 27, 2011
  116. ^ Deus Ex Machina – I, Human Review, The Metal Crypt, February 22, 2010, archived from the original on April 7, 2014, retrieved July 27, 2011
  117. ^ Webster, Andrew (October 17, 2012), Cyberpunk meets interactive fiction: the art of 'Cypher', The Verge, archived from the original on February 1, 2014, retrieved February 27, 2013
  118. ^ "Rise of the Dragon", Physics World, 21 (8): 14–15, 2008, Bibcode:2008PhyW...21h..14., doi:10.1088/2058-7058/21/08/25, archived from the original on February 2, 2014, retrieved November 10, 2010
  119. ^ a b c d Tracing Replicants: We examine Blade Runner's influence on games,, archived from the original on July 18, 2012, retrieved November 11, 2010
  120. ^ Blade Runner and Snatcher, archived from the original on July 25, 2013, retrieved November 10, 2010
  121. ^ "The Top 10 Best Game Detectives". NowGamer. Archived from the original on March 16, 2012.
  122. ^ Beneath a Steel Sky, archived from the original on October 19, 2013, retrieved November 10, 2010
  123. ^ Lambie, Ryan, Bubblegum Crisis 3D live-action movie on the way, Den of Geek, archived from the original on January 4, 2012, retrieved November 10, 2010
  124. ^ 3D Live Action Bubblegum Crisis Movie Gets A Director and a Start Date, November 4, 2010, archived from the original on April 7, 2014, retrieved November 10, 2010
  125. ^ Retrospective: Perfect Dark, archived from the original on February 21, 2011, retrieved November 10, 2010
  126. ^ Syndicate Wars: Review by Chuck Schrank for Gamezilla PC Games, archived from the original on September 8, 2013, retrieved November 10, 2010
  127. ^ Syndicate, archived from the original on January 1, 2014, retrieved November 10, 2010
  128. ^ "Gaming Gurus, Issue 14.04", Wired, April 1, 2006, archived from the original on September 3, 2013, retrieved August 28, 2009
  129. ^ a b Atkins, Barry "Replicating the Blade Runner" in Brooker, pp. 79–91
  130. ^ a b Tosca, Susana P. "Implanted Memories, or the Illusion of Free Action" in Brooker pp. 92–107
  131. ^ Kissell, Gerry, Crazy: Blade Runner Parody, Blade Zone: The Online Blade Runner Fan Club, archived from the original on April 28, 2014, retrieved July 27, 2011
  132. ^ Gallacci, Steven A, "The Grand Comics Database Project", Bad Rubber, Grand Comics Database, archived from the original on April 6, 2014, retrieved July 27, 2011
  133. ^ Howard, Rob, "'Red Dwarf: Back To Earth' – This Weekend's Essential Viewing – NME Video Blog", NME, archived from the original on October 11, 2012, retrieved July 27, 2011
  134. ^ Red Dwarf – Back To Earth – Director's Cut DVD 2009: Craig Charles, Danny John-Jules, Chris Barrie, Robert Llewellyn, Doug Naylor: DVD,, archived from the original on June 14, 2009, retrieved July 27, 2011
  135. ^ Sammon, p. 104
  136. ^ Chapman, Murray (1992–1995), Blade Runner: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), Murray Chapman, University of Queensland, archived from the original on April 4, 2014, retrieved July 27, 2011
  137. ^ "Oscar Pistorius". Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  138. ^ Barbash, Fred (July 6, 2016). "Shock in South Africa over 6-year sentence for 'blade runner' Oscar Pistorius for girlfriend's murder". Retrieved October 1, 2017 – via
  139. ^ "Blade Runner". Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  140. ^ Hoberman, J. (2001), 100 Best Films of the 20th Century, Village Voice Critics' Poll, archived from the original on March 31, 2014, retrieved July 27, 2011
  141. ^ Online Film Critics Society: OFCS Top 100: Top 100 Sci-Fi Films, Awesome Inc, June 12, 2002, archived from the original on March 13, 2012, retrieved July 27, 2011
  142. ^ Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll 2002, Sight & Sound, 2002, archived from the original on May 15, 2012, retrieved July 27, 2011
  143. ^ Schröder, Nicolaus (2002), 50 Klassiker, Film (in German), Gerstenberg, ISBN 978-3-8067-2509-4
  144. ^ 1001 Series,, July 22, 2002, archived from the original on January 10, 2014, retrieved July 27, 2011
  145. ^ "Top 50 Cult Movies", Entertainment Weekly, May 23, 2003, archived from the original on March 31, 2014, retrieved July 27, 2011
  146. ^ "Top 10 sci-fi films, Science", The Guardian, UK, archived from the original on July 25, 2013, retrieved July 27, 2011
  147. ^ Jha, Alok (August 26, 2004), "Scientists vote Blade Runner best sci-fi film of all time, Film", The Guardian, UK, archived from the original on March 8, 2013, retrieved July 27, 2011
  148. ^ "How we did it, Science", The Guardian, UK, August 26, 2004, archived from the original on July 26, 2013, retrieved July 27, 2011
  149. ^ Total Film (October 24, 2005), "Film news Who is the greatest?", Total Film, Future Publishing, archived from the original on January 23, 2014, retrieved July 27, 2011
  150. ^ "The Complete List – All-Time 100 Movies", Time, May 23, 2005, archived from the original on August 22, 2011, retrieved July 27, 2011
  151. ^ "All-Time 100 Movies", Time, February 12, 2005, archived from the original on August 31, 2011, retrieved July 27, 2011
  152. ^ Corliss, Richard (February 12, 2005), "All-Time 100 movies: Blade Runner (1982)", Time, archived from the original on March 5, 2011, retrieved July 27, 2011
  153. ^ George, Alison (November 12, 2008), "Sci-fi special: Your all-time favourite science fiction", New Scientist, Reed Business Information Ltd, archived from the original on April 6, 2014, retrieved July 27, 2011
  154. ^ George, Alison (October 1, 2008), "New Scientist's favourite sci-fi film", New Scientist, Reed Business Information Ltd, archived from the original on April 6, 2014, retrieved July 27, 2011
  155. ^ "Empire Features", Empire, archived from the original on October 14, 2013, retrieved July 26, 2011
  156. ^ Pirrello, Phil; Collura, Scott; Schedeen, Jesse, Top 25 Sci-Fi Movies of All Time, IGN Entertainment Inc, archived from the original on August 27, 2012, retrieved July 27, 2011
  157. ^ Total Film, "Film features: 100 Greatest Movies Of All Time", Total Film, Future Publishing, archived from the original on December 22, 2013, retrieved July 27, 2011
  158. ^ Sight & Sound 2012 critics top 250 films, Sight & Sound, 2012, archived from the original on October 26, 2013, retrieved September 20, 2012
  159. ^ Sight & Sound 2012 directors top 100 films, Sight & Sound, 2012, archived from the original on April 18, 2014, retrieved September 20, 2012
  160. ^ "The 301 Greatest Movies Of All Time", Empire, archived from the original on July 12, 2014, retrieved May 29, 2014
  161. ^ Fowler, Matt (November 15, 2018), The 25 Best Sci Fi Movies, IGN Entertainment Inc, retrieved July 18, 2020
  162. ^ Blade Runner – Scoring the music, Nemo Studios, archived from the original on October 19, 2013, retrieved July 27, 2011
  163. ^ Sammon, pp. 271–274
  164. ^ a b c Sammon, pp. 419–423
  165. ^ Larsen, Peter (2007), Film music, London: Reaktion Books, p. 179, ISBN 978-1-86189-341-3
  166. ^ Sammon, p. 424
  167. ^ Orme, Mike (February 7, 2008), Album Review: Vangelis: Blade Runner Trilogy: 25th Anniversary, Pitchfork, archived from the original on October 29, 2013, retrieved July 27, 2011
  168. ^ Jon Blistein (October 3, 2017). "'Blade Runner 2049' Soundtrack Features Hans Zimmer, Elvis Presley". Rolling Stone. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  169. ^ William Mullally (September 28, 2017). "Villeneuve reveals why he wanted David Bowie in Blade Runner 2049". Al Arabiya. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  170. ^ "Icelandic Film Composer No Longer Attached To Blade Runner Sequel". September 8, 2017. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
  171. ^ "Blade Runner 2049 Original Motion Picture Soundtrack Out October 5 - Epic Records". Epic Records. October 3, 2017. Archived from the original on November 20, 2017. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
  172. ^ Gettel, Oliver (February 18, 2018). "Three Billboards triumphs at BAFTA Awards: See the full winners list". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on February 19, 2018. Retrieved February 19, 2018.
  173. ^ Encyclopedia Blade Runner,, archived from the original on March 16, 2008, retrieved January 22, 2008
  174. ^ Shone, Tom (2004), Blockbuster, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-0-7432-3990-5
  175. ^ Future Noir: Lost Chapters, 2019:Lost Worlds, archived from the original on June 24, 2001, retrieved February 5, 2008
  176. ^ Sammon, Paul M. (September 13, 2017). "Future Noir Revised & Updated Edition: The Making of Blade Runner". Dey Street Books – via Amazon.
  177. ^ "The Art and Soul of Blade Runner 2049". Titan Books. Retrieved October 30, 2017.
  178. ^ Lapointe, Tanya (2017). The Art and Soul of Blade Runner 2049. ISBN 978-1785657580.
  179. ^ Dick, Philip K. (2007), Blade runner: (Do androids dream of electric sheep), Del Rey Books, p. 216, ISBN 978-0-345-35047-3, retrieved July 27, 2011
  180. ^ Marshall, Colin (September 14, 2015). "Hear Blade Runner, Terminator, Videodrome & Other 70s, 80s & 90s Movies as Novelized AudioBooks". Open Culture. Archived from the original on December 24, 2016.
  181. ^ a b Blade Runner, BRMovie, archived from the original on July 14, 2008, retrieved August 10, 2010
  182. ^ Bates, Jason (September 9, 1997), "Westwood's Blade Runner", PC Gamer, Blade Zone, 4 (9), archived from the original on November 27, 2012, retrieved July 27, 2011
  183. ^ Nelson, Samantha (December 13, 2022). "Blade Runner TTRPG nails Ridley Scott's vision, adds pitch-perfect investigative mechanics". Polygon. Retrieved December 16, 2022.
  184. ^ Anderson, Pearse. "Tabletop Game Companies Are Rushing to Snatch Up Hollywood Names". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved December 16, 2022.
  185. ^ Future Noir Revised & Updated Edition: The Making of Blade Runner
  186. ^ Future Shocks, TVO.ORG, archived from the original on December 24, 2014, retrieved July 27, 2011
  187. ^ Fischer, Russ (February 8, 2007), "Interview: Charles de Lauzirika (Blade Runner)",, archived from the original on February 2, 2014, retrieved July 27, 2011
  188. ^ Weitz, Scott (December 16, 2007), Blade Runner – The Final Cut: 2-Disc Special Edition DVD Review,, archived from the original on May 17, 2013, retrieved July 27, 2011
  189. ^ Blade Runner: The Final Cut, The Digital Bits, Inc., July 26, 2007, archived from the original on February 22, 2014, retrieved July 27, 2011
  190. ^ Marvel Super Special #22 at the Grand Comics Database Archived April 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  191. ^ Kerman, Judith (September 4, 1991). Retrofitting Blade Runner: Issues in Ridley Scott's Blade Runner and Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?. Popular Press. ISBN 9780879725105 – via Google Books.
  192. ^ Weiner, Robert G. (February 15, 2008). Marvel Graphic Novels and Related Publications: An Annotated Guide to Comics, Prose Novels, Children's Books, Articles, Criticism and Reference Works, 1965–2005. McFarland. ISBN 9780786451159 – via Google Books.
  193. ^ Raw, Laurence (September 28, 2009). The Ridley Scott Encyclopedia. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810869523 – via Google Books.
  194. ^ Darius, Julian (November 9, 2014). "When Marvel Comics Adapted Blade Runner". Sequart Organization. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  195. ^ Heller, Jason (April 9, 2010). "Eisner Award nominees announced". The A.V. Club. Retrieved July 24, 2013.
  196. ^ Pepose, David (April 26, 2010). "DUST TO DUST: What Happened Before Dreams of ELECTRIC SHEEP?". Newsarama. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
  197. ^ R. Parker, John (May 26, 2010). "Philip K. Dick and the Genre of Ideas: PKD In Comics". ComicsAlliance. Archived from the original on July 15, 2017. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  198. ^ Ingels (October 22, 2010). "BOOM! Studios publishes 'Electric Sheep' prequel". Archived from the original on July 15, 2017. Retrieved July 24, 2013.
  199. ^ Langshaw, Mark (April 29, 2010). "BOOM! expands on 'Blade Runner' universe". Digital Spy.
  200. ^ Hart, Hugh (May 10, 2010). "Prequel to Philip K. Dick's Electric Sheep Hits iPad". Wired. Retrieved July 14, 2017.
  201. ^ Graeme, Mcmillan (October 4, 2018). "'Blade Runner 2049' Screenwriter Expands Story with Comic Book (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 31, 2018.
  202. ^ Munday, Justin (December 14, 2020). "Review: BLADE RUNNER 2029 #1 Continues A Legacy | Monkeys Fighting Robots". Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  203. ^ "Titan and Alcon announce new Blade Runner comic series Blade Runner 2029". September 18, 2020. Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  204. ^ October 22, Clark Collis; EDT, 2020 at 12:00 PM. "'Blade Runner Origins': First look at sci-fi prequel comic". Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  205. ^ Laurence Raw (2009). The Ridley Scott Encyclopedia. Scarecrow Press. p. 225. ISBN 9780810869523.
  206. ^ Source: DVD director's commentary.
  207. ^ Cinescape, September/October 1998 issue
  208. ^ Future Noir Revised & Updated Edition: The Making of Blade Runner - Pages 434 & 435
  209. ^ "10 Films You Didn't Know Shared Movie Universes". Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  210. ^ "Remembering 1998's Soldier: The original Blade Runner sequel". Little White Lies. Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  211. ^ Robb, Brian J. (2006), Counterfeit Worlds: Philip K. Dick on Film, Titan Books, pp. 200–225, ISBN 978-1-84023-968-3
  212. ^ Platt, John (March 1, 1999), "A Total Recall spin-off that's an awful lot like Blade Runner", Science Fiction Weekly: Issue 98 Vol.5 No.9, archived from the original on January 15, 2008, retrieved July 27, 2011
  213. ^ "Why 'Alien: Covenant' is Actually a 'Blade Runner' Sequel in Disguise". The Hollywood Reporter. May 20, 2017.
  214. ^ "Ridley Scott: 'Alien: Covenant' is First of 3 Films Before Linking up with Original 'Alien'". The Hollywood Reporter. November 26, 2015.
  215. ^ Child, Ben (May 16, 2017). "Alien: Covenant to Blade Runner 2049 – why does Hollywood keep ruining the mystery of sci-fi?". The Guardian.
  216. ^ "Alien: Covenant includes a subtle nod to Blade Runner". Polygon. May 20, 2017.
  217. ^ "Alien: Covenant Easter Eggs & Connections". Screen Rant. May 21, 2017.
  218. ^ Cassidy, Zhora (December 12, 2012). "What Might Have Been: Snake Dance by Joanna Cassidy as Zhora from Blade Runner". YouTube. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  219. ^ Future Noir: The Making of Blade Runner: Revised & Updated Edition
  220. ^ Rocket, Stubby the (November 21, 2013). "These Animated Blade Runner Paintings are Just as Haunting as the Film". Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  221. ^ "Watch an Animated Version of Ridley Scott's Blade Runner Made of 12,597 Watercolor Paintings | Open Culture". Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  222. ^ "Two Blade Runner Fan Films, Slice Of Life And Tears in the Rain". February 6, 2017. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  223. ^ "Tears in the Rain". FilmFreeway. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  224. ^ "Spectacular Blade Runner fanfilm, made for less than $1,500 / Boing Boing". February 4, 2017. Retrieved October 1, 2017.
  225. ^ Christopher Grant Harvey (January 31, 2017). "Tears in the Rain (A Blade Runner Short Film)". Retrieved October 1, 2017 – via YouTube.
  226. ^ "How a group of Croatian filmmakers are making a Blade Runner fan film". January 29, 2017. Retrieved October 1, 2017.

External links[edit]