Blagar language

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Blagar
Tereweng
Native toIndonesia
RegionPantar Island
Native speakers
10,000 (2014)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
beu – Blagar
twg – Tereweng
Glottologblag1240  Blagar[2]
tere1277  Tereweng[3]
Alor-pantar map color.png
Languages of the Alor Islands. Blagar is shown in yellow.

Blagar is a Papuan language of Pantar island in the Alor archipelago of Indonesia. The Tereweng dialect spoken on Tereweng island off the southeast coast of Pantar[4] is sometimes considered a separate language.[5]

Use of the language is declining in favor of Indonesian.[6] In the 1970s Indonesian replaced Blagar as the language of the church and the mosque.[6] In the early 2000s the introduction of electricity on Pura Island further increased the influence of Indonesian.[6]

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Blagar has five vowels, with a sharp contrast between short and long vowels.[6]

[6]
Front Back
Close /i/
/i:/
/u/
/u:/
Mid /e/
/e:/
/o/
/o:/
Open /a/
/a:/

Consonants[edit]

[7]
Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p   b    d k   g ʔ
Implosive ɓ
Fricative s   z h
Nasal m n ŋ
Trill r
Lateral l
Approximant j

Grammar[edit]

Blagar is morphologically simple.[8] It has a limited number of pronouns, adverbs, particles, auxiliaries and clitics, but an unrestricted number of verbs and nouns.[8] Verbs can be transitive or intransitive, and nouns can be alienable or inalienable.[8] Nouns are placed before adjectives.[6]

[6]
Blagar Gloss English
Ne koŋdo boʔori. 1SG.POSS shirt yellow My shirt is yellow.
Mehal ʔaŋu guru niaŋ. man that teacher not That man is not a teacher.
ʔana naiŋ bue. 3SG.SBJ 1SG.OBJ hit He/she hit me.
Na aiŋ bue niaŋ. 1SG.SBJ 2SG.OBJ hit not I didn't hit you.
Na ne mol veŋ niaŋ. 1SG.SBJ 1SG.POSS banana with not I don't have a banana.

Questions[edit]

[6]
Blagar Gloss English
ʔ-ene nuba? 3SG-name who What's his/her name?
Id ʔaŋa ʔ-ene naba? star this 3SG-name what What's the name of this star?
Vet ʔaŋa nuba ʔe? coconut this who 3SG.POSS Whose coconut is this?

Writing system[edit]

The Blagar language uses the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet, and has two digraphs: ⟨ng⟩ and ⟨sy⟩.

[5]
Uppercase letters A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Lowercase letters a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
IPA /a/ /b/ /t͡ʃ/ /d/ /e/ /f/ /g/ /h/ /i/ /d͡ʒ/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /o/ /p/ /k/, /q/ /r/~/ɾ/ /s/ /t/ /u/ /f/, /v/ /w/ /ks/ /j/ /s/, /z/
[5]
Digraphs ng sy
IPA /ŋ/ /ʃ/

⟨c⟩, ⟨q⟩, ⟨x⟩, ⟨z⟩ and ⟨sy⟩ are only used in foreign place names and loanwords.[5]

Another writing system is also used, which is phonemic and is similar to the writing system of Indonesian.[9]

Letters a b b’ d e g h i j k l m n ng o p q r t u v y
IPA /a/ /b/ /ɓ/ /d/ /e/ /g/ /h/ /i/ /ɟ/, /ɟ͡ʝ/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /o/ /p/ /ʔ/ /r/ /t/ /u/ /w/ /j/

References[edit]

  1. ^ "UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in danger". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-06-06.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Blagar". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tereweng". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ "Tereweng". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
  5. ^ a b c d "Blagar alphabet, prounciation [sic] and language". Omniglot. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Schapper, Antoinette. The Papuan Languages of Timor, Alor and Pantar: Volume 1.
  7. ^ Schapper, Antoinette (2014). The Papuan Languages of Timor, Alor and Pantar: Sketch Grammars: Volume 1. p. 185. ISBN 978-1-61451-723-8.
  8. ^ a b c H. Steinhauer. ""Going" and "Coming" in the Blagar of Dolap (Pura--Alor--Indonesia) 1)" (PDF). SEAlang. Retrieved 2018-06-28.
  9. ^ Steinhauer, Hein; Gomang, Hendrik D.R. (2016). Kamus Blagar-Indonesia-Inggris: Blagar-Indonesian-English Dictionary. ISBN 978-602-433-356-0.

Further reading[edit]

  • Steinhauer, Hein; Gomang, Hendrik D.R. (2016). Kamus Blagar-Indonesia-Inggris: Blagar-Indonesian-English Dictionary. ISBN 978-602-433-356-0.

External links[edit]