Struthiopteris spicant

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Struthiopteris spicant
Blechnum spicant (fertile and sterile fronts).jpg

Secure (NatureServe)
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Division: Polypodiophyta
Class: Polypodiopsida
Order: Polypodiales
Suborder: Aspleniineae
Family: Blechnaceae
Genus: Struthiopteris
S. spicant
Binomial name
Struthiopteris spicant
(L.) F.W.Weiss
  • Acrostichum lineatum
  • Cav.
  • Acrostichum nemorale
  • Lam.
  • Acrostichum spicant
  • (L.) Willd.
  • Asplenium spicant
  • Bernh.
  • Asplenium spicant
  • Ehrh.
  • Blechnum boreale
  • Sw.
  • Blechnum doodioides
  • Hook.
  • Blechnum heterophyllum
  • Opiz
  • Blechnum septentrionale
  • Sailer
  • Blechnum spicant
  • (L.) Roth
  • Homophyllum blechnoides
  • Merino
  • Lomaria borealis
  • Link
  • Lomaria crenata
  • C.Presl
  • Lomaria spicant
  • Desv.
  • Onoclea spicant
  • Hoffm.
  • Osmunda borealis
  • Salisb.
  • Osmunda spicant
  • L.
  • Spicanta borealis
  • C.Presl
  • Struthiopteris doodioides
  • Trevis.
  • Struthiopteris japanensis
  • Trevis.

Struthiopteris spicant, syn. Blechnum spicant, is a species of fern in the family Blechnaceae, known by the common names hard-fern[3] or deer fern. It is native to Europe, western Asia, northern Africa, and western North America.[1][4] Like some other species in the family Blechnaceae, it has two types of leaves. The sterile leaves have flat, wavy-margined leaflets 5 to 8 millimeters wide, while the fertile leaves have much narrower leaflets, each with two thick rows of sori on the underside.[5]

The Latin specific epithet spicant is of uncertain origin, possibly referring to a tufted or spiky habit.[6]

S. spicant is hardy down to −20 °C (−4 °F) and evergreen, growing to 0.5 m (1 ft 8 in).[7] It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[8]

The species was first described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus as Osmunda spicant. It has been placed in a wide range of genera, including Blechnum (as Blechnum spicant).[1] In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I), it is placed in the genus Struthiopteris, in the subfamily Blechnoideae.[9]


  1. ^ a b c "Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2019-08-12.
  2. ^ Gasper, André Luís De; Dittrich, Vinícius Antonio De Oliveira; Smith, Alan Reid & Salino, Alexandre (2016-09-21). "A classification for Blechnaceae (Polypodiales: Polypodiopsida): New genera, resurrected names, and combinations". Phytotaxa. 275 (3): 191–227. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.275.3.1. ISSN 1179-3163. Retrieved 2019-08-11.
  3. ^ BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  4. ^ USDA Plants Profile
  5. ^ Jepson Manual Treatment
  6. ^ Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for Gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 978-1845337315.
  7. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 978-1405332965.
  8. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Blechnum spicant". Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  9. ^ PPG I (2016). "A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (6): 563–603. doi:10.1111/jse.12229. S2CID 39980610.

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