Blepharophimosis

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Blepharophimosis
SpecialtyMedical genetics

Blepharophimosis is a congenital condition characterized by a horizontally narrow palpebral fissure. It is also part of a syndrome blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome, also called blepharophimosis syndrome, which is a condition where the patient has bilateral ptosis with reduced lid size, vertically and horizontally. The nasal bridge is flat and there is hypoplastic orbital rim.[1] Both the vertical and horizontal palpebral fissures (eyelid opening) are shortened; the eyes are also spaced more widely apart than usual, also known as telecanthus. Vignes (1889) probably first described this entity, a dysplasia of the eyelids. There are two known types of blepharophimosis, type 1 and type 2. Although research is limited, it is known that type 1 and 2 are expressed with the same symptoms mentioned above, but type 1 also has the characteristic of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in women, which causes menopausal symptoms in patients as young as 15 years old. This is due to the shortening of the FOXL2 gene.

Presentation[edit]

In addition to small palpebral fissures, features include epicanthus inversus (fold curving in the mediolateral direction, inferior to the inner canthus), low nasal bridge, ptosis of the eyelids and telecanthus.

BPES[edit]

Blepharophimosis syndrome is an autosomal dominant characterized by blepharophimosis (horizontal shortening of the palpebral fissures), ptosis (upper eyelid drooping, usually with the characteristics of congenital ptosis), epicanthus inversus (skin folds by the nasal bridge, more prominent lower than upper lid), and telecanthus (widening of the distance between the medial orbital walls). This syndrome is caused by mutations in the FOXL2 gene, either with premature ovarian failure (BPES type I) or without (BPES type II).[2] It may also be associated with lop ears, ectropion, hypoplasia of superior orbital rims, and hypertelorism.

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Classification