Veneration of Mary in the Catholic Church

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about veneration of Mary, mother of Jesus, in the Catholic Church. For Catholic Marian doctrines, see Roman Catholic Mariology.
Blessed Virgin Mary
Ulrichsberg - Marienaltar 2 Madonna.jpg
"The Church's devotion to the Blessed Virgin is intrinsic to Christian worship."[1]
Mother of God, Queen of Heaven, Mother of the Church, Mediatrix, Our Lady
Born September 8 (Nativity of Mary)
Died August 15 (Assumption of Mary)
Venerated in Catholic Church
Canonized Pre-Congregation
Major shrine Santa Maria Maggiore, others (see Shrines to the Virgin Mary)
Feast See Marian feast days
Attributes Blue mantle, white veil, Immaculate heart, crown of 12 stars, pregnant woman, halo with 12 stars, roses, woman with child
Patronage See Patronage of the Blessed Virgin Mary

In the Catholic Church, veneration of Mary, mother of Jesus, includes prayer, pious acts, visual arts, poetry, and music devoted to the Blessed Virgin Mary.[2][3] Popes have encouraged it, while also taking steps to reform some manifestations of it.[note 1] The Holy See has insisted on the importance of distinguishing "true from false devotion, and authentic doctrine from its deformations by excess or defect".[4] There are significantly more titles, feasts, and venerative Marian practices among Roman Catholics than in other Christian traditions.[5] The term hyperdulia indicates the special veneration due to Mary, greater than the ordinary dulia for other saints, but utterly unlike the latria due only to God. "Mariolatry" is a Protestant pejorative for perceived excessive Catholic devotion to Mary.

Belief in the incarnation of God the Son through Mary is the basis for calling her the Mother of God, which and was declared a dogma at the Council of Ephesus in 431. At the Second Vatican Council and in Pope John Paul II's encyclical Redemptoris Mater, she is spoken of also as Mother of the Church.

Growth of Roman Catholic veneration of Mary and Mariology has often come, not from official declarations, but from Marian writings of the saints, popular devotion, and at times reported Marian apparitions. The Holy See approves only a select few as worthy of belief, the latest being at diocesan level as far back as 1665.[6][7]

Further pious veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary encouraged by Popes are exhibited in the canonical coronations granted to popular Marian images venerated in a particular locality all over the world, while Marian movements and societies with millions of members have arisen from belief in events such as Akita, Fátima, and Lourdes, and other reasons.[8]

From Christ to Mary in the Roman Catholic tradition[edit]

In Roman Catholic teachings, the veneration of Mary is a natural consequence of Christology: Jesus and Mary are son and mother, redeemer and redeemed.[9][10] This sentiment was expressed by Pope John Paul II in his encyclical Redemptoris Mater: "At the centre of this mystery, in the midst of this wonderment of faith, stands Mary. As the loving Mother of the Redeemer, she was the first to experience it: 'To the wonderment of nature you bore your Creator'!"[11]

In the Roman Catholic tradition Mariology is seen as Christology developed to its full potential.[12] Mary is seen as contributing to a fuller understanding of the life of Jesus. In this view, a Christology without Mary is not based on the total revelation of the Bible. Traces of this parallel interpretation go back to the early days of Christianity and numerous saints have since focused on it.[9]

The development of this approach continued into the 20th century. In his 1946 publication Compendium Mariologiae, Mariologist Gabriel Roschini explained that Mary not only participated in the birth of the physical Jesus, but, with conception, she entered with him into a spiritual union. The divine salvation plan, being not only material, includes a permanent spiritual unity with Christ.[13][14][15] Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) wrote: "It is necessary to go back to Mary if we want to return to that 'truth about Jesus Christ,' 'truth about the Church' and 'truth about man' that John Paul II proposed as a program to all of Christianity," in order to ensure an authentic approach to Christology via a return to the "whole truth about Mary".[10]

From veneration to theology[edit]

It is possible that the practice of invoking the aid of the Mother of Christ had become more familiar to the faithful some time before any expression of it in the writings of the Early Church Fathers.[16] Christians' love for Mary intuited, frequently in anticipation, certain aspects of the mystery of the Blessed Virgin, calling the attention of theologians and pastors to them.[17] Venerative and devotional practices have often preceded formal theological declarations by the Magisterium.[18]

The veneration of the Blessed Virgin takes place in various ways. Marian prayers and hymns usually begin with praise of her, followed by petitions.[19] The number of Marian titles continued to grow as of the 3rd century, and many titles existed by the 5th century, growing especially during the Middle Ages.[20]

Theological basis for the veneration of Mary[edit]

Veneration for Mary is based on the reference in the Gospel of Luke to Mary as the selected handmaid of the Lord who is greeted and praised by both Elizabeth and the angel Gabriel. God's work is further illuminated in the Marian dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church such as the Immaculate Conception and the Assumption, and are, in the Roman Catholic view, part of the apostolic tradition and divine revelation.[21][22] Catholics distinguish veneration from worship.

Mary's role in salvation and redemption[edit]

The Virgin Mary from the Ghent Altarpiece, 1432

One of the components of the Catholic veneration of Mary is the focus on her participation in the processes of salvation and redemption.[23] This has been explored by such writers as Edward Schillebeeckx and Adrienne von Speyr.[24][25]

John's Gospel records her presence at the beginning and end of his public fife. Particularly significant is Mary's presence at the Cross, when she received from her dying Son the charge to be mother to the beloved disciple and, in him, to all Christians.[17] The Acts of the Apostles expressly numbers the Mother of Jesus among the women of the first community awaiting Pentecost. John Eudes wrote that: "The Virgin Mary began to cooperate in the plan of salvation, from the moment she gave her consent to the Incarnation of the Son of God".[26]

Lumen gentium, the 1964 Dogmatic Constitution of the Church recognized, "...all the salvific influence of the Blessed Virgin on men originates, not from some inner necessity, but from the divine pleasure. It flows forth from the superabundance of the merits of Christ, rests on His mediation, depends entirely on it and draws all its power from it."[27] In a singular way she cooperated by her obedience, faith, hope, and burning charity in the work of the Savior in giving back supernatural life to souls. "Wherefore she is our mother in the order of grace."[28]

One of the first scholars to offer theological foundations on the subject of the Immaculate Conception was the Franciscan Duns Scotus who developed the concept that Mary was preserved from sin by the redemptive virtue of Jesus.[29][30][31] Devotions to and the veneration of the Virgin Mary continued to spread, as she came to be seen as the helpful mother of Christians, and by the 15th century these practices had oriented many Catholic devotions.[32]

Saint Veronica Giuliani expressed how Mary's suffering in Calvary united her heart with that of Jesus as she suffered each torment along with him.[33] The joint devotion to the hearts was formalized by Jean Eudes who organized the scriptural and theological foundations and developed its liturgical themes.[34] The venerative aspects of the united nature of the two hearts continued through the centuries and in 1985 Pope John Paul II coined the term Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary, and in 1986 addressed the international conference on that topic held at Fátima, Portugal.[35][36][37]

By the 18th century, the continued growth of Marian veneration had emphasized the role of the Virgin Mary in salvation. The Catholic focus on the role of Mary in salvation and redemption continued with Pope John Paul II's 1987 encyclical Redemptoris Mater[11]

Mary as protectress and intercessor[edit]

The Virgin of Mercy protecting a group of nuns under her mantle. Sano di Pietro, 15th century.

It was through Mary's intercession, through compassion for the hosts, at the marriage feast of Cana, that Jesus worked his first miracle.[28]

The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "From the most ancient times the Blessed Virgin has been honored with the title of 'Mother of God,' to whose protection the faithful fly in all their dangers and needs."[1] The Eastern Catholic Churches observe the feast of the Intercession of the Theotokos in October.

Roman Catholic views of the Virgin Mary as refuge and advocate of sinners, protector from dangers and powerful intercessor with her Son, Jesus are expressed in prayers, artistic depictions, theology, and popular and devotional writings, as well as in the use of religious articles and images.[38][39] The earliest known prayer to Mary, the Sub tuum praesidium, ("Under your protection") dates from about the 3rd century.[40]

The artistic depictions of the Virgin of Mercy portray the role of Mary as the protector of Christians, as she shelters them under her mantle. The Virgin of Mercy depictions sometimes include arrows raining from above, with the Virgin's cloak protecting the people.[41]

Catholics have continued to seek the protection of Mary as the Mother of Sorrows and relied on her intercession as the Queen of Heaven since the Middle Ages.[42] Building on that sentiment, popes have entrusted specific causes to the protection of the Virgin Mary. Pope Benedict XV entrusted the protection of the world through the intercession of Mary Queen of Peace during the first world war .[43]

The Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mercy, also known as the order of Our Lady of Ransom or Order of Captives began in the 13th century in the Kingdom of Aragon (Spain) to ransom captive Christians (slaves) held in Muslim hands. The order now focuses on the role of the Virgin Mary as the protector of captives and prisoners.[44]

The depictions of Our Lady of Navigators arose from the prayers and devotions of Portuguese navigators, who saw the Virgin Mary as their protector during storms and other hazards. Prayers to Our Lady of Navigators are well known in South America, specially Brazil, where its February 2 feast is an official holiday.[45][46] The Virgin of the Navigators, depicting ships under her mantle, is the earliest known painting whose subject is the discovery of the Americas.[47][48]

Both Miguel Hidalgo and Emiliano Zapata flew flags of Our Lady of Guadalupe as their protector, and Zapata's men wore the Guadalupan image around their necks and on their sombreros.[49][50] In 1979 ceremony Pope John Paul II placed Mexico under the protection of the Virgin of Guadalupe.[51]

The prayer, the Memorare begins: "Remember O most gracious Virgin Mary, that never was it known that anyone who fled to Thy protection, implored Thy help or sought Thy intercession, was left unaided."[52]

Saint Louis de Montfort taught that God appointed Mary as "the dispenser of grace", and to receive grace from God, one can receive it through the hands of the Blessed Virgin, as a child receives from a mother.[26] Lumen gentium states: "This, however, is to be so understood that it neither takes away from nor adds anything to the dignity and efficaciousness of Christ the one Mediator."[27]

Development of Marian doctrines[edit]

The theological development of devotion to Mary begins with Justin Martyr (100–165) who articulated Mary’s role in salvation history as the Second Eve.[53] This was followed up by Irenæus, whom Herbert Thurston calls "the first theologian of the Virgin Mother".[16]

The Church's magisterium has identified four teachings about Mary as dogmas of faith. These include belief in her virginal conception of Jesus, taught by the First Council of Nicaea in 325. The Council of Ephesus in 431 applied to her the description "Mother of God", (Theotokos). The perpetual virginity of Mary was taught by the ecumenical Second Council of Constantinople in 553, which described her as "ever virgin", and was expressed also, by the Lateran synod of October 649,[54] The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception states that from the first moment of her existence Mary was without original sin.[55] This doctrine was proclaimed a dogma ex cathedra by Pope Pius IX in 1854. The dogma of the Assumption of Mary, defined by Pope Pius XII in 1950, states that, at the end of her earthly life, she was assumed into heavenly glory body and soul.,[56]

Liturgical aspects[edit]

In the first three centuries the emphasis was on the veneration of martyrs, as a continuation of the yearly celebrations of their death, e.g. as noted in the early Christian text on the Martyrdom of Polycarp.[57]

In the Eastern traditions Mariology developed through liturgical veneration within the framework of the feasts relative to the Incarnation.[58] In the early part of the 3rd century, Hippolytus of Rome recorded the first liturgical reference to the Virgin Mary, as part of the ordination rite of a bishop.[59] Marian feasts appeared in the 4th century, and the feast of the "Memory of Mary, Mother of God" was celebrated on August 15 in Jerusalem by the year 350.[59][60]

The Roman Catholic liturgy is one of the most important elements of Marian devotions. Many Marian feasts are superior to the feast days of the saints. The liturgical texts of the Marian feast days all link Mary to Jesus Christ.

History[edit]

Early veneration[edit]

Earliest fresco of the Virgin Mary, Catacomb of Priscilla, 2nd century.[61]

Mary, as the mother of Jesus, is documented in Roman catacombs: paintings from the first half of the 2nd century show her holding the Christ Child.[16] Excavations in the crypt of St Peter's Basilica uncovered a very early fresco of Mary together with Saint Peter.[62]

The Roman Priscilla catacombs depict the oldest Marian paintings from the middle of the 2nd century:[63] Mary is shown with Jesus on her lap, a standing man with tunic left hand a book right hand a star over his head symbol of messiahs. Priscilla also has a depiction of the annunciation.[61]

The edict of Milan (AD 313) allowed Christians to worship openly. This new freedom also permitted literary development of the veneration of Mary, Hippolytus of Rome being an early example.[59][64] Saint Ambrose, who lived in Rome before going to Milan as its bishop, venerated Mary as an example of Christian life, and is credited with starting a Marian cult of virginity in the 4th century.[65]

Cathedrals and churches were built for public worship. The first Marian churches in Rome date from the 5th and 6th centuries: Santa Maria in Trastevere, Santa Maria Antiqua and Santa Maria Maggiore.[16] However, the very earliest church dedicated to the Virgin Mary dates to the late 4th century in Syria, where an inscription dedicating it to the Theotokos (Mother of God) was found among the ruins.[66]

The Council of Ephesus in 431 sanctioned the cult of the Virgin as Mother of God.

Growth of Marian culture[edit]

Santa Maria Maggiore, the first Marian church in Rome, originally built between 430 and 440.[67]

In the early Middle Ages, veneration of Mary was particularly expressed in monasteries, especially those of the Benedictines. Chants such as Ave Maris Stella and the Salve Regina emerged and became staples of monastic plainsong.[68] In the 8th century, The Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary developed from the monks' practice of praying the Canonical hours. The Carolingians encouraged Marian piety by the celebration of Marian feast days and the dedication of churches in her honor.[53] Devotional practices grew in number.

The Romanesque period saw the construction of major Marian churches, such as Speyer Cathedral (also known as the Mariendom) in Speyer, Germany, and Our Lady of Flanders Cathedral in Tournai, Belgium. From the year 1000 onward more and more churches, including many of Europe's greatest cathedrals were dedicated to Mary. Gothic cathedrals, such as Notre Dame de Paris as well as Our Lady of Chartres near Paris, were major masterworks of the time. Construction of Santa Maria Assunta Cathedral in Siena, Italy and Notre-Dame Cathedral, Luxembourg increased the number of churches devoted to the Virgin Mary.

The 12th and 13th centuries saw an extraordinary growth of the cult of the Virgin in western Europe, inspired in part by the writings of theologians such as Bernard of Clairvaux. The movement found its grandest expression in the French cathedrals, often dedicated to “Our Lady", such as Notre-Dame de Paris and Notre-Dame de Bayeux among others.[69] Walsingham and other places of Marian pilgrimage developed large popular followings. At the height of the pilgrimage movement in the 11th and 12th centuries, hundreds of people were traveling almost constantly from one Marian shrine to the next.[70]

By the 14th century, Mary had become greatly popular as a compassionate intercessor and protector of humanity, and during the great plagues (such as the Black Death) her help was sought against the just judgment of God.[71] The Renaissance witnessed a dramatic growth in venerative Marian art.[72]

By the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation had introduced a tide against Marian venerations in Europe.[73] However, at the same time new Marian devotions were starting in Latin America based on Saint Juan Diego's 1531 reported vision of Our Lady of Guadalupe. The ensuing Marian pilgrimages have continued to date and the Marian Basilica on Tepeyac Hill remains the most visited Catholic shrine in the world.[74] In the 17th and 18th centuries writings by the saints, coupled with papal encouragements, increased the growth of Marian devotions, and gave rise to the definition and declaration of new Marian doctrines.[75]

Marian culture continues to develop within the Catholic Church. In 1974, after 4 years of preparation, Pope Paul VI issued the Apostolic Letter Marialis Cultus. In this document, (which was subtitled For the Right Ordering and Development of Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary) Paul VI not only discussed the history of Marian devotions, but overviewed their rationale and provided suggestions for their future direction, emphasising their theological and pastoral value.[76][77]

Catholic saints and veneration of Mary[edit]

Roman Catholic devotions have relied on the writings of numerous saints throughout history who have attested to the central role of Mary in God's plan of salvation.[78]

Early saints included Irenaeus of Lyons in the 2nd century who was perhaps the earliest of the Church Fathers to write systematically about the Virgin Mary, and he set out a forthright account of her role in the economy of salvation.[79][80]Ambrose of Milan (339–397) based the veneration of Mary not only on her virginity but also on her extraordinary courage.[81][82]

In the Middle Ages, Bernhard of Clairvaux highlighted her virginity and humility as the basis for her veneration.[83][84] A particularly significant contribution to Mariology came from John Duns Scotus who in the 13th century defended the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception.[85] Scotus identified the key theological foundations which led to the declaration of the dogma of Immaculate Conception centuries later.[86]

In the 16th century, Saint Ignatius of Loyola instructed the Jesuits to preserve Madonna della Strada, which was later enshrined in the Church of the Gesu in Rome.[87] Filippo Neri, a contemporary of Ignatius, is credited with the innovation of daily Marian devotions during the month of May.[88]

In his classic book The Glories of Mary, Alphonsus Liguori explained how God gave Mary to mankind as the "Gate of Heaven", quoting Saint Bonaventure, "No one can enter Heaven unless by Mary, as though through a door."[89] Louis de Montfort's book True Devotion to Mary synthesized many of the writings of earlier saints. His approach of "total consecration to Jesus Christ through Mary" had a strong impact on Marian devotion both in popular piety and in the spirituality of religious institutes.

Feast days[edit]

Main article: Marian feast days

The earliest Christian feasts that relate to Mary grew out of the cycle of feasts that celebrated the Nativity of Jesus. By the 7th century a feast dedicated to Mary was celebrated just before Christmas in the churches of Milan and Ravenna in Italy.[90] Over time, the number of feasts (and the associated titles of Mary) and the venerative practices that accompany them increased and today the Catholic Church has more Marian feasts, titles, and venerative practices than any other Christian body.[5] Marian feasts have continued to be developed in the Catholic Church, e.g. the feast of the Queenship of Mary was declared in the 1954 in the papal encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam by pope Pius XII.[91][92]

A Feast of Our Lady of the Rosary procession during October in Bergamo, Italy

Catherine of Siena, adopted the custom of dedicating Saturday to Mary. Some Marian feasts relate to specific events, e.g. the Feast of Our Lady of Victory (later renamed Feast of Our Lady of the Rosary) was based on the 1571 victory of the Papal States against the Muslims in the Battle of Lepanto. It is now celebrated on October 7.[93][94] The month of October was then established as the "month of the Rosary" by Pope Leo XIII, who recommended daily Rosary devotions in October.[95][96]

During the month of May, May devotions to the Blessed Virgin Mary take place in many Catholic regions. These may include the singing of Marian anthems, crowning of statues of Mary with floral wreaths, readings from scriptures, a sermon, and or presentation by local choirs.[97][98] The month is also associated with reflection on the Virgin Mary's role as the ideal disciple who sheds light on the Christian way of life, and theologian Karl Rahner stated: "When we are involved in our May Devotions, we are engaged in a Christian understanding of the human situation."[99]

A Feast of Our Lady of Andacollo procession in Chile, 1838

The Roman Catholic Church celebrates three Marian solemnities which are also holy days of obligation in many countries during the liturgical year[100] (in liturgical order):

Among the other prominent Marian feast days and memorials in the General Roman Calendar of the Catholic Church are:[100]

Titles[edit]

Main article: Titles of Mary
The Blessed Virgin Mary depicted as mother, holding the Child Jesus. Archdiocesan Museum, Wrocław.

A large number of titles to honor Mary or ask for her intercession are used by Roman Catholics.[101] While Mater Dei (i.e. "Mother of God" as confirmed by the First Council of Ephesus, 431) is common in Latin, a large number of other titles have been used by Roman Catholics – far more than any other Christians.[5][102][103]

Titles used to refer to the Virgin Mary throughout history, at times reflect the changing attitudes towards her. Domina (lady), Regina (queen) and Stella Maris (star of the sea) are some of the early titles of Mary, of which Regina is the earliest. Domina and Sella Maris are found in Jerome who perhaps originated the etymology of Mary as Stella Maris in the 5th century. While the early emphasis in Stella Maris was on Mary as the Star that bore Christ, by the 9th century, the attention had focused on Mary herself, as indicated in the hymn Ave Maris Stella. By the 11th century, Mary herself had emerged as the star that acted as a guiding light.[104] By the 13th century, as Mariology was growing, Saint Anthony of Padua had composed Mary Our Queen.[105] Titles continue to be interpreted, e.g. Queen of Heaven was further elaborated in 1954 in the papal encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam by pope Pius XII.[91]

Among the most prominent Roman Catholic Marian titles are:[106]

Music[edit]

Marian antiphon sung at Compline and Lauds between the First Sunday of Advent and Candlemas

Problems playing this file? See media help.

One of the earliest Marian compositions is the popular Salve Regina in Latin from a Benedictine monk, which exists in several Gregorian versions. The Liturgy of the Hours includes several offices to be sung, including Compline. At the close of this office, one of four Marian antiphons is sung. These songs, Alma Redemptoris Mater, Ave Regina caelorum, Regina caeli, and Salve Regina, have been described as "among the most beautiful creations of the late Middle Ages".[107][108]

It is difficult to trace the beginning of non-Gregorian Marian liturgical music.[109] In 1277 Pope Nicholas III prescribed rules for liturgy in Roman churches.[110][111] In the Graduale Romanum, Kyriale IX and X are both for Marian feasts. Over the centuries, Marian master pieces have continued to appear, e.g. Mozart's Coronation Mass.[112] The list of compositions by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina includes numerous Marian masses: Salve Regina, Alma Redemptoris, Assumpta est Maria, Regina coeli, de beata Virgine, Ave Regina coelorum, Descendit Angelus Domini, and O Virgo simul et Mater.[113] Joseph Haydn wrote several Marian compositions including two famous Marian Masses.[114]

Marian prayers, poems and hymns[edit]

See also Hymns to Mary and Marian litanies

Throughout the centuries the veneration of the Virgin Mary has given rise to a number of poems and hymns, as well as prayers. Author Emily Shapcote lists 150 Marian poems and hymns in her book Mary the Perfect Woman.[115] Such prayers and poems go as far back as the 3rd century, but enjoyed a rapid growth during the 11th and 12th centuries. Some of the best poetry written in honor of the Blessed virgin comes from this period of the Middle Ages.[19]

The Catechism of the Catholic Church emphasizes the importance of Marian prayers and states:

Mary is the perfect prayer, a figure of the Church.... We can pray with and to her. The prayer of the Church is sustained by the prayer of Mary and united with it in hope.[116]

The earliest known Marian prayer is the Sub tuum praesidium, or Beneath Thy Protection, a text for which was rediscovered in 1917 on a papyrus in Egypt dated to c. 250.[117][118] The papyrus contains the prayer in Greek and is the earliest known reference to the title Theotokos (confirmed by the Council of Ephesus in 431):[119]

Beneath your compassion, We take refuge, O Mother of God: do not despise our petitions in time of trouble: but rescue us from dangers, only pure, only blessed one.

While the Regina Coelorum goes back to the 4th century, the Regina Coeli was composed towards the end of the 11th century. The first part of the Hail Mary, based on the salutation of angle Gabriel in the Visitation was introduced in the 11tth century, although its current form can be traced to the 16th century.[19]

During the 11th century, as the number of monasteries grew, so did Marian prayers. In this period the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary was introduced and was modeled after the Divine office but was much shorter. It was adopted not only by monks but by pious people who could read. And the growth of the Tertiary orders helped spread its use. During the First Crusade, Pope Urban II ordered it to be said for the success of the Christians.[19] In this period, Hermannus Contractus (Herman the Cripple) at the abbey of Reichenau composed the Alma Redemptoris Mater and hymns to Mary became part of daily life at monasteries such as the Benedictine Abbey of Cluny in France.[120][121]

In the 12th century Bernard of Clairvaux gave sermons (De duodecim stellis), from which an extract has been taken by the Roman Catholic Church and used in the Offices of the Compassion and of the Seven Dolours. Saint Bernard wrote:[120]

Take away Mary, this star of the sea, the sea truly great and wide: what is left but enveloping darkness and the shadow of death and the densest blackness?

Stronger evidences are discernible in the pious meditations on the Ave Maria and the Salve Regina, usually attributed either to St. Anselm of Lucca (d. 1080) or St. Bernard; and also in the large book "De laudibus B. Mariae Virginis" (Douai, 1625) by Richard de Saint-Laurent.

Other famous Marian prayers include the Magnificat, the Angelus, and the Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Marian hymns include O Mary, we Crown Thee With Blossoms Today, Hail Queen of Heaven, the Regina Coeli, and the Ave Maria.[122]

The mostly anonymous Middle English Lyrics of the Later Middle Ages show passionate forms of personal worship, known as affective devotion. The lyrics, reflecting the theology, depict Mary as not just the woman but also the ideal that all humanity should strive for.

Mary’s humility is one of the qualities highlighted by in the Middle English Lyrics. The lyric “Gabriel, from hevenë king/ sent to the maidë swetë” is an excellent example of Mary’s humility. The lyric’s author builds upon this theme throughout the lyric. The second stanza “Mildëliche him gan answere/ The midlë maiden thannë." The theme of humity is fully developed in the third stanza;

When the maiden understood/ And th’angles wordës herdë,/ Mildëliche with mildë mod/ To th’angel she answerdë:/ ‘Our Lordës thew-maiden i-wis/ Ich am, that her-aboven is./ Anentës me/ Fulforthëd be/ Thy, sawë;/ That Ich, sithe His wil is,/ Maiden, withouten lawë,/ Of moder have the blis. [123]

Marian devotions[edit]

A Catholic devotion is a willingness and desire for pious dedication and service but is an "external practice" which is not part of the official liturgy of the Catholic Church.[124][125][126] A wide range of Marian devotions are followed by Catholics ranging from simple Rosary recitations to formalized, multi-day Novenas to activities which do not involve any prayers, such the wearing of scapulars or maintaining a Mary garden.[127]

Two well known Marian devotions are the Rosary recitation and the wearing of the Brown Scapular. Following their joint growth in the 18th and 19th centuries, by the early 20th century the Rosary and the devotional Scapular had gained such a strong following among Catholics worldwide that the Catholic Encyclopedia of 1914 stated: "Like the Rosary, the Brown Scapular has become the badge of the devout Catholic."[128] In his encyclical Rosarium Virginis Mariae Pope John Paul II emphasized the importance of the Rosary. The Mariological basis of the Scapular devotion is effectively the same as Marian consecration, as discussed in the dogmatic constitution Lumen gentium of the Second Vatican Council, namely the role of the Virgin Mary as "the mother to us in the order of grace" which allows her to intercede for "the gift of eternal salvation".[129] The same Council decree clarified that the many ways in which Mary can encourage and assist us "neither takes away from nor adds anything to the dignity and efficaciousness of Christ the one Mediator."[130]

Roman Catholic tradition includes specific prayers and devotions as Acts of Reparation to the Virgin Mary for insults that she suffers. The Raccolta Roman Catholic prayer book (approved by a Decree of 1854, and published by the Holy See in 1898) includes a number of such prayers. These prayers do not involve a petition for a living or deceased beneficiary, but aim to repair the sins of others against the Virgin Mary.[131][132][133]

Consecration and entrustment to Mary[edit]

For centuries, Marian devotions among Roman Catholics have included many examples of personal or collective acts of consecration and entrustment to the Virgin Mary; the Latin terms oblatio, servitus, commendatio, and dedicatio were used in this context.[134] Consecration is an act by which a person is dedicated to a sacred service, or an act which separates an object, location or region from a common and profane mode to one for sacred use.[135][136]

The Catholic Church makes it clear that "...the faithful should be carefully instructed about the practice of consecration to the Blessed Virgin Mary...it is, in reality, only analogously a 'consecration to God,' and should be expressed in a correct liturgical manner: to the Father, through Christ in the Holy Spirit, imploring the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary, to whom we entrust ourselves completely, so as to keep our baptismal commitments and live as her children."[134]

Individuals declaring their "entrustment" to Mary seek her intercession before God through her son Jesus Christ, for she herself has no divine power.[135][136] In Catholic teachings, consecration to Mary does not diminish or substitute the love of God, but enhances it, for all consecration is ultimately made to God.[137]

In modern times, Pope John Paul II clarified consecration to Mary in his 1987 encyclical, Mother of the Redeemer, in which he stated, "Mary's motherhood...is a gift which Christ himself makes personally to every individual."[138]

Catholic view of Marian apparitions[edit]

Main article: Marian apparitions

Many Marian apparition have been reported by believers, including Our Lady of Lourdes, Our Lady of Guadalupe, and Our Lady of Fatima.[139][140][141] In some cases (e.g. Saint Padre Pio or Sister Maria Pierina De Micheli) these have involved visions of Jesus and Mary and sometimes include a spoken element.

The official position of the Holy See is that while the Holy Office has approved a few apparitions of the Virgin Mary, Roman Catholics at large are not required to believe them. However, many Catholics express belief in Marian apparitions.[142] This has included popes, e.g. four popes, i.e. Pope Pius XII, Pope John XXIII, Pope Paul VI, and Pope John Paul II have supported the Our Lady of Fátima messages as supernatural.[citation needed] Pope John Paul II was particularly attached to Fátima and credited Our Lady of Fátima with saving his life after he was shot in Rome on the Feast Day of Our Lady of Fátima in May 1981. He donated the bullet that wounded him on that day to the Roman Catholic sanctuary at Fátima Portugal.[139][143][144]

As a historical pattern, Vatican approval seems to have followed general acceptance of a vision by well over a century in most cases. According to Father Salvatore M. Perrella of the Mariunum Pontifical Institute in Rome, of the 295 reported apparitions studied by the Holy See through the centuries only 12 have been approved, the latest being in May 2008.[6][7][145][146]

Veneration through Marian art[edit]

The tradition of honoring Mary by venerating images of her goes back to 3rd-century Christianity.[147] Following the period of iconoclasm, the position of the Church with respect to the veneration of images was formalized at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. A summary of the doctrine is included in the current Catechism of the Catholic Church.

The Christian veneration of images is not contrary to the first commandment which proscribes idols. Indeed, "the honour rendered to an image passes to its prototype," and "whoever venerates an image venerates the person portrayed in it." The honour paid to sacred images is a "respectful veneration," not the adoration due to God alone: Religious worship is not directed to images in themselves, considered as mere things, but under their distinctive aspect as images leading us on to God Incarnate. The movement toward the image does not terminate in it as image, but tends towards that whose image it is.[148]

No image (in either the Western or the Eastern Church) permeates Christian art as the image of Madonna and Child.[149] The images of the Virgin Mary have become central icons of Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox Christianity where Mary remains a central artistic topic.[150] Byzantine images of the Theotokos were adopted in the West, where Byzantine models became widely distributed in by the 7th century. The Virgin Mary has been one of the major subjects of Christian Art, Catholic Art and Western Art since Early Christian art and she has been very widely portrayed in iconic "portraits", often known as Madonnas, with the infant Jesus in the Madonna and Child, and in a number of narrative scenes from her life known as the Life of the Virgin, as well as scenes illustrating particular doctrines or beliefs: from masters such as Michelangelo, Raphael, Murillo and Botticelli to folk art.[151][152]

Some Marian art subjects include:

Marian art enjoys a significant level of diversity, e.g. with distinct styles of statues of the Virgin Mary present on different continents (as depicted in the galleries in Roman Catholic Marian art). These depictions are not restricted to European art, and also appear in South American paintings.[153] The South American tradition of Marian veneration through art dates back to the 16th century, with the Virgin of Copacabana gaining fame in 1582.[154]

Marian movements and societies[edit]

Throughout the centuries the devotion to and the veneration of the Virgin Mary by Roman Catholics has both led to, and been influenced by a number of Roman Catholic Marian Movements and Societies. These societies form part of the fabric of Roman Catholic Mariology.[8][155][156] As early as the 16th century, the Holy See endorsed the Sodality of Our Lady and Pope Gregory XIII issued a Papal Bull commending it and granting it indulgences and establishing it as the mother sodality, and other sodalities were formed thereafter.[157][158][159]

The 18th and 19th centuries saw a number of missionary Marian organizations such as Company of Mary, the Marianists, the Marist Fathers, and the Marist Brothers. Some of these missionaries, e.g. Saint Peter Chanel, were martyred as they travelled to new lands.[160][161] The 20th century witnessed the formation of Marian organizations with millions of members, e.g. the Legion of Mary and Blue Army of Our Lady of Fatima.[162][163][164][165]

Marian shrines and patronages[edit]

Main article: Marian shrines
The Marian Basilica of Our Lady of Aparecida, Brazil, the largest church in the Americas.[166]

In the Roman Catholic Church a shrine is a church or sacred place which receives many faithful pilgrims for a specific pious reason. The local ordinary must approve the shrine.[167]

Marian shrines account for major veneration centers and pilgrimage sites for Roman Catholics. According to Bishop Francesco Giogia, at the end of the 20th century, the most visited Catholic shrine in the world was that of the Virgin of Guadalupe in Mexico City. In third place was Our Lady of Aparecida in Brazil, with the non-Marian shrine of San Giovanni Rotondo in second place.[74] The visual effect of Marian pilgrimages can be dramatic, e.g. on May 13 and October 13 of each year close to one million Catholic pilgrims walk the country road that leads to the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima.[168] Around 2 million pilgrim journey up Tepeyac hill on December 12 each year to visit the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe.[169] While in 1968 Aparecida had about four million pilgrims,[170] the number has since reached eight million pilgrims per year.[171]

Major Marian shrines include:

There are other Marian pilgrimage sites such as Medjugorje, which is not considered a shrine by the Holy See, but yet receives a large number of pilgrims every year.[172] The number of pilgrims who visit some of the approved shrines every year can be significant. E.g. Lourdes with a population of around 15,000 people, receives about 5,000,000 pilgrims every year.[173] In 1881 a French priest, Julien Gouyet, led by the visions of Jesus and Mary of the Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich (Klemens Brentano, 1852) discovered the House of the Virgin Mary near Ephesus in Turkey.[174][175][176]

A number of countries, cities, and professions consider the Blessed Virgin their patron saint. For a list, see Patronage of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

Cultural adaptations[edit]

Echoing the Byzantine depiction of Christ Pantocrator, the Eastern Church portrayed Mary as the regal Queen of Heaven. As this theme spread to the West, prayers such as the Regina Coeli,[19] Ave Regina Caelorum, and Salve Regina were composed.

An example of the cultural adaptation of perspective include the view of the Virgin Mary as a mother with humility (rather than a heavenly queen) as the Franciscans began to preach in China, and its similarity to the local Chinese motherly and merciful figure of Kuanyin, which was much admired in south China.[177][178][179][180][181][182] Another example is the Saint Juan Diego's account of the appearance of the Virgin of Guadalupe in 1531 as a tanned Aztec princess who spoke in his local Nahuatl language. The clothing of the Virgin of Guadalupe image has been identified[by whom?] as that of an Aztec princess.[183][184][185][186][187]

Other views, such as the Virgin Mary as a "miracle worker" have existed for centuries and are still held by many Catholics as of 2015.[188][189][190] Instances include the Black Madonna of Częstochowa which continues to be venerated today as the Patron of Poland, and Our Lady of Lourdes - Lourdes receives millions of pilgrims per year. However, the Vatican has generally been reluctant to approve of modern miracles, unless they have been subject to extensive analysis and scrutiny. [191][192][193][194][195]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ For example, on March 12, 1969, Pope Paul VI reduced and rearranged the number of Marian feast days in Sanctitas clarior. Several of his predecessors did similarly.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "CCC, 971". Vatican.va. 
  2. ^ "Santa Maria". Time (Time Inc.). 27 March 1927. Retrieved 6 June 2016. (registration required (help)). 
  3. ^ Elders, Willem (1994). Symbolic Scores: Studies in the Music of the Renaissance. Symbola et emblemata: studies in Renaissance and baroque symbolism 5 (Illustrated ed.). Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill. p. 151. ISBN 9004099700. ISSN 0923-9073. 
  4. ^ William, Baum (25 March 1988). "La Virgen María en la formación intelectual y espiritual" [The Virgin Mary in the Intellectual and Spiritual Formation]. The Holy See (in Spanish). Rome: Congregation for Catholic Education. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c Flinn, Frank K. (2007). "Mary of Nazareth". In Melton, J. Gordon. Encyclopedia of Catholicism. Encyclopedia of World Religions. New York: Infobase Publishing. pp. 441–448. ISBN 9780816075652. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  6. ^ a b "Vatican recognizes Marian apparitions in France". Catholic News Agency. 5 May 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  7. ^ a b Perrella, Salvatore M. (8 May 2008). "Expert explains Church’s criteria for confirming Marian apparitions.". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  8. ^ a b Hogan, Robert; Kulkarni, Sumithra (7 February 2012) [1995]. "Pastoral Marian Organizations in the United States". International Marian Research Institute. The Marian Library/International Marian Research Institute. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Schmaus, Michael (2004) [1975]. "Mariology". In Rahner, Karl. Encyclopedia of Theology: A Concise Sacramentum Mundi. Mumbai: St Pauls. pp. 893–905. ISBN 9780860120063. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  10. ^ a b Miravalle, Mark I., ed. (2007). "Editor's Introduction". Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians and Consecrated Persons. Goleta, Georgia: Seat of Wisdom Books. pp. xxi–xxiii. ISBN 9781579183554. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  11. ^ a b Pope John Paul II (25 March 1987). "Redemptoris Mater". The Holy See. Rome. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  12. ^ See Pope Pius XII, Mystici corporis Christi; John Henry Cardinal Newman: Mariology is always christocentric, in Michael Testa, Mary: The Virgin Mary in the Life and Writings of John Henry Newman (2001); and Mariology Is Christology in Vittorio Messori, "The Mary Hypothesis" (Rome, 2005).
  13. ^ Perry, Tim; Abraham, William J. (2006). Mary for Evangelicals: Toward an Understanding of the Mother of Our Lord (Illustrated ed.). Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press. p. 303. ISBN 9780830825691. 
  14. ^ Nachef, Antoine (2000). Mary's Pope: John Paul II, Mary, and the Church Since Vatican II. Franklin, Wisconsin: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 9. ISBN 9781580510776. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  15. ^ Schmaus, Michael (1955). Mariologie [Mariology]. Katholische Dogmatik [Catholic Dogma] 5. Hueber. p. 328. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  16. ^ a b c d Thurston, Herbert (1912). "Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary". The Catholic Encyclopedia 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  17. ^ a b Pope John Paul II (15 November 1995). "Church Grew in Understanding of Mary's Role". L'Osservatore Romano (The Cathedral Foundation). p. 11. Retrieved 6 June 2016 – via EWTN. 
  18. ^ Martimort, Aimé Georges; Dalmais, Irénée Henri; Jounel, Pierre (1986). Martimort, Aimé Georges; et al., eds. The Liturgy and Time. The Church at Prayer: An Introduction to the Liturgy IV. Translated by Matthew J. O'Connell (New ed.). Collegeville, Minnesota: The Liturgical Press. p. 130. ISBN 9780814613665. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  19. ^ a b c d e Maiden and Mother: Prayers, Hymns, Devotions, and Songs to the Beloved Virgin Mary Throughout the Year by Margaret R. Miles 2001 ISBN 0-86012-305-7 pages vii–x [1]
  20. ^ Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 by André Vauchez et al 2001 ISBN 1-57958-282-6 page 919
  21. ^ McNally, Terrence, What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary ISBN 1-4415-1051-6 p. 132
  22. ^ Bäumer, 597
  23. ^ Haffner, Paul. The mystery of Mary, 2004 ISBN 0-85244-650-0 p. 198
  24. ^ Schillebeeckx, Edward. Mary, mother of the redemption, 1964, ASIN B003KW30VG pp. 82–84
  25. ^ Von Speyr, Adrienne, Mary in the Redemption, 2003 ISBN 0-89870-955-5 pp. 2–7
  26. ^ a b Spiritual Theology by Jordan Aumann 1980 ISBN 0-7220-8518-4 pp. 62–67
  27. ^ a b Pope Paul VI. Lumen gentium, §60, 21 November 1964
  28. ^ a b Lumen gentium, §61.
  29. ^ Summa Theologiae: Volume 51, Our Lady: 3a. 27–30 by Thomas Aquinas, Thomas R. Heath 2006 ISBN 0-521-02959-7 page 114
  30. ^ Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi by Karl Rahner 2004 ISBN 0-86012-006-6 pages 896–898 [2]
  31. ^ The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3 by Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley 2003 ISBN 90-04-12654-6 page 407 [3]
  32. ^ Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 by André Vauchez, Richard Barrie Dobson, Adrian Walford, Michael Lapidge 2001 ISBN 1-57958-282-6 page 919
  33. ^ Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons by Raymond Burke et al. 2008 ISBN 978-1-57918-355-4 pages 372–373
  34. ^ Arthur Calkins, The Theology of the Alliance of the Two Hearts, Missio Immaculatae (English Edition) Year III, N° 4 (May to December 2007)
  35. ^ Pope John Paul II. "Address of his Holiness John Paul II to the Participants of the Study Week of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences". Vatican. Retrieved October 4, 2010. 
  36. ^ Vatican website: Pope John Paul II Angelus address of September 15, 1985 (Spanish and Italian)
  37. ^ Proceedings of the International Theological Symposium on the Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary, September 1986, Fatima, Portugal
  38. ^ Bunson, Matthew. Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Almanac, 2009 ISBN 1-59276-441-X p. 122
  39. ^ Laughlin, Corinna and Lee, Sara McGinnis. The Catholic Handbook for Visiting the Sick and Homebound2010 ISBN 978-1-56854-886-9 p. 4
  40. ^ "Our Blessed Mother's Intercession", Marian's of the Immaculate Conception
  41. ^ Hall, James. 1983, A History of Ideas and Images in Italian Art ISBN 0-7195-3971-4 page 222
  42. ^ Campbell, James P., Mary and the Saints: Companions on the Journey, 2001 ISBN 0-8294-1725-7 pp. 41–45
  43. ^ Sri, Edward P., and Hahn, Scott. Queen Mother: A Biblical Theology of Mary's Queenship, 2005 ISBN 1-931018-24-3 p. 13
  44. ^ by Joseph, Chandlery Peter. Mary's Praise on Every Tongue: A Record of Homage Paid to Our Blessed Lady, 2009 ISBN 1-113-16154-X p. 181
  45. ^ Goucher, Candice Lee. 2007 World history: journeys from past to present ISBN 0-415-77137-4 p. 102
  46. ^ del Rio, Vicente. Contemporary urbanism in Brazil, 2009 ISBN 0-8130-3281-4 p. 189
  47. ^ Noble, John et al. Andalucía. Lonely Planet, 2007, p. 100
  48. ^ Bedini, Silvio. 1991 The Christopher Columbus encyclopedia ISBN 0-13-142670-2 p. 318
  49. ^ Secular ritual by Falk Moore, Sally and Myerhoff, Barbara G., 1977 ISBN 90-232-1457-9 p. 174
  50. ^ Brunk, Samuel. Emiliano Zapata 1995 ISBN 0-8263-1620-4 p. 68
  51. ^ Norman, Edward R., The Roman Catholic Church: an illustrated history ISBN p. 127
  52. ^ Foster, David. Catholic Prayerbook: From Downside Abbey, (2001), ISBN 0-567-08669-0 p. 153.
  53. ^ a b Spivey Ellington, Donna. review of Mother of God: A History of the Virgin Mary, Reviews in Histoy, (review no. 820)
  54. ^ Denzinger, 256 (old numbering), 503 (new numbering)
  55. ^ Holweck, Frederick. "Immaculate Conception." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 4 April 2016
  56. ^ Pope Pius XII. Munificentissimus Deus, 44
  57. ^ A brief history of saints by Lawrence Cunningham 2005 ISBN 1-4051-1402-9 pages 16–19
  58. ^ Samaha, John M., "Mary in Byzantine Liturgy", The Homiletic & Pastoral Review, 1999
  59. ^ a b c McNally, pp.68-69.
  60. ^ Adolf Adam, Liturgie, 1985, p.291
  61. ^ a b Vladimir Lossky, 1982 The Meaning of Icons ISBN 978-0-913836-99-6 page 173
  62. ^ M Guarducci Maria nelle epigrafi paleocristiane di Roma 1963, 248
  63. ^ I Daoust, Marie dans les catacombes, 1983
  64. ^ Bäumer 520
  65. ^ A new history of ecclesiastical writers, Volumes 1–2' by Louis Ellies Du Pin et al 2010 ISBN 1-171-18698-3 page 212
  66. ^ Butler's lives of the saints, Volume 1 by Alban Butler, David Hugh Farmer, Paul Burns 2000 ISBN 0-86012-250-6 p. 3
  67. ^ Rome by Yvonne Labande-Mailfert et al, 1961 ASIN: B0007E741C page 115
  68. ^ Osborne, John L. "Early Medieval Painting in San Clemente, Rome: The Madonna and Child in the Niche" Gesta 20.2 (1981:299–310) and (note 9) referencing T. Klauser, Rom under der Kult des Gottesmutter Maria, Jahrbuch für der Antike und Christentum 15 (1972:120–135).
  69. ^ Department of Medieval Art and The Cloisters. “The Cult of the Virgin Mary in the Middle Ages.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (October 2001)
  70. ^ Renaissance and Reformation by William Roscoe Estep 1986 ISBN 0-8028-0050-5 page 7
  71. ^ Daily life during the Black Death by Joseph Patrick Byrne 2006 ISBN 0-313-33297-5 page 86
  72. ^ Mary in Western art by Timothy Verdon, Filippo Rossi 2005 ISBN 0-9712981-9-X page 203
  73. ^ Renaissance and Reformation by William Roscoe Estep 1986 ISBN 0-8028-0050-5 pages 140–144
  74. ^ a b "Shrine of Gualdalupe Most Popular in World". ZENIT International News Agency. Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  75. ^ The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3 by Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley 2003 ISBN 90-04-12654-6 pages 406–409
  76. ^ "Marialis Cultus at the Vatican website". Vatican.va. Retrieved November 20, 2010. 
  77. ^ "University of Dayton". Campus.udayton.edu. Retrieved November 20, 2010. 
  78. ^ Butler, Alban Lives of the saints, Volume 1 2007 ISBN 1-60506-312-6 p. 429
  79. ^ Osborn, Eric Francis. Irenaeus of Lyons 2001 ISBN 0-521-80006-4 p. 112
  80. ^ Tertullian, De Carne Christi 17
  81. ^ Neumann, Charles William. The Virgin Mary in the works of Saint Ambrose, 1962 ASIN: B0007J9CX0 p. 264
  82. ^ Ambrose, CSEL 32, 505, and De inst. Virginum 49
  83. ^ , Schäfer, Peter. Mirror of His beauty, 2002 ISBN 0-691-09068-8 p. 157
  84. ^ Schmaus, Michael. Mariologie, Katholische Dogmatik, München Vol V, 1955207 p. 207
  85. ^ Wolter, Allan B. and O'Neill, Blane. John Duns Scotus: Mary's Architect, Franciscan Press, Illinois, 1983, p.1
  86. ^ "Address of John Paul II to the Members of the Scotus Commission". Vatican.va. February 16, 2002. Retrieved November 20, 2010. 
  87. ^ Waldrop, Gregory. "Object of Devotion: The story of a dramatic restoration". America, October 2010
  88. ^ Venturoli, A., S. Filippo Neri, Roma, 1988, p. 117
  89. ^ Liguori, Alphonsus. The Glories of Mary, Liguori Publications, 1868, ISBN 0-7648-0664-5 p. 623
  90. ^ The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Anglo-Saxon England by Mary Clayton 2003 ISBN 0-521-53115-2 pages 26–37
  91. ^ a b Pope Pius XII. "Encyclical of Pope Pius XII on Proclaiming the Queenship of Mary". Ad Caeli Reginam. Vatican. Retrieved October 4, 2010. 
  92. ^ "Religion: The Queenship of Mary". Time (Time Inc.). 8 November 1954. Retrieved 6 June 2016. (registration required (help)). 
  93. ^ EWTN on Battle of Lepanto (1571) [4]
  94. ^ Butler's Lives of the Saints by Alban Butler, Peter Doyle 1999 ISBN 0-86012-253-0 page 222
  95. ^ The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 4 by Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley 2005 ISBN 0-8028-2416-1 page 575
  96. ^ Pope Leo XIII. "Encyclical of Pope Leo XIII on the Rosary". Octobri Mense. Vatican. Retrieved October 4, 2010. 
  97. ^ Maiden and Mother: Prayers, Hymns, Devotions, and Songs to the Beloved Beloved Virgin Mary Throughout the Year by M. M. Miles, Margaret R. Miles 2001 ISBN 0-86012-305-7 page
  98. ^ Handbook of Prayers by James Socías 2006 ISBN 0-87973-579-1 page 483
  99. ^ Truly Our Sister: A Theology of Mary in the Communion of Saints by Elizabeth A. Johnson 2006 ISBN 0-8264-1827-9 page 97
  100. ^ a b "National Calendar of the USA on-line" (PDF). Retrieved November 20, 2010. 
  101. ^ Encyclopedia of Catholicism by Frank K. Flinn, J. Gordon Melton 2007 ISBN 0-8160-5455-X pages 443–444
  102. ^ "The Canons of the Two Hundred Holy and Blessed Fathers Who Met at Ephesus". Ccel.org. June 1, 2005. Retrieved November 20, 2010. 
  103. ^ The Christian theology reader by Alister E. McGrath 2006 ISBN 1-4051-5358-X page 273
  104. ^ The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Anglo-Saxon England by Mary Clayton 2003 ISBN 0-521-53115-2 pages 249–252
  105. ^ The greatest Marian prayers: their history, meaning, and usage by Anthony M. Buono 1999 ISBN 0-8189-0861-0 page 124
  106. ^ Legends of the Madonna by Anna Jameson 2009 1406853380 page 50
  107. ^ Willi Apel, Gregorian Chant 1958 ISBN 0-253-20601-4 p. 404.
  108. ^ Music In Western Civilisation by Craig M. Wright, Bryan R. Simm 2005 ISBN 0-495-00867-2 page 137
  109. ^ Harvard dictionary of music by Willi Apel 1944 ISBN 0-674-37501-7 pages 355–356
  110. ^ Bäumer, 652
  111. ^ Songs of the dove and the nightingale: sacred and secular music c.900-c.1600 by Greta Mary Hair, Robyn E. Smith 1995 ISBN 2-88449-141-4 page 63
  112. ^ Catholic Music Through the Ages by Edward Schaefer 2008 ISBN 1-59525-020-4 page 100
  113. ^ Harvard dictionary of music by Willi Apel 1944 ISBN 0-674-37501-7 pages 29 and 66
  114. ^ Missa in honorem Beatissimae Virginis Mariae, No. 5 in E flat major, also known as the Grosse Orgelmesse (Great Organ Mass) (H. 22/4) (1766) and Missa Cellensis in honorem Beatissimae Virginis Mariae No. 3 in C major, (H. 22/5) (1766–73)
  115. ^ Mary the Perfect Woman: One Hundred and Fifty Rhythms in Honor of the Mystical Life of Our Lady by Emily Mary Shapcote 2009 ISBN 1-103-66388-7 pages xxii–xxxiii [5]
  116. ^ "CCC, 2679". Vatican.va. 
  117. ^ Burke, Raymond L.; et al. (2008). Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and Consecrated Persons ISBN 978-1-57918-355-4 page 178
  118. ^ Mary for evangelicals by Tim S. Perry, William J. Abraham 2006 ISBN 0-8308-2569-X page 142
  119. ^ The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3 by Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley 2003 ISBN 90-04-12654-6 page 406 [6]
  120. ^ a b :The Tradition of Catholic Prayer by Christian Raab, Harry Hagan 2007 ISBN 0-8146-3184-3 page 234
  121. ^ James Socías (2006). Handbook of Prayers. p. 472. ISBN 0-87973-579-1. Retrieved November 20, 2010. 
  122. ^ Geoghegan. G.P. A Collection of My Favorite Prayers, 2006 ISBN 1-4116-9457-0 pages 31, 45, 70, 86, 127
  123. ^ Anonymous (2013). Number 77 “Gabriel, from hevenë king.” In T. Duncan (Ed.), Medieval English Lyrics and Carols. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer.
  124. ^ Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X page 168
  125. ^ "Catholic encyclopedia". Newadvent.org. June 1, 1911. Retrieved November 20, 2010. 
  126. ^ Catholic cults and devotions by Michael P. Carroll 1989 ISBN 0-7735-0693-4 page 7
  127. ^ Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X pages 11 and 341
  128. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Scapular". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  129. ^ Vatican website: Lumen gentium No 61 and No 62 [7]
  130. ^ Lumen gentium 62
  131. ^ Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X
  132. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Raccolta". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  133. ^ Joseph P. Christopher et al., 2003 The Raccolta St Athanasius Press ISBN 978-0-9706526-6-9
  134. ^ a b "Veneration of the Holy Mother of God, item 204". Retrieved November 20, 2010. 
  135. ^ a b Schulte, Augustin Joseph. "Consecration." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 18 Aug. 2014
  136. ^ a b Mary's Immaculate Heart by John F. Murphy 2007 ISBN 1-4067-3409-8 pages 96–103
  137. ^ The Catholicism Answer Book by John Trigilio, Kenneth Brighenti 2007 ISBN 1-4022-0806-5 page 325
  138. ^ Redemptoris Mater, No.45
  139. ^ a b Michael Freze, 1993, Voices, Visions, and Apparitions, OSV Publishing ISBN 0-87973-454-X pages 257–265
  140. ^ Short Biography of Padre Pio http://www.padrepiodevotions.org/index.asp?pagename=biography
  141. ^ The book Mother Maria Pierina by Maria Rigamonti http://www.cenacle.co.uk/products.asp?partno=B0532
  142. ^ Habits of Devotion by James M. O'Toole 2005 ISBN 0-8014-7255-5 page 121
  143. ^ McNally, Terrence, What Every Catholic Should Know about Mary ISBN 1-4415-1051-6 page 166
  144. ^ "NY Times". Czestochowa (Poland); Fatima (Portugal): NY Times. Reuters. May 16, 1984. Retrieved November 20, 2010. 
  145. ^ Vatican News on Benoite Rencurel http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/avantgo/new.php?n=12546
  146. ^ Catholic News on Benoite Rencurel http://www.catholic.org/international/international_story.php?id=27848
  147. ^ Catholic Customs and Traditions: A Popular Guide by Greg Dues 1993 ISBN 0-89622-515-1 page 126 [8]
  148. ^ "CCC, 2132". Vatican.va. 
  149. ^ The Celebration of Faith: The Virgin Mary by Alexander Schmemann 2001 ISBN 0-88141-141-8 page 11 [9]
  150. ^ Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions by Wendy Doniger, 1999 ISBN 0-87779-044-2 page 696
  151. ^ Grieving with Mary: Finding Comfort and Healing in Devotion to the Mother of God by Mary K. Doyle 2009 ISBN 0-87946-397-X page 42
  152. ^ Mary in Western art by Timothy Verdon, Filippo Rossi 2005 ISBN 0-9712981-9-X page 11
  153. ^ The Virgin, saints, and angels: South American paintings 1600–1825 by Suzanne L. Stratton-Pruitt 2006 ISBN 88-7624-613-4 pages 34
  154. ^ Donahue-Wallace, Kelly (2008). Art and Architecture of Viceregal Latin America, 1521–1821. Diálogos (Albuquerque, N.M.). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-8263-3459-6
  155. ^ Early modern confraternities in Europe and the Americas by Christopher F. Black, Pamela Gravestock 2006 ISBN 0-7546-5174-6 page 11
  156. ^ "Catholic encyclopedia". Newadvent.org. Retrieved November 20, 2010. 
  157. ^ The Sodality of Our Lady: historical sketches by P.J. Kenedy & sons, 1916 ISBN page 37
  158. ^ History of the sodalities of the blessed virgin Mary by Louis Delplace 1884 ISBN 1-141-60228-8 page 211
  159. ^ Maiden and Mother: Prayers, Hymns, Devotions, and Songs to the Beloved Virgin Mary Throughout the Year by Margaret M. Miles 2001 ISBN 0-86012-305-7 page 125
  160. ^ "Catholic encyclopedia". Newadvent.org. February 1, 1911. Retrieved November 20, 2010. 
  161. ^ "Catholic encyclopedia". Newadvent.org. October 1, 1910. Retrieved November 20, 2010. 
  162. ^ Joan Carroll Cruz, Saintly Men of Modern Times (2003) ISBN 1-931709-77-7 pages 117–118
  163. ^ Thomas McGonigle, 1996, A History of the Christian Tradition Paulist Press ISBN 978-0-8091-3648-3 page 222
  164. ^ A pilgrim's handbook to Fatima by Leo Madigan 2001 ISBN 0-85244-532-6 page 207
  165. ^ Catholic Dictionary by Peter M. J. Stravinskas 2002 ISBN 0-87973-390-X page 141
  166. ^ Religions of the World by J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann 2003 ISBN 1576072231 pages 308-309
  167. ^ New commentary on the Code of Canon Law by John P. Beal, James A. Coriden, Thomas J. Green 2002 ISBN 0-8091-4066-7 page 1437 (Canon 1230)
  168. ^ Trudy Ring, 1996, International Dictionary of Historic Places, ISBN 978-1-884964-02-2 page 245
  169. ^ Pilgrimage: from the Ganges to Graceland : an encyclopedia, Volume 1 by Linda Kay Davidson, David Martin Gitlitz 2002 ISBN 1-57607-004-2 page 213
  170. ^ Brazil rediscovered by Roberta C. Wigder 1977 ISBN 0-8059-2328-4 page 235
  171. ^ Pilgrimage: from the Ganges to Graceland : an encyclopedia, Volume 1 by Linda Kay Davidson, David Martin Gitlitz 2002 ISBN 1-57607-004-2 page 38
  172. ^ "Medjugorje". EWTN. Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  173. ^ Sacred worlds: an introduction to geography and religion by Chris C. Park 1994 ISBN 0-415-09012-1 page 283
  174. ^ The Ancient Traditions of the Virgin Mary's Dormition and Assumption by Stephen J. Shoemaker 2006 ISBN 0-19-921074-8 page 76
  175. ^ Chronicle of the living Christ: the life and ministry of Jesus Christ by Robert A. Powell 1996 ISBN 0-88010-407-4 page 12
  176. ^ Pope Benedict XVI. "Homily of the Holy Father". Mass Before the Shrine of Meryem Ana Evi. Vatican. Retrieved October 4, 2010. 
  177. ^ Lauren Arnold, 1999 Princely Gifts & Papal Treasures: The Franciscan Mission to China by ISBN 0-9670628-0-2 page 151
  178. ^ Lauren Arnold in Atlantic Monthly, September 2007
  179. ^ The great encounter of China and the West by David E. Mungello 1999 ISBN 0-8476-9439-9 page 27
  180. ^ A history of ideas and images in Italian art by James Hall 1983 ISBN 0-06-433317-5 page 223
  181. ^ Iconography of Christian Art by Gertrud Schiller 1971 ASIN: B0023VMZMA page 112
  182. ^ Renaissance art: a topical dictionary by Irene Earls 1987 ISBN 0-313-24658-0 page 174
  183. ^ Mujer del maiz by Angel Vigil 1994 ISBN 1-56308-194-6 pages 16–19
  184. ^ Empire of the Aztecs by Barbara A. Somervill 2009 ISBN 1-60413-149-7 page 132
  185. ^ Our Lady of Guadalupe by Jeanette Rodríguez 1994 ISBN 0-292-77062-6 pages 44–46
  186. ^ "Vatican web site". Vatican.va. Retrieved November 20, 2010. 
  187. ^ The image of Guadalupe by Jody Brant Smith 1995 ISBN 0-86554-421-2 pages 1–2
  188. ^ Miracles of Our Lady by Gonzalo de Berceo, Richard Terry Mount, Annette Grant Cash 1997 ISBN 0-8131-2019-5 page 6-7
  189. ^ Miracles of the Blessed Virgin Mary by Johannes Herolt, C. C. Swinton Blandpages 2004 ISBN 1-4191-7308-1 pages 4–6
  190. ^ Piety and charity in late medieval Florence by John Henderson 1997 ISBN 0-226-32688-8 page 196
  191. ^ Lourdes: A History of Its Apparitions and Cures by Georges Bertrin 2004 ISBN 1-4179-8123-7 page 181
  192. ^ The encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3 by Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley 2003 ISBN 90-04-12654-6 page 339
  193. ^ David van Biega; Greg Burke (April 10, 1995). "Modern Miracles Have Strict Rules". Time.com (Time Magazine). Retrieved November 20, 2010. 
  194. ^ Pilgrimage to images in the fifteenth century by Robert Maniura 2004 ISBN 1-84383-055-8 page 104
  195. ^ Maximilian Kolbe: Saint of Auschwitz by Elaine Murray Stone 1997 ISBN 0-8091-6637-2 pages 7–8

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]