Blessing of same-sex unions in Christian churches
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|Ordination of LGBT clergy|
The blessing of same-sex marriages and same-sex unions is an issue about which Christian churches are in ongoing disagreement. These disagreements are primarily centered on the interpretation of various scripture passages related to homosexuality, and in some churches on varying understandings of homosexuality in terms of psychology, genetics and other scientific data. While various Church bodies have widely varying practices and teachings, individual Christians of every major tradition are involved in practical (orthopraxy) discussions about how to respond to the issue.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 Theological differences between support and opposition
- 3 Churches favorable to same-sex union and/or same-sex marriage
- 3.1 Episcopalian polities
- 3.1.1 Anglicanism
- 3.1.2 Church of Sweden and Denmark
- 3.1.3 Argentina
- 3.1.4 Austria
- 3.1.5 Belgium
- 3.1.6 Canada
- 3.1.7 Denmark
- 3.1.8 France
- 3.1.9 Germany
- 3.1.10 Iceland
- 3.1.11 Norway
- 3.1.12 Philippines
- 3.1.13 Sweden
- 3.1.14 Reformed churches in Switzerland
- 3.1.15 United Kingdom
- 3.1.16 United States
- 3.2 Presbyterian polities
- 3.3 Connexional polities
- 3.4 Congregational polities
- 3.5 Mixed-polity and other polity
- 3.1 Episcopalian polities
- 4 Debate on the meaning of 'Blessing'
- 5 Churches with no policy on the unions
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Theological differences between support and opposition
Views of those who support same-sex unions and/or marriages
Those Christians and Churches which support blessing of same-sex unions do so from several perspectives:
- It is an affirmative good that stands alongside straight marriage and committed monastic celibacy as a revelation of God's self in the world.
- The logical coherence of the core Christian doctrines such as the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Resurrection and the Ascension is improved through the integration of gay marriage into the Christian conception of marriage.
- Our understanding of marriage as a metaphor of Christ’s relationship with the Church is strengthened by assimilating gay marriage into that metaphor.
- Some scholars maintain that scripture in the original languages contains no prohibition of homosexuality, but does record same-sex marriage. "But if we take a closer look, reading the scripture in the original Hebrew and Greek, we discover that God never condemned homosexuality, and that same-sex marriage existed in Bible times."  "To tell a homosexual that the Bible is Good News, (but that) it says that their ability to love on a one to one basis (mate level) means they are sinful and perverted in God's eyes is a gross contradiction in terms. What's more, God is not saying this to gay people. God's Word is this: For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life. (John 3:16, KJV). And that is the Good News for modern gays." 
- The biblic references to homosexuality were uttered in the context of promiscuous same-sex practices of Hellenistic cultures (Paul) and cultures surrounding the people of Israel (Deut). This kind of sex without love was often practiced in lieu of going to female prostitutes, also by heterosexual men. It is a discriminating misconception of our times to transfer that prohibition of such promiscuous practice without love to what we discuss here: durable, long term, choosy same-sex unions.
Churches favorable to same-sex union and/or same-sex marriage
In 2004, the then Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, asked the Lambeth Commission on Communion to produce a report looking into the legal and theological implications flowing from decisions related to homosexuality that were apparently threatening the Anglican Communion, including decisions relating to the blessing of same-sex unions. Once published the Windsor Report led to the calling by the Lambeth Commission for a moratorium on the blessing of same-sex unions, and recommended that bishops who have authorised such rites in the United States and Canada "be invited to express regret that the proper constraints of the bonds of affection were breached by such authorisation." The report was roundly condemned by supporters of the gay and lesbian community, as well as by a number of theologians for its partiality.
Anglican Church of Canada
The General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada in 2004 voted to defer a decision of same-sex blessings until 2007, but also to "Affirm the integrity and sanctity of committed adult same-sex relationships". In 2007, a resolution enabling diocesan bishops to authorize the blessing of same-gender unions narrowly failed, but a statement adopted by General Synod in 2010 "acknowledge[d] diverse pastoral practices as dioceses respond to their own missional contexts,"[need quotation to verify]effectively devolving decisions about blessings to local dioceses.
The Anglican Church of Canada does not distinguish theologically between a marriage solemnized in church and a civil marriage subsequently blessed by a priest. Currently, three dioceses – New Westminster, Niagara, and Montréal – extend the blessing of civil marriages to same-sex couples. Procedures for blessings are in development in Ottawa and Toronto. In 2010 the General Synod of the Anglican Church of Canada voted to study a proposal to bless only those marriages that have been civilly registered, even where marriage is reserved to heterosexual couples, abrogating the role of clergy as delegates of the provincial registrar altogether.
The blessing of same-sex unions became a subject of media attention in the Vancouver area in May, 2003 when Bishop Michael Ingham of the Anglican Diocese of New Westminster announced that he had given priests in some parishes the authority to bless gay and lesbian unions. Bishop Ingham issued a rite of blessing of people in committed same-sex unions on May 23, 2003. This was done in response to requests by three consecutive Diocesan Synods, culminating in June, 2002. The diocese considers that the blessing of same-sex couples is one part of their work of community outreach and care for parishioners. The blessing is a way that some priests use to ensure that homosexual people who seek to be included in the Anglican Communion feel safe and respected. The blessing is a “pastoral tool”. Some priests in some parishes (six out of 80) bless permanent faithful relationships. Permission is granted by the bishop only when a priest requests it, and a parish has decided by majority vote, that they want to be a place of blessing. Ingham says of the practice: I insist only that those on all sides of the issue respect one another and that everyone should maintain the order of the church. Our goal in the Anglican Church in the Greater Vancouver area is to be a church that accommodates differences.
In 2009, the Anglican Diocese of Niagara in southwestern Ontario became the second diocese to authorize the blessing of same-sex unions when Bishop Michael Bird approved a gender-neutral rite for the blessing of civil marriages. The rite will be permitted for use in consultation with the diocesan bishop beginning September 1, 2009.
In 2009, the Bishop of the Anglican Diocese of Ottawa authorized the blessing of same-sex unions in a single parish: the Church of St John the Evangelist. Rather than issuing a specific rite, Bishop Chapman authorized an existing rite already in use for the blessing of civil marriages between opposite-sex couples.
In 2010, the Rt Rev'd Barry Clarke, Bishop of the Anglican Diocese of Montreal, authorized the blessing of same-sex unions. He issued a rite and guidelines to permit the blessing of civil marriages regardless of the gender of the spouses. The rite had been adapted from an existing rite already in use for the blessing of civil marriages between opposite-sex couples.
A limited number of parishes in the Anglican Diocese of Toronto have been authorized to bless same-sex unions. Rather than crafting a specific rite of blessing, the Archbishop of Toronto issued guidelines setting rules and restrictions on blessings. Blessings must not resemble too closely a marriage rite, with the specific proviso that no form of blessing used for marriage in the official rites of the Anglican Church of Canada or other parts of the Anglican Communion may be used with same-sex couples.
Episcopal Church of the USA
In July 2009, the General Convention of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America adopted a resolution allowing individual bishops to choose whether or not to allow the blessing of same-sex unions within their bishoprics. The resolution was seen as a compromise between those who call for an official rite for the blessing of same-sex unions, and those who oppose any recognition of such unions. However, the resolution also left the door open for the creation of such an official rite in the future, calling on bishops to "collect and develop theological and liturgical resources" for possible use for such a purpose at the 2012 General Convention.
On July 9, 2012, the Episcopal Church passed a resolution approving an official liturgy for blessing same-sex unions. This liturgy, called “The Witnessing and Blessing of a Lifelong Covenant” offers a blessing close to marriage, but the church is clear that it is not marriage. According to Rev. Ruth Meyers, chairwoman of the Standing Commission on Liturgy and Music, “There are a lot of similarities. The couple give their consent to being joined in lifelong commitment, they exchange vows. There’s the possibility of exchanging rings, or, for couples who have been together for some time and already have rings, to have their rings blessed. There is a blessing over the couple. But we’re clear at this point that this is not a marriage because the Episcopal Church is not in agreement in its understanding of marriage.” The resolution enables priests to bestow the church’s blessing on gay couples even if they live in a state where same-sex marriage is illegal; however, bishops who do not approve of the liturgy can prohibit their priests from using it. The resolution is provisional and will be reviewed in three years.
Old Catholic, Reformed Catholic Churches and Liberal Catholic Church
Four churches of the Union of Utrecht, which shares full communion with the Anglican Churches through the Bonn Agreement, also permit such blessings: namely, Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands (the mother church) permits blessings of gay civil marriages, and the Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland, and Catholic Diocese of the Old Catholics in Germany permit blessings of homosexual civil unions. The Old Catholic Church of Austria also permits such blessings. Because of this (as well as the ordination of women), the Polish National Catholic Church (USA) seceded from the Union in 2004.
Church of Sweden and Denmark
In November 2011, the Government of Denmark announced that there will be same-sex religious marriage available in the Church of Denmark as part of the broader legislative move to recognise same sex marriage A similar debate is currently underway in the Church of Iceland following legislation to permit same sex marriage in Iceland.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2011)|
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada has permitted the blessing of same-sex unions since July 2011. The Lutheran Church–Canada does not permit the blessing of same-sex unions. The LC-C stance is consonant with that of its American sister church, the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod.
The governing council of The United Church of Canada welcomes same-sex marriage, but individual United Church congregations are responsible for making decisions locally. Marriages are performed with the permission and under the responsibility of the local congregation.
- Protestant Church in Hesse and Nassau
- Protestant Church of Bremen
- Protestant Lutheran State Church of Brunswick
- Evangelical Lutheran Church of Hanover
- North Elbian Evangelical Church
- Evangelical Lutheran Church in Oldenburg
- Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia
- Protestant Church of Westphalia
- Protestant Church of the Palatinate
- Evangelical Church in the Rhineland
- Evangelical Church in Central Germany 
- Evangelical Church of Hesse Electorate-Waldeck 
- Evangelical Reformed Church in Bavaria and Northwestern Germany
Within the Church of Iceland, the blessing of same-sex couples are allowed.
- Metropolitan Community Church of Quezon City (MCCQC), Metropolitan Community Church Makati (MCCMPH), and Metropolitan Community Church of Metro Baguio (MCCMB) officiates Holy Unions for same sex partners in the Philippines. the Metropolitan Community Church is an Ecumenical Christian Church for ALL people with a special ministry to gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transgenders. It welcomes everyone with the full love of Christ Jesus and walk with its people in its journey towards equality and social justice. Its affiliations in The Philippines are the Following MCC Quezon City, (1) MCC Makati, (2) MCC Metro Baguio, (3) MCC Olongapo, and (4)MCC Marikina.
- Ekklesia Tou Theou (Church of God[dead link]), (Cavite, Philippines)is also conducting same sex unions in the Philippines.
The Church of Sweden performs blessings of same-sex couples. Following the legalization of same-sex marriage in Sweden in May 2009, the Church of Sweden decided in October 2009 to start conducting same-sex weddings in their churches.
Reformed churches in Switzerland
Some of the reformed churches in Switzerland perform blessings of same-sex couples, for example
- Reformed Church of Aargau
- Reformed Churches of the Canton Bern-Jura-Solothurn
- Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Schaffhausen
- Chiesa evangelica riformata nel Ticino
- Evangelical Church of the Canton of Thurgau
- Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Vaud
- Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Zürich
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America began officially allowing blessings of same-sex couples in late August, 2009—though there were no explicit prohibitions before this point. Studies and dialogue had been under way during the past decade and continued until the 2009 Churchwide Assembly, during which the ELCA passed a resolution by a vote of 619–402 reading “Resolved, that the ELCA commit itself to finding ways to allow congregations that choose to do so to recognize, support and hold publicly accountable lifelong, monogamous, same-gender relationships.” That Assembly also affirmed that sexual orientation, in itself, is not to be a qualification or exclusion for ordained ministry. As marriage policy is a congregation matter in the ELCA, same-sex partnership blessings and marriages had been performed by many Lutheran pastors prior to the 2009 actions. In 1993 the ELCA Conference of Bishops stated it did not approve of such ceremonies, but made no comment about same-sex marriage. (The Conference of Bishops is an advisory body of the ELCA.)
Lutheran congregations which so choose may register their public affirmation for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender people may register with Lutherans Concerned/North America, a church advocacy group, as "Reconciling in Christ." This registry includes not only congregations, but synods, organizations, Lutheran colleges, campus ministries, social ministry institutions, Lutheran health care organizations, campus ministries, church colleges, regional synods and districts, and other groups which openly welcome gays and lesbians in their communities. The national Lutheran organization which advocates for equality for gays and lesbians inside and outside the church is known as "Lutherans concerned North America". Founded in 1974 Local chapters are found throughout the USA and Canada.
Church of Scotland
The 2006 General Assembly of the Church of Scotland voted that blessing civil partnerships should be a matter of conscience for individual ministers. Conservatives in the Kirk argued that the reform would have to be ratified by local presbyteries. When the 45 Presbyteries were consulted, only nine voted in favour of allowing ministers to bless civil-partnered (same-sex) couples, and the remaining 36 were against the innovation. Therefore, it was defeated, and is due to be addressed again at the 2013 General Assembly. At its 2011 General Assembly, the Church of Scotland voted to allow openly gay and lesbian Ministers and Diaconal ministers who live in civil unions, provided that they were already ordained and had declared their sexuality before the Scott Rennie case on 23 May 2009. There remains, however, a Moratorium (legal term for a ban) on accepting those in same-sex relationships for training, ordination or induction into the Ministry or Diaconate, which may be lifted by the General Assembly of 2013. When asked to respond to the Scottish Government's consultation on same-sex marriage, the Church's Legal Questions Committee submitted a response which upheld a biblical and traditional understanding of marriage as a voluntary lifelong union between one man and one woman (December 2011). After this, the Church's first openly gay minister, Revd. Scott Rennie, claimed to the press that such ostracisation of homosexuals will empty churches.
Presbyterian Church in Ireland
The presbyterian church in Ireland is strongly opposed to same sex marriage.
Presbyterian Church (USA)
The Presbyterian Church USA General Assembly Permanent Judicial Commission ruled in 2006 that same-sex ceremonies are not forbidden, as long as they are not considered to be the same as marriage services. Debate on the issue within the church evolved over the years. In 2000, the General Assembly had approved language for the church constitution that stated church teachings were that people were “to live either in fidelity within the covenant of marriage between a man and a woman or in chastity in singleness.," and barred church officers and property from being used for blessing or approval upon any other form of fidelity relationship, but ratification for this language was never obtained by the presbyteries. By 2014, the General Assembly passed an Authoritative Interpretation permitting pastors to sign marriage licences for same-gender couples where permitted by civil law in the states where their church was found, which took immediate effect.
On March 17, 2015, ratification by a majority of presbyteries was reached on a constitutional amendment passed by that same 2014 General Assembly, which broadened the definition of marriage in the Directory for Worship from only being between “a man and a woman,” to “two people, traditionally a man and a woman,” thus giving official sanction to, while not making it mandatory for, any congregation's pastor to preside over and bless marriage ceremonies for same-gender couples.
In 2005, the Methodist Church of Great Britain voted to allow a local option for ministers who wish to perform same-sex blessings, with a Church spokesperson stating that “We have decided, with the law changing in December, we as a Church need to provide guidance to our ministers, who will be allowed to take an individual decision as to whether or not they want to bless gay couples.” However, in 2006, the Church reversed itself and prohibited the blessing of same-sex unions on or off church property. Ministers are still at liberty to offer informal, private prayers for such couples.
|This article is outdated. (May 2013)|
The United Methodist Church currently prohibits celebrations of same-sex unions by its elders and in its churches. However, in May 2011 a resolution was passed in the Baltimore-Washington annual conference which seeks to change the church’s Book of Discipline to be amended “to allow pastors to perform same-sex marriages and ceremonies in member churches in jurisdictions where legislatures already have approved gay marriage laws, such as the District.” A vote at the General Conference in 2012 is still required.
The first recorded same sex marriage by a Quaker meeting in the US was in 1987. In January, 1987, Morningside Monthly Meeting of the Society of Friends became the first Quaker Meeting to take a same-sex marriage (using the word marriage, rather than "commitment ceremony") under its care with the marriage of John Bohne and William McCann on May 30, 1987.
Same-sex couples have been married under the care of many "unprogrammed" Quaker meetings in Canada since 1992. In Australia, Canberra Quaker meeting celebrated the marriage of two gay men on 15 April 2007. Australian Quakers are prepared to celebrate same-sex marriages despite the lack of legal recognition. See Quaker views of homosexuality
In 2009, the Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in Great Britain, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man decided to authorise same-sex marriage, having previously performed blessings for same-sex civil partnerships. In Australia, the 2010 Yearly Meeting called on the Federal Government to amend the Australian Marriage Act to give full and equal legal recognition to all marriages, regardless of the sexual orientation and gender of the partners. Australlian Quakers had been blessing same-sex unions since 1994. The Canada Yearly Meeting stated in 2003 that Canadian Quakers "support the right of same-sex couples to a civil marriage and the extension of the legal definition of marriage to include same-sex couples."  Since then a number of same-sex marriages have been performed at Canadian Monthly Meetings. In New Zealand, the Aotearoa Quaker Meeting in 1995 pledged “to seek formal ways of recognizing a variety of commitments, including gay and lesbian partnerships.” 
United Church of Christ
Varies by church. The General Synod of the United Church of Christ has passed a resolution affirming "equal marriage rights for couples regardless of gender and declares that the government should not interfere with couples regardless of gender who choose to marry and share fully and equally in the rights, responsibilities and commitment of legally recognized marriage". At its 25th General Synod in 2005, the UCC passed the resolution, "Equal Marriage Rights for All". However, the polity of the UCC is congregationalist, so of each church has a different way of operating. (The General Synod does not have authority over Local Churches to determine or enforce denominational doctrine)
Canadian Unitarian Council
Canadian Unitarian churches perform same-sex marriage as well.
Unitarian Universalist Association
Metropolitan Community Church
The predominantly gay Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches performs same-sex marriages.
Most Pentecostal churches do not affirm gay marriage.
The Affirming Pentecostal Church International and the Global Alliance of Affirming Apostolic Pentecostals are US based denominations of Oneness Pentecostals that will perform weddings for both heterosexual and same-sex couples.
Mixed-polity and other polity
Moravian Church (North America)
The Moravian Church in North America's Northern Province has passed several liberal resolutions on homosexuality, but has not yet been able to "address the issue of a marriage covenant between homosexual persons".
Uniting Church in Australia
Protestant Church in the Netherlands
The Protestant Church in the Netherlands has chosen not to address marriage in its post-merger canon law; however, the by-laws of the church allow for the blessing of relationships outside of marriage.
Due to its "local option", a number of congregations and ministers of the United Church of Canada (a merger of Congregationalist, Presbyterian and Methodist congregations in Canada following presbyterian polity) officiate at same-sex marriages, which are fully legal in Canada.
New Apostolic Church
Debate on the meaning of 'Blessing'
By nature of this religious understanding of marriage, when churches use the term "Union" in a same-sex blessing ceremony, they may or may not be blessing this union in an equivalent way as they would bless a "marriage" as opposed to blessing the commitment between the two individuals. Some Christian bodies are exploring the manner in which same-sex couples could or should be blessed (or not) by the church. Because same-sex religious unions are not widespread and because civil unions do not require religious officiation, documentation of the incidence of church blessing of same-sex couples is difficult.
Roman Catholic Church
During the 1990s, a discussion began in the Roman Catholic Church about blessings for same-sex unions. In the Roman Catholic Diocese of Aachen in Germany, five same-sex unions received a blessing in German town of Mönchengladbach. In 2007, one same-sex union received a blessing in German town of Wetzlar in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Limburg.
Churches with no policy on the unions
The United Church of Christ has no formal rules requiring or prohibiting solemnization of wedding vows, but owing to its Congregational polity and constitution, each Local Church is "autonomous in the management of its own affairs" and has the "right to operate in the way customary to it"; it cannot be "abridge[d] or impair[ed]" by other UCC agencies, and so each congregation has the freedom to bless or prohibit any kind of marriage or relationship in whatever way they discern appropriate. Thus a congregation may choose at their discretion to solemnise same-sex marriages, to bless same-sex unions, or refuse to perform any ceremony for same-sex couples, or refuse to perform any kind of marriage for anyone. There are no available statistics on how many UCC congregations solemnize same-sex relationships, but there are documented cases where this happens and documented cases where congregations have taken stands against marriage between same-gender couples.
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- List of Christian denominational positions on homosexuality
- Status of same-sex marriage
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- Institute for Progressive Christianity (instituteforprogressivechristianity.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=37&Itemid=36) link inactive as of 2008-05-10
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Sin embargo, no todas las iglesias protestantes tienen la misma postura. Este es el caso de los luteranos daneses, en cuyos templos se bendicen las uniones de parejas de un mismo sexo y desde la que que se apoya el casamiento gay en la Argentina. De hecho, en Buenos Aires, el pastor Andrés Roberto Albertsen, celebró de manera religiosa cinco uniones civiles entre personas de un mismo sexo y espera hacer lo mismo con los casamientos, en el caso de que sean habilitados en materia civil.
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Cuando en la ciudad de Buenos Aires se sancionó la ley de la unión civil de parejas homosexuales, adoptaron la misma postura que con el matrimonio civil heterosexual y, sin haberlo buscado, realizaron la primera ceremonia religiosa por la unión entre dos lesbianas de América latina. Aquel acontecimiento tuvo lugar a fines de 2006, cuando Virgina Cortés y Jessica Schmukler sellaron su amor de manera espiritual.
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- Religious Tolerance.org. "Statements by the Society of Friends (Quakers)". Retrieved 07/10/2012. Check date values in:
- "Marriage Equality". Ucc.org. Retrieved 2013-08-16.
- UCC Constitution and Bylaws. Paragraph 9 in Article V (Local churches) of the UCC Constitution states that "The basic unit of the life and organization of the United Church of Christ is the Local Church." Paragraph 18 in the same article enshrines local church autonomy, and says: "Nothing in this constitution and the Bylaws of the United Church of Christ shall destroy or limit the right of each Local Church to continue to operate in the way customary to it; nor shall be construed as giving to the General Synod, or to any Conference or Association now, or at any future time, the power to abridge or impair the autonomy of any Local Church in the management of its own affairs."
- Weddings | Canadian Unitarian Council
- UUA: Marriage Equality
- UUA: Support of the Right to Marry for Same-Sex Couples – 1996 Resolution of Immediate of Witness
- MCC:Marriage=Equality[dead link]
- [dead link]
- "Otherwise, their beliefs and practices are similar to those of other conservative Christians. They strongly oppose abortion access, equality for sexual minorities, and same-sex marriage."
- Welt.de:Lesbisches Paar heiratet nach 72 Jahren (german)
- Queer.de:Zum Heiraten ist es nie zu spät (german)
- [dead link]
- Swedenborg.org[dead link]
- ProtestantChurch.nl, the Church's official website
- NAK:Segensgebet für eingetragene Partnerschaften (german)
- Report to the General Convention on the Blessing of Same-Sex Relationships[dead link]
- Spiegel:Riskanter Segen für gleichgeschlechtliche Paare (German)
- Frankfurter Rundschau:Dakan muß gehen wegen Trauung eines homosexuellen Paares (German)
- See http://www.ucc.org/aboutus/constitution.htm#LOCAL
- [dead link]
- See http://www.southernconrenew.org/lex%20confession.html
- The Diocese of New Westminster's Information Website on Same-Sex Blessings
- Text of the Liturgy[dead link]
- Anglican Communion – On public Rites of Blessing of same-sex unions
- The Episcopal Church USA General Convention 2003 – Publications[dead link]
- (German) Evangelical Church in Hesse[dead link]
- Decision for blessing in Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northelbia (German)[dead link]
- The Ongoing Struggle within the Episcopal Church USA: ordination of openly gay bishops and the blessing of same-sex unions
- Statement from the Episcopal Bishop of New Hampshire on the blessing of same-sex Unions[dead link]