Bloch's theorem (complex variables)

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In complex analysis, a field within mathematics, Bloch's theorem gives a lower bound on the size of a disc in which an inverse to a holomorphic function exists. It is named after André Bloch.


Let f be a holomorphic function in the unit disk |z| ≤ 1. Suppose that |f′(0)| = 1. Then there exists a disc of radius b and an analytic function φ in this disc, such that f(φ(z)) = z for all z in this disc. Here b > 1/72 is an absolute constant.

Landau's theorem[edit]

If f is a holomorphic function in the unit disc with the property |f′(0)| = 1, then the image of f contains a disc of radius l, where lb is an absolute constant.

This theorem is named after Edmund Landau.

Valiron's theorem[edit]

Bloch's theorem was inspired by the following theorem of Georges Valiron:

Theorem. If f is a non-constant entire function then there exist discs D of arbitrarily large radius and analytic functions φ in D such that f(φ(z)) = z for z in D.

Bloch's theorem corresponds to Valiron's theorem via the so-called Bloch's Principle.

Bloch's and Landau's constants[edit]

The lower bound 1/72 in Bloch's theorem is not the best possible. The number B defined as the supremum of all b for which this theorem holds, is called the Bloch's constant. Bloch's theorem tells us B ≥ 1/72, but the exact value of B is still unknown.

The similarly defined optimal constant L in Landau's theorem is called the Landau's constant. Its exact value is also unknown.

The best known bounds for B at present are

where Γ is the Gamma function. The lower bound was proved by Chen and Gauthier, and the upper bound dates back to Ahlfors and Grunsky. They also gave an upper bound for the Landau constant.

In their paper, Ahlfors and Grunsky conjectured that their upper bounds are actually the true values of B and L.


  • Ahlfors, Lars Valerian; Grunsky, Helmut (1937). "Über die Blochsche Konstante". Mathematische Zeitschrift. 42 (1): 671–673. doi:10.1007/BF01160101. S2CID 122925005.
  • Baernstein, Albert II; Vinson, Jade P. (1998). "Local minimality results related to the Bloch and Landau constants". Quasiconformal mappings and analysis. Ann Arbor: Springer, New York. pp. 55–89.
  • Bloch, André (1925). "Les théorèmes de M.Valiron sur les fonctions entières et la théorie de l'uniformisation". Annales de la Faculté des Sciences de Toulouse. 17 (3): 1–22. doi:10.5802/afst.335. ISSN 0240-2963.
  • Chen, Huaihui; Gauthier, Paul M. (1996). "On Bloch's constant". Journal d'Analyse Mathématique. 69 (1): 275–291. doi:10.1007/BF02787110. S2CID 123739239.