Stacks blockchain

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Stacks, formerly Blockstack, is an open-source platform to enable smart contracts, DeFi, NFTs, and apps for Bitcoin.[1] Stacks blockchain is a "layer" for Bitcoin similar to the Lightning Network.[2] In addition to smart contracts, the Stacks project provides open-source software for authentication, and data storage.[3]


Concerns around internet privacy, security, and data breaches brought attention to the Stacks project.[4] Software developers have used the Stacks software to build decentralized alternatives to popular services.[5][6][7] Stacks (STX) token is the native cryptocurrency of the Stacks blockchain, which is used as gas fee for executing smart contracts and processing transactions.[8]


Stacks project was originally started by Muneeb Ali and Ryan Shea as Blockstack.[9] STX became the first SEC qualified token offering in 2019.[10][11] Blockstack PBC, a company working on the Stacks technology, raised around $75 million through a mix of venture capital and token sales.[9] The main Stacks blockchain launched in Jan 2021.[12]



The CityCoins project has launched fungible tokens for the cities of Miami and New York City.[13][14] In September 2021, Miami’s city commissioners voted to accept the protocol treasury,[needs context] valued at $21M at the time.[15] MiamiCoin's value crashed, and so Stacks donated $5.25 million to the City of Miami.[16]


  1. ^ Crawford, Max (2022-04-27). "Bitcoin Ecosystem: An Overview of Bitcoin Smart Contracts and How They Work". ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved 2022-10-11.
  2. ^ "Blockstack anchors to Bitcoin network with new mining algorithm". ZDNet.
  3. ^ Mühle, A.; Grüner, A.; Gayvoronskaya, T.; Meinel, C. (November 2018). "A Survey on Essential Components of a Self-Sovereign Identity". Computer Science Review. 30: 80–86. arXiv:1807.06346. Bibcode:2018arXiv180706346M. doi:10.1016/j.cosrev.2018.10.002. S2CID 49867601.
  4. ^ Singh, Harminder (1 October 2017). "'New internet' looks to keep user data away from tech giants and bypass China censorship". South China Morning Post.
  5. ^ Fung, Brian (23 March 2018). "The new technology that aspires to #DeleteFacebook for good". The Washington Post.
  6. ^ Dillet, Romain (5 September 2018). "Stealthy wants to become the WeChat of blockchain apps". TechCrunch`.
  7. ^ Simonite, Tom (5 March 2018). "The Decentralized Internet Is Here, With Some Glitches". Wired Magazine.
  8. ^ Daly, Lyle (10 Jun 2022). "What is Stacks (STX)?". The Motley Fool. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  9. ^ a b "Blockstack raises $52 million to build a parallel internet where you own all your data". VentureBeat. 2017-12-04. Retrieved 2021-06-22.
  10. ^ SEC. "PART II — INFORMATION REQUIRED IN OFFERING CIRCULAR". Retrieved 2021-06-22.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. ^ Vigna, Paul (2019-07-11). "SEC Clears Blockstack to Hold First Regulated Token Offering". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2021-06-22.
  12. ^ Chavez-Dreyfuss, Gertrude (2020-12-07). "Blockstack's digital currency 'Stacks' to be tradable in U.S. once new blockchain arrives". Reuters.
  13. ^ Brown, Dalvin (2021-09-30). "Crypto tax: 'MiamiCoin' has made the city $7 million so far, a potential game-changer for revenue collection". Washington Post.
  14. ^ Chen, Elaine (2021-11-03). "Eric Adams Aims to Make NYC Crypto-Friendly With Coin Similar to Miami's". Bloomberg.
  15. ^ Greely, Brendan (2021-11-03). "MiamiCoin, a currency without sovereignty". Financial Times.
  16. ^ Benavides, Cristian (February 3, 2022). "Miami Announces It Cashed Out Some MiamiCoin as Crypto Markets Are Down". NBC 6 South Florida. Retrieved 2022-04-13.