Blois

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Ville de Blois
Panoramic view of Blois on the Loire river, from Vienne, on the lef bank
Panoramic view of Blois on the Loire river, from Vienne, on the lef bank
Coat of arms of Ville de Blois
Location of Ville de Blois
Ville de Blois is located in France
Ville de Blois
Ville de Blois
Ville de Blois is located in Centre-Val de Loire
Ville de Blois
Ville de Blois
Coordinates: 47°35′38″N 1°19′41″E / 47.5939°N 1.3281°E / 47.5939; 1.3281Coordinates: 47°35′38″N 1°19′41″E / 47.5939°N 1.3281°E / 47.5939; 1.3281
CountryFrance
RegionCentre-Val de Loire
DepartmentLoir-et-Cher
ArrondissementBlois
CantonBlois-1, 2 and 3 and Vineuil
IntercommunalityCA Blois Agglopolys
Government
 • Mayor (2020–2026) Marc Gricourt (PS)
Area
1
37.46 km2 (14.46 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2019)[1]
45,898
 • Density1,200/km2 (3,200/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Bloisian
French: Blésois(e)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
41018 /41000
Elevation63–135 m (207–443 ft)
(avg. 73 m or 240 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Blois (/blwɑː/ BLWAH; French: [blwɑ] (listen)) is a commune and the capital city of Loir-et-Cher department, in Centre-Val de Loire, France,[2] on the banks of the lower Loire river between Orléans and Tours.[3]

With 45,898 inhabitants by 2019, Blois is the most populated city of the department, and the 4th of the region.

Historically, the city was the capital of the county of Blois, created on 832 until its integration into the Royal domain in 1498, when Count Louis II of Orléans became King Louis XII of France. During the Renaissance, Blois was the official residence of the King of France.

History[edit]

Pre- and protohistory[edit]

Since 2013, excavations have been conducted by French National Institute of Preventive Archaeological Research (INRAP in French) in Vienne where they found evidence of "one or several camps of late Prehistory hunter-gatherers, who were also fishermen since fishing traps were found there.. [...] They were ancestors of the famous Neolithic farmer-herders, who were present in current France around 6,000 BCE [i.e.: 8,000 years ago]."[4]

Ancient times[edit]

A major urban development begun in 1959 uncovered the remains of a late Gallic settlement and an urban centre from the Gallo-Roman period. At that time, the town was located on the road linking Chartres to Bourges.[5] In the network of cities of the Carnutes people, Blois was a secondary settlement. Excavations carried out on the right bank between 2001 and 2016 and on the left bank in 2013-2014 revealed the presence of a largely developed town on the right bank and an occupation on the left bank during the Gallic and Gallo-Roman periods. The Loire river has undoubtedly always been a major axis route, although no traces of a port have been uncovered. However, there are remains of former bridges linking the two banks.[6]

Middle Ages[edit]

Though of ancient origin, Blois is first distinctly mentioned by Gregory of Tours in the 6th century, and the city gained some notability in the 9th century, when it became the seat of a powerful countship known as Blesum castrum.[7]

Blois was first organised around a county, which was recreated in 956 by Count Theobald I of Blois, also known as The Trickster. His descendants, known as "Thibaldians", remained as Counts up until the county was incorporated into the royal domain in 1397. The House of Blois also succeeded in raising some of its members or descendants to the highest levels of the European nobility, notably by acceding to the thrones of France, England, Navarre, Spain and Portugal.[8]

In 1171, Blois was the site of a blood libel against its Jewish community that led to 31 Jews (by some accounts 40) being burned to death.[9] Their martyrdom also contributed to a prominent and durable school of poetry inspired by Christian persecution.[10] In the Middle Ages, Blois was the seat of the County of Champagne it passed to the French crown in 1314, forming the province of Champagne.[11] In 1196, Count Louis I of Blois granted privileges to the townsmen; a commune, which survived throughout the Middle Ages, probably dated from this time. The counts of the Châtillon dynastic line resided at Blois more often than their predecessors, and the oldest parts of the château (from the 13th century) were built by them. By 1397, Count Guy II of Blois-Châtillon offered the county to his cousin, Duke Louis I of Orléans, son of King Charles VI. In 1429, Joan of Arc made Blois her base of operations for the relief of Orléans. She rode the 35 miles on 29 April from Blois to relieve Orléans.[12] In 1440, after his captivity in England, Duke Charles of Orléans (son of Duke Louis I) took up residence in the Château of Blois, where in 1462 his son was born, Duke Louis II of Orléans who would afterwards be known as Louis XII.

Renaissance era[edit]

By 1498, King Charles VIII died with no heirs in the Château of Amboise. As a result, Duke Louis II ran 22 miles between the Château and Blois, and was crowned as King Louis XII of France. He then married Charles VIII's widow, Queen Anne of Brittany, in 1499. The birth of their daughter, Claude of France, started the union of Brittany with France. Louis XII, as the last hereditary Count of Blois, naturally established his royal Court in the city. The Treaty of Blois, which temporarily halted the Italian Wars, was signed there in 1504–1505. During his reign, the city experienced a massive redevelopment, with some architectural elements inspired from the Italian Renaissance, as seen in the medieval castle immediately turned into a château, and the construction of many hôtels particuliers for the nobility throughout the entire kingdom. One of which, Hôtel d'Alluye, was built as a copy of an Italian palace for Florimond Robertet, who was an important French minister under King Charles VIII, King Louis XII and King Francis I.

On 1 January 1515, Louis XII died. His throne would be passed to Francis I, the husband to his daughter, Claude of France. In 1519, King Francis I ordered the construction of the Château of Chambord (10 miles away from Blois), but its construction lasted for one year before he died in 1547. In the meantime, he gradually expressed his will to move to Fontainebleau, near Paris, and started to abandon Bloisian. Much of the royal furniture was moved from Blois to Fontainebleau by 1539.

The French Wars of Religion was a significantly destructive conflict among the French people. The city's inhabitants included many Calvinists, and in 1562 and 1567 it was the scene of struggles between them and the supporters of the Catholic Church. On 4 July 1562, Blois and Beaugency, conquered by Protestants just before, were looted by Catholics led by Maréchal de St. André. On 7 February 1568, Protestants under Captain Boucard's command, looted and invaded the town, eventually killing many Catholics. Grey friars were also killed and thrown in the well of their own convent. In addition, all the churches were ransacked. In 1576 and 1588, King Henry III convoked the Estates General to Blois where he attained refuge after an uprising called the Day of the Barricades. In response, Duke Henry I of Guise was assassinated on 23 December 1588 for his involvement in the uprising. The following day, his brother, Cardinal Louis II of Guise, who was also archbishop of Reims, suffered the same fate. Their deaths were shortly followed by that of the Queen-Mother, Catherine de' Medici.

In the 16th century, the French Royal court often made Blois their leisure resort.

Modern era[edit]

After the departure of the Royal Court towards Paris, Blois lost the status of Royal residence, along with the luxury and economic activity that came with it. King Henry IV displaced the Royal library to Fontainebleau, which would later be the National Library of France (Bibliothèque nationale de France).

In 1606, Philippe de Béthune gave his ownership of Vienne-lez-Blois village, on the left bank of the Loire river, to Blois, making it a part of the city afterwards known as Blois-Vienne. From 1617 to 1619 Marie de' Medici, wife of King Henri IV, exiled from the court by his son, King Louis XIII, lived in the château. By 1622, the Counter-Reformation got establishment in Blois, founded a Society of Jesus and financed the construction of the St. Louis Chapel, which is today St. Vincent Church.

Then in 1634, Louis XIII exiled his brother, Gaston, Duke of Orléans and Count of Blois, who became attached to the city. The Duke in 1657, found a hospital in Blois-Vienne, now named Résidence Gaston d'Orléans, and financed the reconstruction of the Hôtel-Dieu. He remained in Blois until his death, in 1660.

Under Louis XIV's reign, Blois became un independent bishopric. David Nicolas de Bertier, first bishop of Blois from 1697, chose as seated cathedral St. Solenne Church, that had been destroyed by a storm and was under reconstruction, before being completed 3 years later in 1700, thanks to the intervention of Colbert's wife, who herself came from Blois. The new edifice became Blois Cathedral and got dedicated to St. Louis.

A wide episcopal palace is built by King Louis XIV's official architect, Jacques Gabriel, right next to the newly built cathedral, on a site overlooking the Loire Valley. Landscaping of terraced gardens began in 1703 and lasted nearly 50 years. The so-called Bishopric Gardens were first open to the public in 1791 by Henri Grégoire (known as the Abbot Grégoire), the first constitutional bishop after the French Revolution.

During the night between 6 and 7 February 1716, the medieval bridge collapsed. Construction of a new one is ordered during the following year. Jacques-Gabriel Bridge was inaugurated in 1724. All the levies were consolidated, and the river channel of La Bouillie in the prolongation of La Creusille Harbor was closed and dried out.

When Duke Gaston of Orléans died, the château ended up stripped by King Louis XIV, completely abandoned, to the point that King Louis XVI once considered to demolish it by 1788. The edifice was saved when the Royal-Comtois Regiment established their base within it.

In 1790, Orléanais province was dismantled, and the First Republic created the Loir-et-Cher department, with Blois as the local capital.

By 1814, Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma and wife of Napoleon I, found refuge in Blois.

Contemporary era[edit]

Another wind blew in Blois in the 19th century. First, the railroad came in 1846 with the inauguration of the Paris–Tours railway, whose Blois Station is a stop. The competition against river transportation gradually forced La Creusille Harbor to reinvent its activity. In parallel, the city got more industrialised from 1848 thanks to a successful chocolate brand created by Bloisian, Victor-Auguste Poulain.

Like Paris, Blois urban organisation was redesigned during 1850 and 1870 by Mayor Eugène Riffault, who was friends with Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann. Thus, he had bound through a boulevard holding his name the modern upper town (where the cathedral, Hôtel of Préfecture, and Halle aux Grains are located), and the medieval lower town. He also paved the way to the construction of the boulevard Daniel Depuis, in the West of Blois. Between 1862 and 1865, the Denis-Papin staircase are built under La Morandière's supervision, in the axis of Jacques-Gabriel Bridge and Blois-Vienne's Wilson Avenue.

In the meantime, the lower town faced three of the most significant flooding of the Loire river: in 1846, 1856 (the worst), and 1866. The downtown districts of St. Jean and Blois-Vienne were under water, as well as La Bouillie spillway.

On 13 December 1871, the Prussian army took control of Blois during the Franco-Prussian War. The city was taken back by Lieutenant Georges de Villebois-Mareuil, General Joseph Pourcet, and General Bertrand de Chabron. Since then, a memorial stands on Wilson Avenue in Vienne.

In 1939, Blois Basilica construction was completed. That same year, between 29 January and 8 February, more than 3,100 Spanish refugees came to the Loir-et-Cher department, fleeing the Spanish Civil War and Dictator Francisco Franco. In June 1940, the German bombings destroyed a large part of the downtown, and the French destroyed the 10th arch of Jacques-Gabriel Bridge to prevent further advance for their enemies. The German army bombed the former Town Hall on 16 June, thus killing Mayor Émile Laurens in the process, and took over the city 2 days later, on 18 June, the exact same day of Charles de Gaulle's Appeal for Internal Resistance.

Between June and August 1944, US-English-allied bombings destroyed other infrastructures, like the railroad bridge between Blois and Romorantin. In total during WWII, 230 people were killed, and 1,522 buildings were entirely or partially destroyed. On 16 August 1944, the German troops run to Blois-Vienne to get refuge there and destroyed the 3 central archs of the bridge. On 1 September, they surrendered. The bridge was rebuilt and reopened in December 1948.

In 1959, Mayor Marcel Bühler received President Charles de Gaulle and launched the construction of the ZUP, at the North of the city, on the same scheme of so-called banlieues of Paris or any other French city.

Population[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 13,280—    
1800 14,900+1.66%
1806 13,054−2.18%
1821 15,147+1.00%
1831 13,138−1.41%
1836 13,628+0.74%
1841 16,156+3.46%
1846 17,149+1.20%
1851 17,749+0.69%
1856 17,749+0.00%
1861 20,331+2.75%
1866 20,068−0.26%
1872 19,860−0.17%
1876 20,515+0.81%
1881 21,077+0.54%
1886 22,150+1.00%
1891 23,457+1.15%
1896 23,542+0.07%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 23,789+0.21%
1906 23,972+0.15%
1911 23,955−0.01%
1921 23,989+0.01%
1926 23,991+0.00%
1931 24,607+0.51%
1936 26,025+1.13%
1946 26,774+0.28%
1954 28,190+0.65%
1962 33,838+2.31%
1968 42,264+3.78%
1975 49,778+2.37%
1982 47,243−0.74%
1990 49,318+0.54%
1999 49,171−0.03%
2007 47,854−0.34%
2012 45,903−0.83%
2017 46,086+0.08%
Source: EHESS[13] and INSEE (1968–2017)[14]

Landmarks and tourism[edit]

Since 1986, Blois is part of the French Towns of Art and History program, which promotes the cultural and historical estate.

Château of Blois (seen from the South)
Château of Blois (seen from inside)
Blois Cathedral, Town Hall, and the Rosarium seen from the Bishopric Gardens
The Maison des Acrobates
The Jacques-Gabriel Bridge, with the cathedral behind, over the Loire river

Château of Blois[edit]

The Château of Blois, a Renaissance multi-style château once occupied by King Louis XII, is located in the centre of the city, and an 18th-century stone bridge spans the Loire. It was also the residence of many Counts of Blois, who were amongst the most closest vassals to the King of France between the 9th and the 14th century. Many gardens are located around the château, like:

  • the St. Sauveur Garden (Parterre Saint-Sauveur in French);
  • the Lily Garden (Jardin des Lices);
  • the King's Stronghold (Bastion du Roi), and;
  • Victor Hugo Square (Square Victor Hugo).

House of Magic[edit]

Right in front of the château, La Maison de la Magie Robert-Houdin (i.e.: Robert-Houdin House of Magic) is a museum dedicated to illusionism. This is the only public museum in Europe which incorporates in one place collections of magic and a site for permanent performing arts, and directly reflects the personality of Robert-Houdin.[15][16][17][18]

Louis-XII Place and Fountains[edit]

Opened after bombings in 1944, the place stands right below the château, closest to the Loire river, and is actually located at the center of Blois downtown. There are local shops and restaurants, and a 16th-century fountain stands below the Sycamores planted in the place. Known as Louis XII Fountain (Fontaine Louis XII), this is one the greatest and oldest water inlets throughout the city, but far from being the only one. Among the other founts, there are:[19]

  • St. Martin Fountain (Fontaine Saint-Martin), below the staircase between the château and Louis XII Place;
  • St. Nicholas Fountain (Fontaine Saint-Nicolas), within the St. Nicholas Church;
  • Elected Representatives' Fountain (Fontaine des Élus), in rue Foulerie;
  • Ave Maria Fountain (Fontaine Ave Maria), in place Ave Maria;
  • Town hall Fountain (Fontaine de l'Hôtel de Ville), below the Denis Papin staircase (where was the former Town Hall before WWII);
  • St. Jack Fountain (Fontaine Saint-Jacques), in rue Denis Papin;
  • Corbigny Fountain (Fontaine de Corbigny), in Victor Hugo Square ;
  • Simple Fountain (Fontaine des Simples), in the Lily Garden, in remembrance of a monumental Versailles-style fountain lost after WWII bombings.

Comics Museum[edit]

Blois is also the location of so-called Maison de la BD, a museum devoted to the art of comic books.[20] Since the 1980s, this museum hosts an annual comic festival in late November called BD Boum,[21] described as "the leading free comic book festival in France".[22]

Former Hôtel-Dieu[edit]

Already by 924, monks from the St. Lomer community were given some acres below the medieval castle, but outside the city walls, on the bank of the Loire river. In the 13th century, a proper church was built, then fortified because of the Hundred Years' War. St. Lomer Abbey was completely plentered during the French Wars of Religion. The edifice was rebuilt until the early 18th century. When the French Revolution broke out by 1789, the church was turnt into a Hôtel-Dieu, namely a charity hospital for the have-nots, because Revolutionners destroyed many clergy- and royal-related monuments. After that, new buildings were added to the original St. Lomer Abbey, which became St. Nicholas Church, and the additional edifices remained dedicated to the Hôtel-Dieu of the city. Nonetheless, this part was gradually abandoned and taken back by some public services. A reconversion project is currently under study.

Former Poulain Chocolate Factory[edit]

In the late 19th century, Bloisian industrialist and chocolatier Victor-Auguste Poulain established his brand's factory next to Blois station. The premises moved in the 1980s. Nowadays, those are housings and host the National Institute and School of Applied Sciences (INSA).

Denis-Papin Staircase[edit]

As Blois is built on a pair of steep hills, winding and steep pathways run through the city, culminating in long staircases at various points. The most iconic of them is the monumental Denis-Papin staircase which overlooks the town, provides a panoramic view by overlooking the downtown and the Loire Valley, and regularly enlivens urban space with original decorations.[23] The fountain next to the staircase is a reminder of the location of the first Town Hall, destroyed after bombings on 16 June 1940.

Town Hall and Bishopric Gardens[edit]

Blois achieved independence from the Diocese of Chartres in 1697, and the cathedral was completed by 1700. As a result, the first bishops engineered wide gardens on several levels, next to the premises. Since the destruction of the former Blois town hall during World War II, local authorities requisitioned the bishop's apartments to establish there the new town hall. Now organised as an urban park, the gardens offer a panoramic view on the downtown, the Loire river, and Blois-Vienne. A statue of Joan of Arc, given to the city by American patron J. Sanford Saltus, stands in the middle of the park. Bishopric gardens are open to public all the year, and a remarkable rose garden can be visited from 15 May and 30 September, each year.

Hôtels Particuliers and Timber Framing Houses[edit]

Since Count Louis II of Orléans became King Louis XII of France in 1498, the city started to host many noblepersons from all the Kingdom. All would build their own mansion as close from the château as they could. King Louis XII also imported Renaissance style from Italy due to his successful military campaigns there. Among these so-called hôtels particuliers, there are:

In addition, many citizens from the peoples engineered timber-framing buildings all across the city, including:

Please note all the above edifices have been listed as historical monuments.

Blois-Vienne and the Loire river[edit]

Blois-Vienne (or merely Vienne) is the name given to the southern part of the city, on the left bank of the Loire river. Independent from the city until 1606, there are many traces of the river's past. The main link between both banks is the Jacques-Gabriel Bridge, built in the early 18th century. From the levees circling the surroundings to other abandonned bridges, Vienne has also conserved a harbour, named La Creusille, which is now an urban park right on La Loire à Vélo bike route.[24] Beyond the levees, La Bouillie Park is getting amenaged, and actually is a spillway in the event of floodings. Further to the south of the city, the Forêt de Russy is a reminder of the thick woods that once covered the area.

Religious Buildings[edit]

The city also is provided with many religious edifices, including:

Transport[edit]

The A10 motorway connects Blois with Paris, Orléans and Tours. Blois Railway Station offers direct connections from Paris, Orléans, Tours, Nantes, and to several regional destinations.

Regular commuting connections exist between Blois and most cities in the surroundings, including:

Personalities linked to Blois[edit]

Historical and political figures[edit]

Artists[edit]

Artisans[edit]

During the 16th and 17th centuries, Blois was the hometown of many artisans in the watchmaking and goldsmithing industries.[25] Among them:

  • Julien Coudray, who was one of the first watchmakers in Blois according to Tardy, worked for Kings Louis XII and Francis I. There is a street in Blois that holds his name.
  • the Cuper family : the Louvre museum, Paris, possesses two watches made by Michel Cuper, and two other ones by P. Cuper. A street also hols their name in the city.
  • the Bellanger family : Martin with a first wife got 2 sons born between 1594 and 1597 (among them, one was called Isaac), then at least 3 other ones with a Suzanne, named Pierre (born in 1603), Jean (married in 1641 and dead in 1678), and Théophile.
  • Guillaume Couldroit, whom the British Museum, London, has a table clock.[A 1]
  • Jacques de la Garde, whom the British Museum has a strikling clock,[A 2] and whom a table clock can be found in the National Museum of the Renaissance in Écouen, France.[A 3]
  • Charles Perras, whom 2 watches can be found in the British Museum,[A 4] as well as in the Victoria and Albert Museum.[A 5]
  • the Duduict brothers.
  • Blaise Foucher, Duiduict's disciple, whom the British Museum possesses one watchcase.[A 6]
  • the Vautier family, among whom the British Museum has several Louis' watchcases.[A 7]
  • the Gribelin family, among whom Simon was watchmaker and engraver for the King, and his son Abraham (1589–1671) succeeded to him. Nowadays, the Louvre Museum has a watch made by Abraham.[A 8]
  • the Girard family, among whom Marc came from the Netherlands and established in Blois, his son Théodore and grandson Marc II were both watchmakers.
  • Christophe Morlière (born in Orléans in 1604 – 1643), who moved to Blois. By 1632, he was ordered a watch for Lady Marguerite of Lorraine when she married Gaston, Duke of Orléans and Count of Blois.
  • Pierre Brisson.
  • Paul Viet, from who the British Museum got a painted watchcase.[A 9]
  • Jean Bonbruict, whom the British Museum has a silver coach watch.[A 10]
  • Nicolas Lemaindre, who was watchmaker and valet for Queen Catherine de' Medici. The British Museum also possesses one of his work,[A 11] as well as the Louvre[A 12] and the Victoria and Albert Museum.[A 13]
  • Pierre Landré, whom a watch is visible in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in New York City.[A 14]
  • the Chartier family, among whom Pierre had a son registered as T. Chartier in the Louvre where a cylindrical table clock is exposed.[A 15]
  • François Laurier.
  • Londonian watchmaker Henry Massy was son of Nicolas Massy, born in Blois.
  • Robert Vauquer, who has now 2 watches in the Louvre[A 16] and 1 in the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore.[26]

Intellectuals[edit]

Sportspersons[edit]

International relations[edit]

Blois is twinned with:

  • Germany Waldshut-Tiengen, Germany, since 30 June 1963
  • Germany Weimar, Germany, since 18 February 1995
  • United Kingdom Lewes, United kingdom, since 30 June 1963[28]
  • Romania Sighişoara, Romania, since 18 November 1995
  • Italy Urbino, Italy, since 1 May 2003 ("friendship protocol")
  • Vietnam Huế, Vietnam, since 23 May 2007
  • Morocco Azrou, Morocco, since July 2011 (protocol of cooperation)[29]

Fictional references[edit]

Athos, the count of La Fère (from Alexandre Dumas' The Three Musketeers) has a castle in Blois, in Twenty Years After, and The Vicomte de Bragelonne (from the same author).

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Populations légales 2019". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 29 December 2021.
  2. ^ INSEE commune file
  3. ^ "Blois | Loire Valley | France". www.experienceloire.com. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
  4. ^ Blois de la préhistoire à nos jours (in French). Éditions Petit à Petit. 2019. p. 82.
  5. ^ Denis, Yves (1988). Histoire de Blois et de sa région (Toulouse, Privat ed.). p. 318. ISBN 2-7089-8258-3.
  6. ^ Denis, Yves (1988). Histoire de Blois et de sa région (Toulouse, Privat ed.). p. 318. ISBN 2-7089-8258-3.
  7. ^ "The Chateau de Blois & St Nicholas Cathedral, Blois from the river Loire Artware Fine Art". www.artwarefineart.com. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
  8. ^ Collective (2019). Blois de la préhistoire à nos jours. p. 82.
  9. ^ The Martyrs of Blois
  10. ^ JEWISH POETRY Jewish Poetry And Martyrdom in Medieval France. Susan L. Einbinder. Princeton University Press. 2002.
  11. ^ Longnon, Auguste (1911). "Champagne" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 827–828, see page 828, first para, last sentence. Louis Hutin, became count of Champagne. He was the last independent count of the province, which became attached to the French crown on his accession to the throne of France in 1314
  12. ^ Smith, John, Holland (1973). "Joan of Arc." New York: Charles Scribner's Sons
  13. ^ Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Blois, EHESS. (in French)
  14. ^ Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  15. ^ Blois, La Maison de la Magie at virtourist.com
  16. ^ "Mussee de la Magie". Archived from the original on 18 July 2011.
  17. ^ "Travel signposts, Paris Museum of Magic". Archived from the original on 2 March 2011.
  18. ^ "Keck, Gayle, Washington Post, And Now for Paris' Next Trick". The Washington Post. 12 June 2005. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
  19. ^ Emmanuelle Plumet. "Laissez-vous conter le parcours des fontaines de Blois" (PDF). Ville de Blois. French Minister of Culture.
  20. ^ "Comic strip house".
  21. ^ "Bd BOUM annulé".
  22. ^ "Bd BOUM (Comics festival)".
  23. ^ Blois Town Hall official website. "Denis-Papin staircase". blois.fr.
  24. ^ the Blois City Official Website (2022). "La Creusille Harbour". blois.fr.
  25. ^ Tardy (1972). Dictionnaire des Horlogers Francais (in French). Tardy Paris. p. 760.
  26. ^ Philippe, Verdier (December 1963). "Seventeenth-century French enameled watches in the Walters Art Gallery". The Magazine Antiques: 686–690.
  27. ^ "Alexis Khazzaka – Soccer player profile & career statistics – Global Sports Archive". globalsportsarchive.com. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  28. ^ "British towns twinned with French towns [via WaybackMachine.com]". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  29. ^ "Jumelages et coopération internationale". Ville de Blois (in French). Retrieved 8 November 2021.

Bloisian artisans' artworks (A list):

  1. ^ "Table clock, by Guillaume Couldroit". British Museum.
  2. ^ "Strikling clock, by Jacques de la Garde". British Museum.
  3. ^ "Table clock, by Jacques de la Garde". Écouen Museum (in French).
  4. ^ "Sundial watches, by Charles Perras". British Museum.
  5. ^ "Sundial watches, by Charles Perras". Google Arts and Culture.
  6. ^ "Watchcase, by Blaise Foucher". British Museum.
  7. ^ "Watchcases, by Louis Vautier". British Museum.
  8. ^ "Watchcase, by Abraham Gribelin". Louvre Museum (in French).
  9. ^ "Painted watchcase, by Paul Viet". British Museum.
  10. ^ "Silver coach watch, by Jean Bonbruict". British Museum.
  11. ^ "Coach watch, by Nicolas Lemaindre". British Museum.
  12. ^ "Squarred watch, by Nicolas Lemaindre". Louvre Museum (in French).
  13. ^ "Watch, by Nicolas Lemaindre". Victoria and Albert Museum.
  14. ^ "Watch, by Pierre Landré". Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  15. ^ "Cylindrical table clock, by T. Chartier". Louvre Museum (in French). 1547.
  16. ^ "Watchcase, by Robert Vauquer". Louvre Museum (in French). 1643.

External links[edit]