|Synonyms||Septicemia, blood poisoning|
|Blood culture bottles: orange label for anaerobes, green label for aerobes, and yellow label for blood samples from children|
|Symptoms||Fever, increased heart rate, increased breathing rate, confusion.|
|Causes||Immune response triggered by an infection|
|Risk factors||Young or old age, cancer, diabetes, major trauma, burns|
|Diagnostic method||Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), qSOFA|
|Treatment||Intravenous fluids, antibiotics|
|Prognosis||30 to 80% risk of death|
|Frequency||0.2–3 per 1000 a year (developed world)|
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs. Common signs and symptoms include fever, increased heart rate, increased breathing rate, and confusion. There also may be symptoms related to a specific infection, such as a cough with pneumonia, or painful urination with a kidney infection. In the very young, old, and people with a weakened immune system, there may be no symptoms of a specific infection and the body temperature may be low or normal, rather than high. Severe sepsis is sepsis causing poor organ function or insufficient blood flow. Insufficient blood flow may be evident by low blood pressure, high blood lactate, or low urine output. Septic shock is low blood pressure due to sepsis that does not improve after reasonable amounts of intravenous fluids are given.
Sepsis is caused by an immune response triggered by an infection. Most commonly, the infection is bacterial, but it may also be from fungi, viruses, or parasites. Common locations for the primary infection include lungs, brain, urinary tract, skin, and abdominal organs. Risk factors include young or old age, a weakened immune system from conditions such as cancer or diabetes, major trauma, or burns. An older method of diagnosis was based on meeting at least two systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria due to a presumed infection. In 2016, SIRS was replaced with qSOFA which is two of the following three: increased breathing rate, change in level of consciousness, and low blood pressure. Blood cultures are recommended preferably before antibiotics are started, however, infection of the blood is not required for the diagnosis. Medical imaging should be used to look for the possible location of infection. Other potential causes of similar signs and symptoms include anaphylaxis, adrenal insufficiency, low blood volume, heart failure, and pulmonary embolism, among others.
Sepsis usually is treated with intravenous fluids and antibiotics. Typically, antibiotics are given as soon as possible. Often, ongoing care is performed in an intensive care unit. If fluid replacement is not enough to maintain blood pressure, medications that raise blood pressure may be used. Mechanical ventilation and dialysis may be needed to support the function of the lungs and kidneys, respectively. To guide treatment, a central venous catheter and an arterial catheter may be placed for access to the bloodstream. Other measurements such as cardiac output and superior vena cava oxygen saturation may be used. People with sepsis need preventive measures for deep vein thrombosis, stress ulcers and pressure ulcers, unless other conditions prevent such interventions. Some might benefit from tight control of blood sugar levels with insulin. The use of corticosteroids is controversial. Activated drotrecogin alfa, originally marketed for severe sepsis, has not been found to be helpful, and was withdrawn from sale in 2011.
Disease severity partly determines the outcome. The risk of death from sepsis is as high as 30%, from severe sepsis as high as 50%, and from septic shock as high as 80%. The number of cases worldwide is unknown as there is little data from the developing world. Estimates suggest sepsis affects millions of people a year. In the developed world approximately 0.2 to 3 people per 1000 are affected by sepsis yearly, resulting in about a million cases per year in the United States. Rates of disease have been increasing. Sepsis is more common among males than females. The medical condition has been described since the time of Hippocrates. The two terms, "septicemia" and "blood poisoning", refer to the microorganisms or their toxins in the blood and are no longer commonly used.
- 1 Signs and symptoms
- 2 Cause
- 3 Diagnosis
- 4 Pathophysiology
- 5 Management
- 6 Prognosis
- 7 Epidemiology
- 8 History
- 9 Society and culture
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Signs and symptoms
In addition to symptoms related to the provoking cause, sepsis is frequently associated with either fever, low body temperature, rapid breathing, elevated heart rate, confusion, and edema. Early signs are a rapid heart rate, decreased urination, and high blood sugar. Signs of established sepsis include confusion, metabolic acidosis (which may be accompanied by faster breathing and lead to a respiratory alkalosis), low blood pressure due to decreased systemic vascular resistance, higher cardiac output, and dysfunctions of blood coagulation (where clotting may lead to organ failure).
The most common primary sources of infection resulting in sepsis are the lungs, the abdomen, and the urinary tract. Typically, 50% of all sepsis cases start as an infection in the lungs. No definitive source is found in one third to one half of cases.
The increase in average age of the population, more people with chronic diseases, on immunosuppressive drugs, and increase in the number of invasive procedures being performed has led to an increased rate of sepsis.
Infections leading to sepsis usually are bacterial, but may be fungal or viral. Gram positive bacteria was the cause of sepsis before the introduction of antibiotics in the 1950s. After the introduction of antibiotics, gram negative bacteria became the predominant cause of sepsis from the 1960s to the 1980s. After 1980s, gram-positive bacteria, most commonly staphylococci, are thought to cause more than 50% of cases of sepsis. Other commonly implicated bacteria include Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella species. Fungal sepsis accounts for approximately 5% of severe sepsis and septic shock cases; the most common cause of fungal sepsis is infection by Candida species of yeast, a nosocomial infection frequently acquired in hospitals.
Early diagnosis is necessary to properly manage sepsis, as initiation of rapid therapy is key to reducing deaths from severe sepsis.
Within the first three hours of suspected sepsis, diagnostic studies should include white blood cell counts, measuring serum lactate, and obtaining appropriate cultures before starting antibiotics, so long as this does not delay their use by more than 45 minutes. To identify the causative organism(s), at least two sets of blood cultures using bottles with media for aerobic and anaerobic organisms should be obtained, with at least one drawn through the skin and one drawn through each vascular access device (such as an IV catheter) in place more than 48 hours. Bacteria are present in the blood in only about 30% of cases. Another possible method of detection is by polymerase chain reaction. If other sources of infection are suspected, cultures of these sources, such as urine, cerebrospinal fluid, wounds, or respiratory secretions, also should be obtained, as long as this does not delay the use of antibiotics.
Within six hours, if blood pressure remains low despite initial fluid resuscitation of 30 ml/kg, or if initial lactate is ≥ 4 mmol/l (36 mg/dl), central venous pressure and central venous oxygen saturation should be measured. Lactate should be re-measured if the initial lactate was elevated. Within twelve hours, it is essential to diagnose or exclude any source of infection that would require emergent source control, such as necrotizing soft tissue infection, infection causing inflammation of the abdominal cavity lining, infection of the bile duct, or intestinal infarction. A pierced internal organ (free air on abdominal x-ray or CT scan), an abnormal chest x-ray consistent with pneumonia (with focal opacification), or petechiae, purpura, or purpura fulminans may be evident of infection.
|Temperature||<36 °C (96.8 °F) or >38 °C (100.4 °F)|
|Respiratory rate||>20/min or PaCO2<32 mmHg (4.3 kPa)|
|WBC||<4x109/L (<4000/mm³), >12x109/L (>12,000/mm³), or 10% bands|
Previously, SIRS criteria had been used to define sepsis. If the SIRS criteria is negative, it is very unlikely the person has sepsis; if it is positive, there is just a moderate probability that the person has sepsis. According to SIRS, there were different levels of sepsis: sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. The definition of SIRS is shown below:
- SIRS is the presence of two or more of the following: abnormal body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, or blood gas, and white blood cell count.
- Sepsis is defined as SIRS in response to an infectious process.
- Severe sepsis is defined as sepsis with sepsis-induced organ dysfunction or tissue hypoperfusion (manifesting as hypotension, elevated lactate, or decreased urine output).
- Septic shock is severe sepsis plus persistently low blood pressure, despite the administration of intravenous fluids.
Examples of end-organ dysfunction include the following:
- Lungs: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (PaO2/FiO2 < 300)[note 1]
- Brain: encephalopathy symptoms including agitation, confusion, coma; causes may include ischemia, bleeding, formation of blood clots in small blood vessels, microabscesses, multifocal necrotizing leukoencephalopathy
- Liver: disruption of protein synthetic function manifests acutely as progressive disruption of blood clotting due to an inability to synthesize clotting factors and disruption of metabolic functions leads to impaired bilirubin metabolism, resulting in elevated unconjugated serum bilirubin levels
- Kidney: low urine output or no urine output, electrolyte abnormalities, or volume overload
- Heart: systolic and diastolic heart failure, likely due to chemical signals that depress myocyte function, cellular damage, manifest as a troponin leak (although not necessarily ischemic in nature)
More specific definitions of end-organ dysfunction exist for SIRS in pediatrics.
- Cardiovascular dysfunction (after fluid resuscitation with at least 40 ml/kg of crystalloid)
- hypotension with blood pressure < 5th percentile for age or systolic blood pressure < 2 standard deviations below normal for age, or
- vasopressor requirement, or
- two of the following criteria:
- Respiratory dysfunction (in the absence of cyanotic heart disease or known chronic lung disease)
- the ratio of the arterial partial-pressure of oxygen to the fraction of oxygen in the gases inspired (PaO2/FiO2) < 300 (the definition of acute lung injury), or
- arterial partial-pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) > 65 torr (20 mmHg) over baseline PaCO2 (evidence of hypercapnic respiratory failure), or
- supplemental oxygen requirement of greater than FiO2 0.5 to maintain oxygen saturation ≥ 92%
- Neurologic dysfunction
- Hematologic dysfunction
- Kidney dysfunction
- Liver dysfunction (only applicable to infants > 1 month)
Consensus definitions, however, continue to evolve, with the latest expanding the list of signs and symptoms of sepsis to reflect clinical bedside experience.
A 2013 review concluded moderate-quality evidence exists to support use of the procalcitonin level as a method to distinguish sepsis from non-infectious causes of SIRS. The same review found the sensitivity of the test to be 77% and the specificity to be 79%. The authors suggested that procalcitonin may serve as a helpful diagnostic marker for sepsis, but cautioned that its level alone cannot definitively make the diagnosis. A 2012 systematic review found that soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (SuPAR) is a nonspecific marker of inflammation and does not accurately diagnose sepsis. This same review concluded, however, that SuPAR has prognostic value, as higher SuPAR levels are associated with an increased rate of death in those with sepsis.
The differential diagnosis for sepsis is broad and has to examine (to exclude) the noninfectious conditions that may cause the systemic signs of SIRS: alcohol withdrawal, acute pancreatitis, burns, pulmonary embolism, thyrotoxicosis, anaphylaxis, adrenal insufficiency, and neurogenic shock. Hyperinflammatory syndromes such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) may have similar symptoms and should also be included in differential diagnosis.
In common clinical usage, neonatal sepsis refers to a bacterial blood stream infection in the first month of life, such as meningitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, or gastroenteritis, but neonatal sepsis also may be due to infection with fungi, viruses, or parasites. Criteria with regard to hemodynamic compromise or respiratory failure are not useful because they present too late for intervention.
Sepsis is caused by a combination of factors related to the particular invading pathogen(s) and to the status of the immune system of the host. The early phase of sepsis characterized by excessive inflammation (sometimes resulting in a cytokine storm) may be followed by a prolonged period of decreased functioning of the immune system. Either of these phases may prove fatal. On the other hand, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) occurs in people without the presence of infection, for example, in those with burns, polytrauma, or the initial state in pancreatitis and chemical pneumonitis. However, sepsis also causes similar response to SIRS.
Bacterial virulence factors, such as glycocalyx and various adhesins, allow colonization, immune evasion, and establishment of disease in the host. Sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria is thought to be largely due to a response by the host to the lipid A component of lipopolysaccharide, also called endotoxin. Sepsis caused by gram-positive bacteria may result from an immunological response to cell wall lipoteichoic acid. Bacterial exotoxins that act as superantigens also may cause sepsis. Superantigens simultaneously bind major histocompatibility complex and T-cell receptors in the absence of antigen presentation. This forced receptor interaction induces the production of pro-inflammatory chemical signals (cytokines) by T-cells.
There are a number of microbial factors that may cause the typical septic inflammatory cascade. An invading pathogen is recognized by its pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Examples of PAMPs include lipopolysaccharides and flagellin in gram-negative bacteria, muramyl dipeptide in the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall, and CpG bacterial DNA. These PAMPs are recognized by the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system, which may be membrane-bound or cytosolic. There are four families of PRRs: the toll-like receptors, the C-type lectin receptors, the NOD-like receptors, and the RIG-I-like receptors. Invariably, the association of a PAMP and a PRR will cause a series of intracellular signalling cascades. Consequentially, transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappa B and activator protein-1, will up-regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.
Upon detection of microbial antigens, the host systemic immune system is activated. Immune cells not only recognize PAMP, but also Damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) from damaged tissues. Uncontrolled immune response was then activated because leukocytes are not recruited to the specific site of infection, but instead they are recruited all over the body. Then, immunosuppression state ensues when the proinflammatory T helper cell 1 (TH1) is shifted to TH2, mediated by interleukin 10, which is known as "compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome". The apoptosis (cell death) of lymphocytes further worsens the immunosuppression. Subsequently, multiple organ failure ensues because tissues are unable to use oxygen efficiently due to inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase.
Inflammatory responses cause multiple organ dysfunction syndrome through various mechanisms as described below. Increased permeability of the lung vessels causes leaking of fluids into alveoli, which results in pulmonary edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Impaired utilization of oxygen in the liver impairs bile salt transport, causing jaundice (yellowish discoloration of skin). In kidneys, inadequate oxygenation results in tubular epithelial cell injury (of the cells lining the kidney tubules), and thus causes acute kidney injury (AKI). Meanwhile, in a human heart, impaired calcium transport, and low production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), can cause myocardial depression, reducing cardiac contractility and causing heart failure. In the gastrointestinal tract, increased permeability of the mucosa alters the microflora, causing mucosal bleeding and paralytic ileus. In the central nervous system, direct damage of the brain cells and disturbances of neurotransmissions causes altered mental status. Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1, and interleukin 6 may activate procoagulation factors in the cells lining blood vessels, leading to endothelial damage. The damaged endothelial surface inhibits anticoagulant properties as well as increases antifibrinolysis, which may lead to intravascular clotting, the formation of blood clots in small blood vessels, and multiple organ failure.
The low blood pressure seen in those with sepsis is the result of various processes, including excessive production of chemicals that dilate blood vessels such as nitric oxide, a deficiency of chemicals that constrict blood vessels such as vasopressin, and activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. In those with severe sepsis and septic shock, this sequence of events leads to a type of circulatory shock known as distributive shock.
Early recognition and focused management may improve the outcomes in sepsis. Current professional recommendations include a number of actions ("bundles") to be followed as soon as possible after diagnosis. Within the first three hours someone with sepsis should have received antibiotics and, intravenous fluids if there is evidence of either low blood pressure or other evidence for inadequate blood supply to organs (as evidenced by a raised level of lactate); blood cultures also should be obtained within this time period. After six hours the blood pressure should be adequate, close monitoring of blood pressure and blood supply to organs should be in place, and the lactate should be measured again if initially, it was raised. A related bundle, the "Sepsis Six", is in widespread use in the United Kingdom; this requires the administration of antibiotics within an hour of recognition, blood cultures, lactate and hemoglobin determination, urine output monitoring, high-flow oxygen, and intravenous fluids.
Apart from the timely administration of fluids and antibiotics, the management of sepsis also involves surgical drainage of infected fluid collections and appropriate support for organ dysfunction. This may include hemodialysis in kidney failure, mechanical ventilation in lung dysfunction, transfusion of blood products, and drug and fluid therapy for circulatory failure. Ensuring adequate nutrition—preferably by enteral feeding, but if necessary, by parenteral nutrition—is important during prolonged illness. Medication to prevent deep vein thrombosis and gastric ulcers also may be used.
Two sets of blood cultures (aerobic and anaerobic) should be taken without delaying the initiation of antibiotics. Cultures from other sites such as respiratory secretions, urine, wounds, cerebrospinal fluid, and catheter insertion sites (in-situ more than 48 hours) can be taken if infections from these sites are suspected. In severe sepsis and septic shock, broad-spectrum antibiotics (usually two, a β-lactam antibiotic with broad coverage, or broad-spectrum carbapenem combined with fluoroquinolones, macrolides, or aminoglycosides) are recommended. However, combination of antibiotics is not recommended for the treatment of sepsis but without shock and immunocompromised persons unless the combination is used to broaden the anti-bacterial activity. The choice of antibiotics is important in determining the survival of the person. Some recommend they be given within one hour of making the diagnosis, stating that for every hour of delay in the administration of antibiotics, there is an associated 6% rise in mortality. Others did not find a benefit with early administration.
Several factors determine the most appropriate choice for the initial antibiotic regimen. These factors include local patterns of bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics, whether the infection is thought to be a hospital or community-acquired infection, and which organ systems are thought to be infected. Antibiotic regimens should be reassessed daily and narrowed if appropriate. Treatment duration is typically 7–10 days with the type of antibiotic used directed by the results of cultures. If the culture result is negative, antibiotics should be de-escalated according to person's clinical response or stopped altogether if infection is not present to decrease the chances that the person is infected with multiple drug resistance organisms. In case of people having high risk of being infected with multiple drug resistance organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, addition of antibiotic specific to gram-negative organism is recommended. For Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin or teicoplanin is recommended. For Legionella infection, addition of macrolide or fluoroquinolone is chosen. If fungal infection is suspected, an echinocandin, such as caspofungin or micafungin, is chosen for people with severe sepsis, followed by triazole (fluconazole and itraconazole) for less ill people. Prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended in people who has SIRS without any infectious origin such as acute pancreatitis and burns unless sepsis is suspected.
Once daily dosing of aminoglycoside is sufficient to achieve peak plasma concentration for clinical response without kidney toxicity. Meanwhile, for antibiotics with low volume distribution (vancomycin, teicoplanin, colistin), loading dose is required to achieve adequate therapeutic level to fight infections. Frequent infusions of beta-lactam antibiotics without exceeding total daily dose would help to keep the antibiotics level above minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), thus providing better clinical response. Giving beta-lactam antibiotics continuously may be better than giving them intermittently. Access to therapeutic drug monitoring is important to ensure adequate drug therapeutic level while at the same time preventing the drug from reaching toxic level.
The Surviving Sepsis Campaign has recommended 30 ml/kg of fluid to be given in adults in the first 3 hours followed by fluid titration according to blood pressure, urine output, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation with a target mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 65 mmHg. In children an initial amount of 20ml/kg is reasonable in shock. In cases of severe sepsis and septic shock where a central venous catheter is used to measure blood pressures dynamically, fluids should be administered until the central venous pressure (CVP) reaches 8–12mmHg. Once these goals are met, the central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2), i.e., the oxygen saturation of venous blood as it returns to the heart as measured at the vena cava, is optimized. If the ScvO2 is less than 70%, blood may be given to reach a hemoglobin of 10 g/dL and then inotropes are added until the ScvO2 is optimized. In those with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sufficient tissue blood fluid, more fluids should be given carefully.
Crystalloid is recommended as the fluid of choice for resuscitation. Albumin can be used if large amount of crystalloid is required for resuscitaition. Crystalloid solutions and albumin are better than other fluids (such as hydroxyethyl starch) in terms of risk of death. Starches also carry an increased risk of acute kidney injury, and need for blood transfusion. Various colloid solutions (such as modified gelatin) carry no advantage over crystalloid. Albumin also appears to be of no benefit over crystalloids.
The Surviving Sepsis Campaign recommended packed red blood cells transfusion for hemoglobin levels below 70 g/L if there is no myocardial ischemia, hypoxemia, or acute bleeding. In a 2014 trial, blood transfusions to keep target hemoglobin above 70 or 90 g/L did not make any difference to survival rates; meanwhile, those with a lower threshold of transfusion received fewer transfusions in total. Erythropoietin is not recommended in the treatment of anemia with septic shock because it may precipitate blood clotting events. Fresh frozen plasma transfusion usually does not correct the underlying clotting abnormalities before a planned surgical procedure. However, platelet transfusion is suggested for platelet counts below (10 × 109/L) without any risk of bleeding, or (20 × 109/L) with high risk of bleeding, or (50 × 109/L) with active bleeding, before a planned surgery or an invasive procedure. IV immunoglobulin is not recommended because its beneficial effects are uncertain. Monoclonal and polyclonal preparations of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) do not lower the rate of death in newborns and adults with sepsis. Evidence for the use of IgM-enriched polyclonal preparations of IVIG is inconsistent. On the other hand, the use of antithrombin to treat disseminated intravascular coagulation is also not useful. Meanwhile, the blood purification technique (such as hemoperfusion, plasma filtration, and coupled plasma filtration adsorption) to remove inflammatory mediators and bacterial toxins from the blood also does not demonstrate any survival benefit for septic shock.
If the person has been sufficiently fluid resuscitated but the mean arterial pressure is not greater than 65 mmHg, vasopressors are recommended. Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) is recommended as the initial choice.
Norepinephrine raises blood pressure through a vasoconstriction effect, with little effect on stroke volume and heart rate. If a single vasopressor is not enough to raise the blood pressure, epinephrine (adrenaline) or vasopressin may be added. However, one of the adrenaline side effects is that it reduces blood flow to abdominal organs and may cause increased lactate levels. Vasopressin can be used in septic shock because studies have shown that there is a relative deficiency of vasopressin when shock continues for 24 to 48 hours. However, vasopressin reduces blood flow to the heart, finger/toes, and abdominal organs, resulting in a lack of oxygen supply to these tissues. Dopamine is typically not recommended. Although dopamine is useful to increase the stroke volume of the heart, it causes more abnormal heart rhythms than norepinephrine and also has an immunosuppressive effect. Dopamine is not proven to have protective properties on the kidneys. Dobutamine may be used if heart function is poor or blood flow is insufficient despite sufficient fluid volumes and blood pressure.
The use of steroids in sepsis is controversial. Studies do not give a clear picture as to whether and when glucocorticoids should be used. The 2016 Surviving Sepsis Campaign recommends against their use in those with septic shock if intravenous fluids and vasopressors are able to stabilize the person's cardiovascular function. Low dose hydrocortisone is only used if both intravenous fluids and vasopressors are not able to adequately treat septic shock. A 2015 Cochrane review found low-quality evidence of benefit.
During critical illness, a state of adrenal insufficiency and tissue resistance to corticosteroids may occur. This has been termed critical illness–related corticosteroid insufficiency. Treatment with corticosteroids might be most beneficial in those with septic shock and early severe ARDS, whereas its role in others such as those with pancreatitis or severe pneumonia is unclear. However, the exact way of determining corticosteroid insufficiency remains problematic. It should be suspected in those poorly responding to resuscitation with fluids and vasopressors. Neither ACTH stimulation testing nor random cortisol levels are recommended to confirm the diagnosis. The method of stopping glucocorticoid drugs is variable, and it is unclear whether they should be slowly decreased or simply abruptly stopped. However, the 2016 Surviving Sepsis Campaign recommended to taper steroids when vasopressors are no longer needed.
A target tidal volume of 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight (PBW) and a plateau pressure less than 30 cm H2O is recommended for those who require ventilation due to sepsis-induced severe ARDS. High positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) is recommended for moderate to severe ARDS in sepsis as it opens more lung units for oxygen exchange. Recruitment maneuvers may be necessary for severe ARDS by briefly raising the transpulmonary pressure. It is recommended that the head of the bed be raised if possible to improve ventilation. However, β2 adrenergic receptor agonists are not recommended to treat ARDS because it may reduce survival rates and precipitate abnormal heart rhythms. A spontaneous breathing trial using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), T piece, or inspiratory pressure augmentation can be helpful in reducing the duration of ventilation. Minimizing intermittent or continuous sedation is helpful in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation.
General anesthesia is recommended for people with sepsis who require surgical procedures to remove the infective source. Usually inhalational and intravenous anesthetics are used. Requirements for anesthetics may be reduced in sepsis. Inhalational anesthetics can reduce the level of proinflammatory cytokines, altering leukocyte adhesion and proliferation, inducing apoptosis (cell death) of the lymphocytes, possibly with a toxic effect on mitochondrial function. Although etomidate has a minimal effect on the cardiovascular system, it is often not recommended as a medication to help with intubation in this situation due to concerns it may lead to poor adrenal function and an increased risk of death. The small amount of evidence there is, however, has not found a change in the risk of death with etomidate.
Early goal directed therapy
Early goal directed therapy (EGDT) is an approach to the management of severe sepsis during the initial 6 hours after diagnosis. It is a step-wise approach, with the physiologic goal of optimizing cardiac preload, afterload, and contractility. It includes giving early antibiotics. EGDT also involves monitoring of hemodynamic parameters and specific interventions to achieve key resuscitation targets which include maintaining a central venous pressure between 8–12 mmHg, a mean arterial pressure of between 65–90 mmHg, a central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) greater than 70% and a urine output of greater than 0.5 ml/kg/hour. The goal is to optimize oxygen delivery to tissues and achieve a balance between systemic oxygen delivery and demand. An appropriate decrease in serum lactate may be equivalent to ScvO2 and easier to obtain.
In the original trial, early goal directed therapy was found to reduce mortality from 46.5% to 30.5% in those with sepsis, and the Surviving Sepsis Campaign has been recommending its use. However, three more recent large randomized control trials (ProCESS, ARISE, and ProMISe), did not demonstrate a 90-day mortality benefit of early goal directed therapy when compared to standard therapy in severe sepsis. It is likely that some parts of EGDT are more important than others. Following these trials the use of EGDT is still considered reasonable.
Neonatal sepsis can be difficult to diagnose as newborns may be asymptomatic. If a newborn shows signs and symptoms suggestive of sepsis, antibiotics are immediately started and are either changed to target a specific organism identified by diagnostic testing or discontinued after an infectious cause for the symptoms has been ruled out.
Treating fever in people with sepsis does not affect outcomes.
Recombinant activated protein C (drotrecogin alpha) was originally introduced for severe sepsis (as identified by a high APACHE II score), where it was thought to confer a survival benefit. However, subsequent studies showed that it increased adverse events—bleeding risk in particular—and did not decrease mortality. It was removed from sale in 2011. Another medication known as eritoran also has not shown benefit.
In those with high blood sugar levels, insulin to bring it down to 7.8–10 mmol/L (140–180 mg/dL) is recommended with lower levels potentially worsening outcomes. Glucose levels taken from capillary blood should be interpreted with care because such measurements may not be accurate. If a person has an arterial catheter, arterial blood is recommended for blood glucose testing.
Intermittent or continuous renal replacement therapy may be used if indicated. However, sodium bicarbonate is not recommended for a person with lactic acidosis secondary to hypoperfusion. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), unfractionated heparin (UFH), and mechanical prophylaxis with intermittent pneumatic compression devices are recommended for any person with sepsis at moderate to high risk of venous thromboembolism. Stress ulcer prevention with proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) and H2 antagonist are useful in a person with risk factors of developing upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) such as on mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours, coagulation disorders, liver disease, and renal replacement therapy. Achieving partial or full enteral feeding (delivery of nutrients through a feeding tube) is chosen as the best approach to provide nutrition for a person who is contraindicated for oral intake or unable to tolerate orally in the first seven days of sepsis when compared to intravenous nutrition. However, omega-3 fatty acids are not recommended as immune supplements for a person with sepsis or septic shock. The usage of prokinetic agents such as metoclopramide, domperidone, and erythromycin are recommended for those who are septic and unable to tolerate enteral feeding. However, these agents may precipitate prolongation of the QT interval and consequently provoke a ventricular arrhythmia such as torsades de pointes. The usage of prokinetic agents should be reassessed daily and stopped if no longer indicated.
Approximately 20–35% of people with severe sepsis and 30–70% of people with septic shock die. Lactate is a useful method of determining prognosis with those who have a level greater than 4 mmol/L having a mortality of 40% and those with a level of less than 2 mmol/L have a mortality of less than 15%.
There are a number of prognostic stratification systems such as APACHE II and Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis. APACHE II factors in the person's age, underlying condition, and various physiologic variables to yield estimates of the risk of dying of severe sepsis. Of the individual covariates, the severity of underlying disease most strongly influences the risk of death. Septic shock is also a strong predictor of short- and long-term mortality. Case-fatality rates are similar for culture-positive and culture-negative severe sepsis. The Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) score is simpler and useful in the emergency department environment.
Some people may experience severe long-term cognitive decline following an episode of severe sepsis, but the absence of baseline neuropsychological data in most people with sepsis makes the incidence of this difficult to quantify or to study.
Sepsis causes millions of deaths globally each year and is the most common cause of death in people who have been hospitalized. The worldwide incidence of sepsis is estimated to be 18 million cases per year. In the United States sepsis affects approximately 3 in 1,000 people, and severe sepsis contributes to more than 200,000 deaths per year.
Sepsis occurs in 1–2% of all hospitalizations and accounts for as much as 25% of ICU bed utilization. Due to it rarely being reported as a primary diagnosis (often being a complication of cancer or other illness), the incidence, mortality, and morbidity rates of sepsis are likely underestimated. A study by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) of selected States found that there were approximately 651 hospital stays per 100,000 population with a sepsis diagnosis in 2010. It is the second-leading cause of death in non-coronary intensive care unit (ICU) and the tenth-most-common cause of death overall (the first being heart disease). Children under 12 months of age and elderly people have the highest incidence of severe sepsis. Among U.S. patients who had multiple sepsis hospital admissions in 2010, those who were discharged to a skilled nursing facility or long term care following the initial hospitalization were more likely to be readmitted than those discharged to another form of care. A study of 18 U.S. States found that, amongst Medicare patients in 2011, sepsis was the second most common principal reason for readmission within 30 days.
Several medical conditions increase a person's susceptibility to infection and developing sepsis. Common sepsis risk factors include age (especially the very young and old); conditions that weaken the immune system such as cancer, diabetes, or the absence of a spleen; and major trauma and burns.
The term "σήψις" (sepsis) was introduced by Hippocrates in the fourth century BC, and it meant the process of decay or decomposition of organic matter. In the eleventh century, Avicenna used the term "blood rot" for diseases linked to severe purulent process. Though severe systemic toxicity had already been observed, it was only in the 19th century that the specific term – sepsis – was used for this condition.
The terms "septicemia", also spelled "septicaemia", and "blood poisoning" referred to the microorganisms or their toxins in the blood and are no longer commonly used. The modern term for this is bacteremia.
By the end of the 19th century, it was widely believed that microbes produced substances that could injure the mammalian host and that soluble toxins released during infection caused the fever and shock that were commonplace during severe infections. Pfeiffer coined the term endotoxin at the beginning of the 20th century to denote the pyrogenic principle associated with Vibrio cholerae. It was soon realised that endotoxins were expressed by most and perhaps all gram-negative bacteria. The lipopolysaccharide character of enteric endotoxins was elucidated in 1944 by Shear. The molecular character of this material was determined by Luderitz et al. in 1973.
It was discovered in 1965 that a strain of C3H/HeJ mice were immune to the endotoxin-induced shock. The genetic locus for this effect was dubbed Lps. These mice were also found to be hypersusceptible to infection by gram-negative bacteria. These observations were finally linked in 1998 by the discovery of the toll-like receptor gene 4 (TLR 4). Genetic mapping work, performed over a period of five years, showed that TLR4 was the sole candidate locus within the Lps critical region; this strongly implied that a mutation within TLR4 must account for the lipopolysaccharide resistance phenotype. The defect in the TLR4 gene that led to the endotoxin resistant phenotype was discovered to be due to a mutation in the cytoplasm.
Controversy occurred in the scientific community over the use of mouse models in research into sepsis in 2013, when scientists published a review of the mouse immune system compared to the human immune system, and showed that on a systems level, the two worked very differently; the authors noted that as of the date of their article over 150 clinical trials of sepsis had been conducted in humans, almost of them supported by promising data in mice, and that all of them had failed. The authors called for abandoning the use of mouse models in sepsis research; others rejected that but called for more caution in interpreting the results of mouse studies, and more careful design of preclinical studies. One approach is to rely more on studying biopsies and clinical data from people who have had sepsis, to try to identify biomarkers and drug targets for intervention.
Society and culture
Sepsis was the most expensive condition treated in United States' hospital stays in 2013, at an aggregate cost of $23.6 billion for nearly 1.3 million hospitalizations. Costs for sepsis hospital stays more than quadrupled since 1997 with an 11.5 percent annual increase. By payer, it was the most costly condition billed to Medicare and the uninsured, the second-most costly billed to Medicaid, and the fourth-most costly billed to private insurance.
A large international collaboration entitled the "Surviving Sepsis Campaign" was established in 2002 to educate people about sepsis and to improve patient outcomes with sepsis. The Campaign has published an evidence-based review of management strategies for severe sepsis, with the aim to publish a complete set of guidelines in subsequent years.
- "Sepsis Questions and Answers". cdc.gov. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). May 22, 2014. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
- Jui, Jonathan (2011). "Ch. 146: Septic Shock". In Tintinalli, Judith E.; Stapczynski, J. Stephan; Ma, O. John; Cline, David M.; et al. Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 1003–14. Archived from the original on January 15, 2014. Retrieved December 11, 2012 – via AccessMedicine. (Subscription required (. ))
- Deutschman, CS; Tracey, KJ (April 2014). "Sepsis: Current dogma and new perspectives". Immunity. 40 (4): 463–75. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2014.04.001. PMID 24745331.
- Singer, M; Deutschman, CS; Seymour, CW; Shankar-Hari, M; Annane, D; Bauer, M; Bellomo, R; Bernard, GR; Chiche, JD; Coopersmith, CM; Hotchkiss, RS; Levy, MM; Marshall, JC; Martin, GS; Opal, SM; Rubenfeld, GD; van der Poll, T; Vincent, JL; Angus, DC (23 February 2016). "The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3)". JAMA. 315 (8): 801–10. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.0287. PMC . PMID 26903338.
- Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E (March 2017). "Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2016". Critical Care Medicine. 45 (3): 486–552. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000002255. PMID 28101605.
- Jawad, I; Lukšić, I; Rafnsson, SB (June 2012). "Assessing available information on the burden of sepsis: Global estimates of incidence, prevalence and mortality". Journal of Global Health. 2 (1): 010404. doi:10.7189/jogh.01.010404. PMC . PMID 23198133.
- Martin, GS (June 2012). "Sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock: Changes in incidence, pathogens and outcomes". Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 10 (6): 701–6. doi:10.1586/eri.12.50. PMC . PMID 22734959.
- Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, Shankar-Hari M, Annane D, Bauer M, Bellomo R, Bernard GR, Chiche JD, Coopersmith CM, Hotchkiss RS, Levy MM, Marshall JC, Martin GS, Opal SM, Rubenfeld GD, van der Poll T, Vincent JL, Angus DC (February 23, 2016). "The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3)". JAMA. 315: 801–10. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.0287. PMC . PMID 26903338.
- Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee including The Pediatric Subgroup; Dellinger, RP; Levy, MM; Rhodes, A; et al. (2013). "Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2012" (PDF). Critical Care Medicine. 41 (2): 580–637. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31827e83af. PMID 23353941. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-02-02 – via Surviving Sepsis Campaign.
- Patel, GP; Balk, RA (January 15, 2012). "Systemic steroids in severe sepsis and septic shock". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 185 (2): 133–9. doi:10.1164/rccm.201011-1897CI. PMID 21680949.
- Martí-Carvajal, AJ; Solà, I; Gluud, C; Lathyris, D; Cardona, AF (12 December 2012). "Human recombinant protein C for severe sepsis and septic shock in adult and paediatric patients". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12: CD004388. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004388.pub6. PMID 23235609.
- Angus, DC; van der Poll, T (August 29, 2013). "Severe sepsis and septic shock". The New England Journal of Medicine. 369 (9): 840–51. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1208623. PMID 23984731. Archived from the original on September 1, 2013. Lay summary (August 30, 2013).
- Bone, R; Balk, R; Cerra, F; Dellinger, R; et al. (1992). "Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. The ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee. American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine" (PDF). Chest. 101 (6): 1644–55. doi:10.1378/chest.101.6.1644. PMID 1303622.
- SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS; Levy, MM; Fink, MP; Marshall, JC; et al. (April 2003). "2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference" (PDF). Critical Care Medicine. 31 (4): 1250–6. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000050454.01978.3B. PMID 12682500. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-09-24 – via European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM).
- Felner, Kevin; Smith, Robert L. (2012). "Ch. 138: Sepsis". In McKean, Sylvia; Ross, John J.; Dressler, Daniel D.; Brotman, Daniel J.; et al. Principles and Practice of Hospital Medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 1099–109. ISBN 0071603891.
- MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Sepsis. Retrieved November 29, 2014.
- Munford, Robert S.; Suffredini, Anthony F. (2014). "Ch. 75: Sepsis, Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock". In Bennett, John E.; Dolin, Raphael; Blaser, Martin J. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (8th ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 914–34. ISBN 9780323263733.
- Gizem, Polat; Anil Ugan, Rustem; Cadirci, Elif; Halici, Zekai (February 2017). "Sepsis and Septic Shock: Current Treatment Strategies and New Approaches". The Eurasian Journal of Medicine. 49 (1): 53–58. doi:10.5152/eurasianjmed.2017.17062.
- Bloch, KC (2010). "Ch. 4: Infectious Diseases". In McPhee, Stephen J.; Hammer, Gary D. Pathophysiology of Disease (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Archived from the original on January 15, 2014. Retrieved January 10, 2013 – via AccessMedicine. (Subscription required (. ))
- S Martin, Greg (2013). "Sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock: changes in incidence, pathogens and outcomes". Expert Review of Anti-infective therapy. 10 (6): 701–706. doi:10.1586/eri.12.50. PMC .
- Ramachandran, G (January 2014). "Gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial toxins in sepsis: A brief review". Virulence. 5 (1): 213–8. doi:10.4161/viru.27024. PMC . PMID 24193365.
- Delaloye, J; Calandra, T (January 2014). "Invasive candidiasis as a cause of sepsis in the critically ill patient". Virulence. 5 (1): 161–9. doi:10.4161/viru.26187. PMC . PMID 24157707.
- Wacker, C; Prkno, A; Brunkhorst, FM; Schlattmann, P (May 2013). "Procalcitonin as a diagnostic marker for sepsis: A systematic review and meta-analysis". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 13 (5): 426–35. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(12)70323-7. PMID 23375419. Archived from the original on 2017-09-06.
- "American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference: Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis" (PDF). Critical Care Medicine. 20 (6): 864–74. 1992. doi:10.1097/00003246-199206000-00025. PMID 1597042.
- Soong, J; Soni, N (June 2012). "Sepsis: Recognition and treatment". Clinical Medicine. 12 (3): 276–80. doi:10.7861/clinmedicine.12-3-276. PMID 22783783. Archived from the original on 2015-09-23.
- Abraham, E; Singer, M (2007). "Mechanisms of sepsis-induced organ dysfunction" (PDF). Critical Care Medicine. 35 (10): 2408–16. doi:10.1097/01.CCM.0000282072.56245.91. PMID 17948334 – via South African Society of Surgeons in Training (SASSIT).[permanent dead link]
- Ranieri, VM; Rubenfeld, GD; Thompson, BT; Ferguson, ND; et al. (June 2012). "Acute respiratory distress syndrome: The Berlin definition". JAMA. 307 (23): 2526–33. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.5669. PMID 22797452.
- "Meet the new ARDS: Expert panel announces new definition, severity classes". PulmCCM. Matthew Hoffman. Archived from the original on 2014-04-23.
- International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis; Goldstein, B; Giroir, B; Randolph, A (2005). "International Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference: Definitions for sepsis and organ dysfunction in pediatrics". Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. 6 (1): 2–8. doi:10.1097/01.PCC.0000149131.72248.E6. PMID 15636651.
- Backes, Y; van der Sluijs, KF; Mackie, DP; Tacke, F; Koch, A; Tenhunen, JJ; Schultz, MJ (September 2012). "Usefulness of suPAR as a biological marker in patients with systemic inflammation or infection: a systematic review". Intensive Care Medicine. 38 (9): 1418–28. doi:10.1007/s00134-012-2613-1. PMC . PMID 22706919.
- Mayr, FB; Yende, S; Angus, DC (January 2014). "Epidemiology of severe sepsis". Virulence. 5 (1): 4–11. doi:10.4161/viru.27372. PMC . PMID 24335434.
- Machowicz R, Janka G, Wiktor-Jedrzejczak W (March 2017). "Similar but not the same: Differential diagnosis of HLH and sepsis". Critical reviews in oncology/hematology. 114: 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2017.03.023. PMID 28477737.
- Satar, M; Ozlu, F (September 2012). "Neonatal sepsis: A continuing disease burden" (PDF). The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics. 54 (5): 449–57. PMID 23427506. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-12-19.
- Ely, E. Wesley; Goyette, Richert E. (2005). "Ch. 46: Sepsis with Acute Organ Dysfunction". In Hall, Jesse B.; Schmidt, Gregory A.; Wood, Lawrence D.H. Principles of Critical Care (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 0071416404. Archived from the original on 2014-12-05 – via AccessMedicine. (Subscription required (. ))
- Shukla, P; Rao, GM; Pandey, G; Sharma, S; et al. (September 5, 2014). "Therapeutic interventions in sepsis: Current and anticipated pharmacological agents". British Journal of Pharmacology. 171 (22): 5011–31. doi:10.1111/bph.12829. PMC . PMID 24977655. Archived from the original on July 16, 2015.
- Park, BS; Lee, JO (December 2013). "Recognition of lipopolysaccharide pattern by TLR4 complexes". Experimental & Molecular Medicine. 45 (12): e66. doi:10.1038/emm.2013.97. PMC . PMID 24310172.
- Cross, AS (January 2014). "Anti-endotoxin vaccines: Back to the future". Virulence. 5 (1): 219–25. doi:10.4161/viru.25965. PMC . PMID 23974910.
- Fournier, B; Philpott, DJ (July 2005). "Recognition of Staphylococcus aureus by the innate immune system". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 18 (3): 521–40. doi:10.1128/CMR.18.3.521-540.2005. PMC . PMID 16020688.
- Leentjens, J; Kox, M; van der Hoeven, JG; Netea, MG; et al. (June 15, 2013). "Immunotherapy for the adjunctive treatment of sepsis: From immunosuppression to immunostimulation. Time for a paradigm change?". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 187 (12): 1287–93. doi:10.1164/rccm.201301-0036CP. PMID 23590272.
- Antonopoulou, A; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, EJ (January 2011). "Immunomodulation in sepsis: State of the art and future perspective". Immunotherapy. 3 (1): 117–28. doi:10.2217/imt.10.82. PMID 21174562.
- Yuki, Koichi; Murakami, Naoka (6 Jan 2016). "Sepsis Pathophysiology and Anesthetic Consideration". Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders-Drug Targets. 15 (1): 57–69. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
- Fujishima, Seitaro (1 November 2016). "Organ dysfunction as a new standard for defining sepsis". Inflammation and Regeneration. 36 (24). doi:10.1186/s41232-016-0029-y.
- Nimah, M; Brilli, RJ (2003). "Coagulation dysfunction in sepsis and multiple organ system failure". Critical Care Clinics. 19 (3): 441–58. doi:10.1016/s0749-0704(03)00008-3. PMID 12848314 – via South African Society of Surgeons in Training (SASSIT).[permanent dead link]
- Marik, PE (June 2014). "Iatrogenic salt water drowning and the hazards of a high central venous pressure". Annals of Intensive Care. 4: 21. doi:10.1186/s13613-014-0021-0. PMC . PMID 25110606.
- Marik, PE (June 2014). "Early management of severe sepsis: concepts and controversies". Chest. 145 (6): 1407–18. doi:10.1378/chest.13-2104. PMID 24889440.
- Daniels, R. (11 March 2011). "Surviving the first hours in sepsis: getting the basics right (an intensivist's perspective)". Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 66 (Supplement 2): ii11–ii23. doi:10.1093/jac/dkq515. PMID 21398303.
- Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) (May 2014). Guideline 139: care of deteriorating patients. Edinburgh: SIGN. ISBN 978-1-909103-26-9. Archived from the original on 2014-12-09.
- Sterling, SA; Miller, WR; Pryor, J; Puskarich, MA; Jones, AE (26 June 2015). "The Impact of Timing of Antibiotics on Outcomes in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Critical Care Medicine. 43: 1907–15. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000001142. PMC . PMID 26121073.
- Roberts, JA; Abdul-Aziz, MH; Davis, JS; Dulhunty, JM; Cotta, MO; Myburgh, J; Bellomo, R; Lipman, J (15 September 2016). "Continuous versus Intermittent β-Lactam Infusion in Severe Sepsis. A Meta-analysis of Individual Patient Data from Randomized Trials". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 194 (6): 681–91. doi:10.1164/rccm.201601-0024oc. PMID 26974879.
- de Caen, AR; Berg, MD; Chameides, L; Gooden, CK; Hickey, RW; Scott, HF; Sutton, RM; Tijssen, JA; Topjian, A; van der Jagt, ÉW; Schexnayder, SM; Samson, RA (3 November 2015). "Part 12: Pediatric Advanced Life Support: 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines Update for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care". Circulation. 132 (18 Suppl 2): S526–42. doi:10.1161/cir.0000000000000266. PMID 26473000.
- Fluids in Sepsis and Septic Shock Group; Rochwerg, B; Alhazzani, W; Sindi, A; et al. (September 2014). "Fluid resuscitation in sepsis: A systematic review and network meta-analysis". Annals of Internal Medicine. 161 (5): 347–55. doi:10.7326/M14-0178. PMID 25047428.
- Perel, P; Roberts, I; Ker, K (2013). "Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2 (2): CD000567. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000567.pub6. PMID 23450531. Archived from the original on 2014-10-17.
- Zarychanski, R; Abou-Setta, AM; Turgeon, AF; Houston, BL; et al. (February 2013). "Association of hydroxyethyl starch administration with mortality and acute kidney injury in critically ill patients requiring volume resuscitation: A systematic review and meta-analysis". JAMA. 309 (7): 678–88. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.430. PMID 23423413. Archived from the original on 2013-04-19.
- Haase, N; Perner, A; Hennings, LI; Siegemund, M; et al. (2013). "Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.38-0.45 versus crystalloid or albumin in patients with sepsis: Systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis". BMJ. 346: f839. doi:10.1136/bmj.f839. PMC . PMID 23418281.
- Serpa Neto, A; Veelo, DP; Peireira, VG; de Assunção, MS; et al. (February 2014). "Fluid resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starches in patients with sepsis is associated with an increased incidence of acute kidney injury and use of renal replacement therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature". Journal of Critical Care. 29 (1): 185.e1–7. doi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2013.09.031. PMID 24262273.
- Patel, A; Laffan, MA; Waheed, U; Brett, SJ (July 22, 2014). "Randomised trials of human albumin for adults with sepsis: A systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis of all-cause mortality". BMJ. 349: g4561. doi:10.1136/bmj.g4561. PMC . PMID 25099709. Archived from the original on October 5, 2014.
- TRISS Trial Group; Scandinavian Critical Care Trials Group; Holst, LB; Haase, N; et al. (October 9, 2014). "Lower versus higher hemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock". The New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (15): 1381–91. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1406617. PMID 25270275.
- Alejandria, MM; Lansang, MA; Dans, LF; Mantaring, JB 3rd (September 2013). "Intravenous immunoglobulin for treating sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9 (CD001090): CD001090. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001090.pub2. PMID 24043371.
- Volbeda M, Wetterslev J, Gluud C, Zijlstra JG, van der Horst IC, Keus F (July 2015). "Glucocorticosteroids for sepsis: systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis". Intensive Care Med. 41 (7): 1220–34. doi:10.1007/s00134-015-3899-6. PMC . PMID 26100123.
- Annane, D; Bellissant, E; Bollaert, PE; Briegel, J; Keh, D; Kupfer, Y (4 December 2015). "Corticosteroids for treating sepsis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12 (12): CD002243. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002243.pub3. PMID 26633262.
- American College of Critical Care Medicine; Marik, PE; Pastores, SM; Annane, D; et al. (2008). "Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients: Consensus statements from an international task force by the American College of Critical Care Medicine" (PDF). Critical Care Medicine. 36 (6): 1937–49. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31817603ba. PMID 18496365. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-10 – via University of Chicago.
- Cherfan, AJ; Arabi, YM; Al-Dorzi, HM; Kenny, LP (May 2012). "Advantages and disadvantages of etomidate use for intubation of patients with sepsis". Pharmacotherapy. 32 (5): 475–82. doi:10.1002/j.1875-9114.2012.01027.x. PMID 22488264.
- Chan, CM; Mitchell, AL; Shorr, AF (November 2012). "Etomidate is associated with mortality and adrenal insufficiency in sepsis: A meta-analysis". Critical Care Medicine. 40 (11): 2945–53. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31825fec26. PMID 22971586.
- Gu, WJ; Wang, F; Tang, L; Liu, JC (September 25, 2014). "Single-dose etomidate does not increase mortality in patients with sepsis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies". Chest. 147 (2): 335–46. doi:10.1378/chest.14-1012. PMID 25255427.
- Dellinger, RP; Levy, MM; Carlet, JM; Bion, J; et al. (January 2008). "Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2008". Intensive Care Medicine. 34 (1): 17–60. doi:10.1007/s00134-007-0934-2. PMC . PMID 18058085.
- Early Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group; Rivers, E; Nguyen, B; Havstad, S; et al. (2001). "Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock". The New England Journal of Medicine. 345 (19): 1368–77. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa010307. PMID 11794169. Archived from the original on 2014-12-15.
- Fuller, BM; Dellinger, RP (June 2012). "Lactate as a hemodynamic marker in the critically ill". Current Opinion in Critical Care. 18 (3): 267–72. doi:10.1097/MCC.0b013e3283532b8a. PMC . PMID 22517402.
- Dell'anna, AM; Taccone, FS (19 June 2015). "Early-goal directed therapy for septic shock: is it the end?". Minerva anestesiologica. 81 (10): 1138–43. PMID 26091011.
- Rusconi, AM; Bossi, I; Lampard, JG; Szava-Kovats, M; Bellone, A; Lang, E (16 May 2015). "Early goal-directed therapy vs usual care in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Internal and emergency medicine. 10 (6): 731–43. doi:10.1007/s11739-015-1248-y. PMID 25982917.
- Shane, AL; Stoll, BJ (January 2014). "Neonatal sepsis: progress towards improved outcomes". Journal of Infection. 68 (Supplement 1): S24–32. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2013.09.011. PMID 24140138.
- Camacho-Gonzalez, A; Spearman, PW; Stoll, BJ (April 2013). "Neonatal infectious diseases: evaluation of neonatal sepsis". Pediatric Clinics of North America. 60 (2): 367–89. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2012.12.003. PMC . PMID 23481106.
- Drewry, Anne M.; Ablordeppey, Enyo A.; Murray, Ellen T.; Stoll, Carolyn R. T.; Izadi, Sonya R.; Dalton, Catherine M.; Hardi, Angela C.; Fowler, Susan A.; Fuller, Brian M.; Colditz, Graham A. (February 2017). "Antipyretic Therapy in Critically Ill Septic Patients". Critical Care Medicine: 1. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000002285. PMID 28221185.
- Szakmany, T; Hauser, B; Radermacher, P (September 2012). "N-acetylcysteine for sepsis and systemic inflammatory response in adults". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9 (CD006616): CD006616. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006616.pub2. PMID 22972094.
- Fink, MP; Warren, HS (October 2014). "Strategies to improve drug development for sepsis". Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery. 13 (10): 741–58. doi:10.1038/nrd4368. PMID 25190187.
- Hirasawa, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, M (September 7, 2009). "Blood glucose control in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 15 (33): 4132–6. doi:10.3748/wjg.15.4132. PMC . PMID 19725146.
- Russel, JA (October 2008). "The current management of septic shock". Minerva Medica. 99 (5): 431–58. PMID 18971911.
- Best Evidence in Emergency Medicine Investigator, Group; Carpenter, CR; Keim, SM; Upadhye, S; et al. (October 2009). "Risk stratification of the potentially septic patient in the emergency department: The mortality in the emergency department sepsis (MEDS) score". The Journal of Emergency Medicine. 37 (3): 319–27. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2009.03.016. PMID 19427752.
- Jackson, JC; Hopkins, RO; Miller, RR; Gordon, SM; et al. (November 2009). "Acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, and cognitive decline: A review and case study". Southern Medical Journal. 102 (11): 1150–7. doi:10.1097/SMJ.0b013e3181b6a592. PMC . PMID 19864995.
- Lyle, NH; Pena, OM; Boyd, JH; Hancock, RE (September 2014). "Barriers to the effective treatment of sepsis: antimicrobial agents, sepsis definitions, and host-directed therapies". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1323 (2014): 101–14. Bibcode:2014NYASA1323..101L. doi:10.1111/nyas.12444. PMID 24797961.
- Munford, Robert S. (2011). "Ch. 271: Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock". In Longo, Dan L.; Fauci, Anthony S.; Kasper, Dennis L.; Hauser, Stephen L.; et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (18th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 2223–231. ISBN 9780071748896.
- Sutton, JP; Friedman, B (September 2013). "Trends in Septicemia Hospitalizations and Readmissions in Selected HCUP States, 2005 and 2010". Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. PMID 24228290. Archived from the original on 2017-09-06.
- Martin, GS; Mannino, DM; Eaton, S; Moss, M (2003). "The epidemiology of sepsis in the United States from 1979 through 2000". The New England Journal of Medicine. 348 (16): 1546–54. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022139. PMID 12700374. Archived from the original on 2015-07-19.
- Hines, AL; Barrett, ML; Jiang, HJ; Steiner, CA (April 2014). "Conditions with the Largest Number of Adult Hospital Readmissions by Payer, 2011". Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. PMID 24901179. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
- Koh, GC; Peacock, SJ; van der Poll, T; Wiersinga, WJ (April 2012). "The impact of diabetes on the pathogenesis of sepsis". European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. 31 (4): 379–88. doi:10.1007/s10096-011-1337-4. PMC . PMID 21805196.
- Rubin, LG; Schaffner, W (July 2014). "Clinical practice. Care of the asplenic patient". The New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (4): 349–56. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp1314291. PMID 25054718.
- Vincent, Jean-Louis (2008). "Ch. 1: Definition of Sepsis and Non-infectious SIRS". In Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Adrie, Christophe. Sepsis and Non-infectious Systemic Inflammation: From Biology to Critical Care. John Wiley & Sons. p. 3. ISBN 9783527319350.
- Marshall, JC (July 2013). "Sepsis: Rethinking the approach to clinical research". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 83 (1): 471–82. doi:10.1189/jlb.0607380. PMID 18171697. Archived from the original on 2016-05-02.
- "Bacteremia - Infections - Merck Manuals Consumer Version". The Merck Manuals. Archived from the original on 28 July 2017. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
- Shear, MJ (1944). "Chemical treatment of tumors, IX: Reactions of mice with primary subcutaneous tumors to injection of a hemorrhage-producing bacterial polysaccharide". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 4 (5): 461–76. doi:10.1093/jnci/4.5.461 (inactive 2017-01-16).
- Luderitz, O; Galanos, C; Lehmann, V; Nurminen, M; et al. (1973). "Lipid A: Chemical structure and biologic activity". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 128: 29. doi:10.1093/infdis/128.Supplement_1.S17. JSTOR 30106029.
- Heppner, G; Weiss, DW (1965). "High susceptibility of strain A mice to endotoxin and endotoxin-red blood cell mixtures". Journal of Bacteriology. 90 (3): 696–703. PMC . PMID 16562068.
- O'Brien, AD; Rosenstreich, DL; Scher, I; Campbell, GH; et al. (1980). "Genetic control of susceptibility to Salmonella typhimurium in mice: Role of the LPS gene". Journal of Immunology. 124 (1): 20–4. PMID 6985638.
- Poltorak, A; Smirnova, I; He, X; Liu, M-Y; et al. (1998). "Genetic and physical mapping of the Lps locus: Identification of the toll-4 receptor as a candidate gene in the critical region". Blood Cells, Molecules and Diseases. 24 (3): 340–55. doi:10.1006/bcmd.1998.0201. PMID 10087992.
- Poltorak, A; He, X; Smirnova, I; Liu, MY; et al. (1998). "Defective LPS signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice: Mutations in Tlr4 gene". Science. 282 (5396): 2085–8. Bibcode:1998Sci...282.2085P. doi:10.1126/science.282.5396.2085. PMID 9851930.
- Lewis, AJ; Seymour, CW; Rosengart, MR (August 2016). "Current Murine Models of Sepsis". Surgical infections. 17 (4): 385–93. doi:10.1089/sur.2016.021. PMC . PMID 27305321.
- Mills, M; Estes, MK (September 2016). "Physiologically relevant human tissue models for infectious diseases". Drug discovery today. 21 (9): 1540–52. doi:10.1016/j.drudis.2016.06.020. PMC . PMID 27352632.
- Engber, Daniel (13 February 2013). "Septic Shock". Slate. Archived from the original on 9 April 2017.
- Seok, J; Warren; et al. (26 February 2013). "Genomic responses in mouse models poorly mimic human inflammatory diseases". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110 (9): 3507–12. PMC . PMID 23401516.
- Hazeldine, J; Hampson, P; Lord, JM (2016). "The diagnostic and prognostic value of systems biology research in major traumatic and thermal injury: a review". Burns & trauma. 4: 33. PMC . PMID 27672669.
- Torio, Celeste M.; Moore, Brian J. (2006-01-01). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Briefs. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). PMID 27359025. Archived from the original on 2017-09-06.
- Pfuntner, A; Wier, LM; Steiner, C (December 2013). "Costs for Hospital Stays in the United States, 2011". Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. PMID 24455786.
- "History". Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Society of Critical Care Medicine. Archived from the original on March 4, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- "About Us – About the Sepsis Alliance". www.sepsis.org. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
Media related to Sepsis at Wikimedia Commons