Blue Line (Los Angeles Metro)

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Metro Blue Line
Blue Line 
LineAatLBC.jpg
Overview
Other name(s)A Line
TypeLight rail
SystemLos Angeles Metro Rail
StatusIn limited service (see below)
TerminiDowntown Long Beach
7th Street/Metro Center
Stations22
Daily ridership63,008 (Oct. 2018; avg. weekday)[1]
Ridership22,383,828 (2017)[1]
Line number801
WebsiteBlue Line
Operation
OpenedJuly 14, 1990; 29 years ago (July 14, 1990)
OwnerLAMetroLogo.svg Metro (LACMTA)
CharacterMostly at-grade in private right-of-way, with some street-running, elevated and underground sections.
Rolling stockTrains run in 2-3 car consists
Technical
Line length22.0 mi (35.4 km)[3]
Number of tracks2
Track gauge4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
(standard gauge)
Electrification750 V DC overhead catenary (overhead rigid rail; tunnel only)[2]
Operating speed55 mph (89 km/h)
Route map

Regional Connector
(under construction)
7th Street/Metro Center
Red Line Purple Line Expo Line Silver Line 
Pico
Expo Line Silver Line 
I-10
Expo Line 
Expo Line
to Downtown Santa Monica
Grand/LATTC
Silver Line 
San Pedro
Washington
Vernon
Slauson
Florence
Parking
Firestone
103rd Street/Watts Towers
Parking
Willowbrook/
Rosa Parks
Green Line 
Up arrow Closed until November 2, 2019
Compton
Parking
Artesia
Parking
Del Amo
Parking
Wardlow
Parking
Willow Street
Parking
Pacific Coast Highway
Anaheim
5th Street
Pacific
1st Street
Downtown Long Beach
Handicapped/disabled access all stations accessible
Detailed diagram
showing all crossings
(2021)
7th Street/
Metro Center
Red Line Purple Line Expo Line Silver Line 
Flower Street Tunnel
Flower Street
Expo Line Silver Line 
Pico
↑ Flower Street
Silver Line 
Grand/LATTC
San Pedro
Washington Boulevard
Washington
20th Street
24th Street
41st Street
Vernon Avenue
Vernon
48th Place
55th Street
Slauson
Slauson Avenue
60th Street
Gage Avenue
Florence Avenue
Parking
Florence
Nedeau Street
Firestone
92nd Street
Century Boulevard
103rd Street
Parking
103rd Street/Watts Towers
108th Street
Wilmington Avenue
Imperial Highway
Green Line 
Willowbrook/Rosa Parks
119th Street
124th Street
El Segundo Boulevard
130th Street
Stockwell Street
Rosecrans Avenue
Elm Street
Parking
Compton
Compton Boulevard
Myrrh Street
Alondra Boulevard
Greenleaf Boulevard
Parking
Artesia
Artesia Boulevard
Manville Avenue
SR 47 (Alameda Street)
Santa Fe Avenue
Parking
Del Amo
Del Amo Boulevard
Division 11 Yard
Parking
Wardlow
Wardlow Road
Spring Street
Parking
Willow Street
Long Beach Blvd
 
Pacific Coast Highway
Anaheim
Eighth St ↔
Pacific
5th Street
Pacific Ave ↑
1st Street
Downtown Long Beach
↔First Street

The Blue Line is a 22.0-mile (35.4 km) light rail line running north-south between Los Angeles and Long Beach, California, passing through Downtown Los Angeles, South Los Angeles, Watts, Willowbrook, Compton, Rancho Dominguez and Long Beach in Los Angeles County. It is one of six lines in the Metro Rail system. Opened in 1990, it is the system's oldest and third busiest line with an estimated 22.38 million boardings per year as of December 2017. It is operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority.[4]

The Blue Line passes near the cities of Vernon, Huntington Park, South Gate, Lynwood, and Carson. The famous Watts Towers can be seen from the train near 103rd Street station. The under-construction Regional Connector will directly link this line to Union Station and beyond.

Service description[edit]

Map of the Blue Line, including the under-construction 2021 Regional Connector extension. Dashed lines indicate Metro routes planned or under construction.

Route[edit]

The Metro Blue Line runs 22.0 miles (35.4 km) between Downtown Los Angeles and Downtown Long Beach making stops at 22 stations.[3]

The line's northern terminus is the underground 7th Street/Metro Center station, after rising to street level, trains run south along Flower Street, sharing tracks with the Expo Line. Passengers can connect to the Metro Silver Line bus rapid transit line at 7th Street/Metro Center, Pico, and Grand stations. The Blue and Expo Lines diverge at Flower Street and Washington Boulevard just south of downtown Los Angeles. Here the Blue Line turns east on Washington Boulevard before turning south on Long Beach Avenue where it enters the former Pacific Electric right-of-way. This historic rail corridor has four tracks, two are used by Blue Line trains and two are used by freight trains. There are some elevated sections as this private right of way cuts through more densely populated areas. Passengers can connect with the Metro Green Line at approximately midway through the rail corridor as it passes under Interstate 105 at Willowbrook station. Just south of Willow station, Blue Line trains exit the rail corridor and follows Long Beach Boulevard into the city of Long Beach, where trains travel through the Long Beach Transit Mall while making a loop using 1st Street, Pacific Avenue and 8th Street.

Hours of operation[edit]

Trains run between approximately 4:45 a.m. and 1:00 a.m. the following morning.[5] On Friday and Saturday evenings, trains are extended until 2:00 a.m. of the following morning. First and last train times are as follows:

To/From Long Beach

Northbound
  • First Train to 7th Street/Metro Center: 4:46 a.m.
  • Last Train to 7th Street/Metro Center: 12:03 a.m. (2:07 a.m. on Friday and Saturday evenings)
Southbound
  • First Train to Long Beach: 5:00 a.m.
  • Last Train to Long Beach: 1:01 a.m. (2:05 a.m. on Friday and Saturday evenings)

Of note, some trains operate at later or earlier times due to the Blue Line making the turnaround in Downtown Long Beach.

Headways[edit]

Trains on the Blue Line operate every six minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday.[6] They operate every twelve minutes during the daytime weekdays and all day on the weekends after approximately 9 a.m. (with a 15-minute headway early Saturday and Sunday mornings). Night service consists of ten-minute headways.

During peak hours, every other train serves only the stations between Willow and 7th Street/Metro Center to decrease the headway on that portion of the route. Willow was chosen because of its proximity to the Blue Line storage yard and because it is the last southbound station with a park-and-ride lot. In the evening rush hour, riders will see some trains destined to "Willow" and others to "Long Beach". Consequently, those riders destined to Long Beach must exit at Willow Station and wait for the next train which will terminate at Downtown Long Beach Station.

Ridership[edit]

When the Blue Line began operation in 1990, it was projected to have a daily ridership of 5,000.[7] The line performed much better than expected with daily ridership reaching 12,000 passengers within the first months of service and reaching 32,000 by the end of the first year of service.[7]

As of October 2018, the Blue Line had an average weekday ridership of 63,008, and Saturday and Sunday boardings of 30,579 and 30,314, respectively.[1] In 2017, the line saw a total of 22.38 million boardings.

History[edit]

Nippon Sharyo P865 train leaving Downtown Long Beach Station.

Much of the current Blue Line follows the route of streetcar service operated by Pacific Electric Railway; service on the route ended in 1961. The current line opened on Saturday, July 14, 1990, at a cost of US$877 million.;[3] the next year it was extended to the Financial District and Downtown Long Beach. An intended extension to Pasadena was scrapped after the 1998 county ballot was approved which banned the use of sales tax revenue for subway projects, preventing construction of a downtown light rail tunnel.[8]

The line was originally operated by two-car trains, but proved more popular than expected and 19 platforms were lengthened to accommodate three-car trains in 2002-2003 at a cost of US$11 million.

Future developments[edit]

New Blue Improvements Project[edit]

A series of major improvements is underway for the Blue Line, Metro's oldest light rail line. The six-year, $1.2 billion overhaul began in late 2014 with several months of projects to refurbish Blue Line stations that were completed in July 2015.[9]

The next major improvement came to the rolling stock on the line, which included $130 million to refurbish older light rail vehicles and $739 million to purchase 78 new vehicles.[10]

The final phase of improvements began in 2019, where large sections of the line will be closed for months as crews replace tracks and overhead wiring, upgrade signal systems, refurbish aerial rail bridges (including the elevated Slauson, Firestone, and Del Amo stations), and a completely rebuilt Willowbrook/Rosa Parks station. The renovation is conducted in two phases:

  • Phase 1 (January 26 to June 1, 2019)
    • Portion between Los Angeles--103rd Street/Watts Towers station continues service (i.e. trains ran between these two stations)
    • Route between Long Beach--Willowbrook closed
  • Phase 2 (expected to run from June 1 to November 2, 2019)
    • Long Beach—Compton portion resumes service (trains will run between these two stations)
    • Route between Los Angeles--Willowbrook closed
    • On June 22, 2019, the Expo Line also closed for two months between 7th St/Metro Center and LATTC/Ortho for the project.
    • Work also begins on connecting the Regional Connector tunnels to 7th St/Metro Center[11]

Willowbrook/Rosa Parks station will remain closed during the entire project due to the large amount of work being conducted.[12][13][14] For the closed portions of the line, shuttle bus routes replace rail service.

After the renovation project is fully complete in late October 2019,[15] the line will be renamed to the A Line while retaining its blue coloring.[16]

Regional Connector Transit Project[edit]

Metro is currently constructing the Regional Connector, a light rail subway tunnel in Downtown Los Angeles that will connect the Blue and Expo Lines to the Gold Line and allow a seamless one-seat ride between the Blue and Expo Lines' current terminus at 7th Street/Metro Center and Union Station. When this project is completed, Blue Line trains will be able to travel between Long Beach and Azusa, and Expo Line trains will be able to travel between Santa Monica and East Los Angeles.[17] Thus, the Blue, Expo, and Gold Lines will be simplified into the A Line (Long Beach to Azusa, colored blue) and the E Line (Santa Monica to East Los Angeles, colored gold).

As a result of the restructuring of service, the A Line will become over 49 miles (79 km) long,[18] surpassing Belgium's 42 mi (68 km) Coast Tram as the longest light rail/interurban line in the world.[19]

The groundbreaking for the construction of the Regional Connector Transit Corridor took place on September 30, 2014, and it is expected to be in public service in 2022.

Current issues[edit]

Capacity limits[edit]

Blue Line train arriving at 7th Street Metro Center.

The line often operates at capacity, and various options to increase capacity have been considered, such as four-car trains or more frequent trains. Both have problems: it would be difficult or impossible to lengthen some of the station platforms, and the number of trains already causes delays for other vehicles at level crossings. Thus it may not be possible to increase Blue Line ridership without an extremely expensive grade-separation project, either by elevation, by an entrenchment method similar to that used by the nearby Alameda Corridor freight rail "expressway", or by building another parallel transit corridor to relieve capacity strains from the Blue Line. When the Regional Connector project linking Blue and Expo Line tracks with the Gold Line tracks in Little Tokyo is completed, this may result in even more capacity problems, with ridership expected to grow even more once the connector is open for service.

Safety at level crossings[edit]

A Metro Blue Line train heading to Long Beach arrives at Willow Station.

Over 120 motorists and pedestrians have been killed at Blue Line level crossings since 1990 and there have been more than 800 collisions,[20][21] making the line easily the country's deadliest and most collision-prone rail line.[22]

Train at the Slauson station

In 1998, the MTA commissioned Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. to evaluate the cause of Blue Line collisions and recommend affordable solutions. The study reported the high ridership (over 70,000 per day) was a contributor:

"The MBL has one of the highest ridership counts for light rail lines in the Country. This factor is perhaps the most important contributor to the grade crossing accident rate. The high ridership results in increased pedestrian traffic near stations as compared to other light rail systems. In addition, although MTA Operations does not allow high passenger loads dictate safe operations, there is pressure to maintain travel times and headway schedule requirements (e.g., passenger trip from Los Angeles to Long Beach in less than one hour)."

Other identified contributing factors were the high local population density that leads to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic around the tracks, diverse varied socio-economic community around the line that creates literacy and language difficulties for public education campaigns, driver frustration due to the slow traffic speeds around the line that leads to more risk taking behavior, and the shared right-of-way with freight traffic in the fastest running section from Washington station to Willow station, where trains operate at a maximum of 55 mph (89 km/h) between stations.

The collision rate has declined somewhat following the installation of four-quadrant gates at some crossings where the Blue Line shares the right-of-way with freight rail between Washington station and Del Amo station. The gates prevent drivers from going around lowered gates. In addition, cameras along some problem intersections issue traffic tickets when drivers go around gates.

Interior of a Nippon Sharyo train.The Metro Expo Line used these trains for Phase 1 service.

Station listing[edit]

Metro Blue Line departing 1st Street Station.

The following is the complete list of stations, from north to south.

Station Connections/Notes Date opened City
7th Street/Metro Center

*Weekday rush hours only
Weekdays only
Weekends only

February 15, 1991 Downtown Los Angeles
Pico July 14, 1990
Grand/LATTC July 14, 1990
San Pedro Street July 14, 1990 Los Angeles (South Central)
Washington July 14, 1990
Vernon July 14, 1990
Slauson July 14, 1990
Florence July 14, 1990 Florence-Graham
Firestone July 14, 1990
103rd Street/Watts Towers July 14, 1990 Los Angeles (Watts)
Willowbrook July 14, 1990 Willowbrook
Compton

*Late Night/Owl Service Only.

July 14, 1990 Compton
Artesia July 14, 1990
Del Amo July 14, 1990 Carson
Wardlow July 14, 1990 Long Beach
Willow Street

*Late Night/Owl Service Only.

July 14, 1990
Pacific Coast Highway

*Late Night/Owl Service Only.

July 14, 1990
Anaheim Street

*Late Night/Owl Service Only.

July 14, 1990
5th Street
(southbound only)

*Late Night/Owl Service Only.

September 1990
1st Street
(southbound only)

*Late Night/Owl Service Only.

September 1990
Downtown Long Beach
(northbound only)

*Late Night/Owl Service Only.

September 1990
Pacific Avenue
(northbound only)

*On nearby 3rd Street

September 1990

Operations[edit]

On Metro Rail Operations' internal timetables, the Blue Line is called line 801.

Maintenance facilities[edit]

The Blue Line is operated out of the Division 11 Yard (208th Street Yard) located at 4170 East 208th Street. This yard stores the fleet used on the Blue Line. It is also where heavy maintenance is done on the fleet. The Yard is located between Del Amo and Wardlow stations. Trains get to this yard via a wye junction on the southbound tracks. Northbound trains can enter and exit the yard via the cross tracks on the north and south side of the junction.

Rolling stock[edit]

A Blue Line train in Long Beach, in 1990-era livery, 2004.

The Blue Line uses three different types of rolling stock from Nippon Sharyo, Siemens, and Kinkisharyo.

When the Blue Line first opened in 1990, the line had 54 Nippon Sharyo P865 light rail vehicles, numbered 100-153. These cars wore a unique livery consisting of several blue stripes and a single red stripe, reflecting the Blue Line's color designation and its Pacific Electric Red Car heritage.

In 2000, Metro transferred all 15 Nippon Sharyo P2020 light rail vehicles from the Green Line to the Blue Line fleet. These light rail vehicles were nearly identical to the older P865 model, but were about five years newer.[23]

In 2012, Metro transferred some Siemens P2000 light rail vehicles from the Gold Line to the Blue Line fleet.

In 2017, the Blue Line received 78 Kinkisharyo P3010 light rail vehicles, the first new fleet of vehicles for the line since it opened in 1990. As the P3010 fleet was introduced, Metro gradually retired all of the remaining P865 light rail vehicles, the original vehicles used on the line.

Blue Line vehicles are maintained and stored at the Division 11 yard in Long Beach between Del Amo and Wardlow stations. This facility has capacity for storing and maintaining 86 light rail cars.

Incidents[edit]

  • On December 22, 2006, a Metro Blue Line train crashed into a fire truck. The fire truck was on its way to an emergency.
  • On January 26, 2007, a 14-year-old boy named Lavert Baker, Jr. was killed on his way walking home from school by a Blue Line train that was carrying his closest sister.[24]
  • In September 13, 2008 a Blue Line train struck a Metro bus on one of the tracks; 15 people were injured. A mechanic was taking the bus on a test run and was not injured.[25] This incident happened only one week after the 2008 Chatsworth train collision in which 25 people died following a head-on collision between a Metrolink train and a freight train.
  • In July 2010, a Blue Line train which reportedly ran a red light struck a police cruiser on 16th Street & Long Beach Boulevard.[26]
  • In the same month eight people were injured, six of whom were aboard the bus when a Blue Line train collided with another Metro bus at Broadway and Washington Boulevard.[27]

In popular culture[edit]

  • In Lethal Weapon 3, Martin Riggs (Mel Gibson) jumps onto a departing Blue Line train at 7th Street/Metro Center. Hanging onto the windshield, he tells the driver to speed up after Jack Travis (Stuart Wilson), who is riding in a hijacked hi-rail truck. Riggs and Travis exchange gunfire as they exit the tunnel, but the train stops at Pico station, forcing Riggs to temporarily continue on foot. This would be the first major film to feature the Metro Rail.[28]
  • At the opening of the Blue Line, an exclusive VHS tape starring the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles was given out for free. In it, the Turtles work to promote the new train line.[29]
  • In Training Day, as the 2 main characters are driving through South Central Los Angeles next to the Blue Line tracks, a train can be heard sounding off its horn right before it passes them in the opposite direction. Shortly afterwards, another Blue Line train can be seen on an elevated bridge.
  • In the 2003 remake of The Italian Job, the main characters drive their BMW Mini Coopers into the 7th Street / Metro Center station, standing in for the Hollywood/Highland Red Line Station, and are nearly hit by a Blue Line train. The character Lyle cuts all power to the station, stopping the trains.
  • In Heat, the movie opens with Neil McCauley (Robert De Niro) getting off a train at Firestone station. A Blue Line train is also featured on the movie poster.
  • The final scene of Collateral takes place on the Blue Line, starting at 7th Street/Metro Center and then heading south.
  • In White Men Can't Jump, a Blue Line train can be seen.
  • In The Purge: Anarchy, the main characters attempt to elude roving gangs of marauders by descending into a Blue Line subway line entrance. While walking down the tracks in the subway tunnel they are pursued by marauders on dune buggies. The two groups exchange heavy gunfire and the pursuers are destroyed when one of the vehicles overturns and explodes in flame.[30]
  • In Captain Marvel, the Blue Line serves as the scene of a pursuit with Captain Marvel (then known as Vers) chasing a Skrull who takes multiple forms. One form includes an elderly woman, whom Vers punches and fights inside the train.[28] As this scene was filmed on the Green Line, the Skrull later shapeshifts into a middle-aged man, whom she fights on the roof. Meanwhile though this scene is located on the Gold Line, Fury and Coulson pursue Vers but lose her as the train heads underground.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Interactive Estimated Ridership Stats". Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority. November 15, 2018. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
  2. ^ "Installing new overhead conductor rail in DTLA". Retrieved July 30, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c "Facts at a Glance". Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority. November 18, 2013. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
  4. ^ "Metro Ridership". isotp.metro.net. Retrieved April 14, 2019.
  5. ^ "Blue line timetable" (PDF). Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority. December 15, 2013. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
  6. ^ "Metro Bus & Rail System Map" (PDF). Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority. December 2013. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
  7. ^ a b Curiel, Socorro C. "Los Angeles County Transportation Commission Joins SHPE Strategic Technical Employment Program (STEP)". Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers. Hispanic Engineer. Career Communications Group, Inc. (Fall 1991): 20. Retrieved November 19, 2013.
  8. ^ "Anti-Subway Funding Measure Wins Easily". Los Angeles Times. November 4, 1998. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  9. ^ Chen, Anna (July 22, 2015). "Station refurbishment work on the Blue Line completed". The Source. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
  10. ^ Hymon, Steve (January 8, 2014). "Metro Blue Line receiving a $1.2-billion overhaul". The Source. Retrieved May 30, 2015.
  11. ^ Ayala, Roberto (August 9, 2019). "New time-lapse video: Regional Connector breaks through to the 7th St/Metro Center Station". The Source. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  12. ^ "Metro Blue Line Improvements Project: Blue Line Bus Shuttle Service for South Closure, January 26 - late May 2019" (PDF). Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority (Metro). May 31, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2019.
  13. ^ "Portion Of Metro Blue Line To Be Closed For 4 Months For $350M Project". January 23, 2019. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  14. ^ Chen, Anna (April 29, 2019). "New Blue Improvements Project Update: Info About the North Closure Bus Shuttle Service". Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority (Metro). Retrieved May 26, 2019.
  15. ^ Chen, Anna (September 10, 2019). "The Blue Line Will Open in Late October with Free Rides and a Community Celebration". The Source. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro). Retrieved September 10, 2019.
  16. ^ Fonseca, Ryan (September 25, 2019). "Ignore Those 'Line A' Signs. Metro's Blue Line Will Reopen As The 'A Line'". laist.com. Southern California Public Radio. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
  17. ^ "The most anticipated transit projects opening in time for the 2028 LA Olympics". Curbed LA. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
  18. ^ Broverman, Neal (October 7, 2016). "Metro's Regional Connector Will Change Everything Los Angeles Magazine". Los Angeles Magazine. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  19. ^ "The Coastal Tram". The Belgian Coast. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  20. ^ Nelson, Laura (March 28, 2015). "Metro light rail crash near USC renews debate on rail safety". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
  21. ^ "Summary of Blue Line Train/Vehicle and Train/Pedestrian Accidents". Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. June 2007.
  22. ^ "Light rail fatalities, 1990-2002". American Public Transportation Association. May 20, 2005. Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  23. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 25, 2007. Retrieved October 22, 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ "Boy, 14, Killed by Train is Mourned". Los Angeles Times. January 26, 2007.
  25. ^ "15 Injured When Metro Blue Line Train, Bus Collide". CBS2. September 19, 2008. Archived from the original on March 7, 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
  26. ^ Weikel, Dan (July 10, 2010). "Blue Line train ran signal before hitting police car in Long Beach, videotapes show". Los Angeles Times.
  27. ^ "8 Hurt When Train, Bus Collide In Downtown L.A." CBS2. July 30, 2010. Archived from the original on August 1, 2010.
  28. ^ a b Roe, Mike. "Captain Marvel Takes LA Metro, But She's Not The First Movie Hero To Go For A Ride". LAist. Archived from the original on March 8, 2019. Retrieved March 10, 2019.
  29. ^ Rolfe, James. "TMNT - Live Action Leftovers". YouTube. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  30. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mYkhCiQ-JaY&t=46s

External links[edit]

Route map:

KML is not from Wikidata