Blue Zone

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For the band of this name fronted by Lisa Stansfield, see Blue Zone (band). For the parking zone regulations, see Disc parking. For the part of the United States where the majority of voters vote Democrat, see Red states and blue states.

Blue Zones is a trademark of Blue Zones, LLC[1][2] that reflects the lifestyle and the environment of the world's longest-lived people. The concept grew out of demographic work done by Gianni Pes and Michel Poulain[3] outlined in the journal of Experimental Gerontology,[4] who identified Sardinia's Nuoro province as the region with the highest concentration of male centenarians. As the two men zeroed in on the cluster of villages with the highest longevity, they drew concentric blue circles on the map and began referring to the area inside the circle as the Blue Zone.

Together with demographers Gianni Pes and Michel Poulain author and Blue Zones, LLC founder Dan Buettner identified longevity hotspots in Okinawa (Japan); Sardinia (Italy); Nicoya (Costa Rica); Icaria (Greece) and among the Seventh-day Adventists in Loma Linda, California. He offers an explanation, based on empirical data and first hand observations, as to why these populations live healthier and longer lives.


The five regions identified and discussed by Buettner in the book The Blue Zones: Lessons for Living Longer from the People Who've Lived the Longest:[5]

An old Sardinian man.
  • Sardinia, Italy (particularly Ogliastra, Barbagia di Ollolai and Barbagia of Seulo): one team of demographers found a hot spot of longevity in mountain villages where an amazing proportion of men reach the age of 100 years.[5] In particular, a village called Seulo, located in the Barbagia of Seulo, holds the record of 20 centenarians from 1996 to 2016, that confirms it is " the place where people live the longest in the world "[6]
  • The islands of Okinawa, Japan: another team examined a group that is among the longest-lived on Earth.[5]
  • Loma Linda, California: researchers studied a group of Seventh-day Adventists who rank among North America's longevity all-stars.[5][7]
  • Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica: the peninsula was the subject of research on a Quest Network expedition which began on January 29, 2007.[5][8][9]
  • Icaria, Greece: an April 2009 study on the island of Ikaria uncovered the location with the highest percentage of 90-year-olds on the planet – nearly 1 out of 3 people make it to their 90s. Furthermore, Ikarians "have about 20 percent lower rates of cancer, 50 percent lower rates of heart disease and almost no dementia."[5][10]

Residents of the first three places produce a high rate of centenarians, suffer a fraction of the diseases that commonly kill people in other parts of the developed world, and enjoy more healthy years of life.[11]

Other notable areas of longevity:


A venn diagram of longevity clues from Okinawa, Sardinia, and Loma Linda.

The people inhabiting Blue Zones share common lifestyle characteristics that contribute to their longevity. The Venn diagram at the right highlights the following six shared characteristics among the people of Okinawa, Sardinia, and Loma Linda Blue Zones:[13]

  • Family – put ahead of other concerns
  • Less smoking
  • Semi-vegetarianism – except for the Sardinian diet, the majority of food consumed is derived from plants
  • Constant moderate physical activity – an inseparable part of life
  • Social engagement – people of all ages are socially active and integrated into their communities
  • Legumes – commonly consumed

Buettner in his book provides a list of nine lessons, covering the lifestyle of blue zones people:[14]

  1. Moderate, regular physical activity.
  2. Life purpose.
  3. Stress reduction.
  4. Moderate calories intake.
  5. Plant-based diet.
  6. Moderate alcohol intake, especially wine.
  7. Engagement in spirituality or religion.
  8. Engagement in family life.
  9. Engagement in social life.

See also[edit]


  • Buettner, Dan (2012). The Blue Zones, Second Edition: 9 Lessons for Living Longer From the People Who've Lived the Longest. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic. ISBN 978-1426209482. OCLC 777659970. 


  1. ^ "USPTO TSDR Case Viewer". Retrieved 2017-03-14. 
  2. ^ "USPTO TSDR Case Viewer". Retrieved 2017-03-14. 
  3. ^ Poulain M.; Pes G.M.; Grasland C.; Carru C.; Ferucci L.; Baggio G.; Franceschi C.; Deiana L. (2004). "Identification of a Geographic Area Characterized by Extreme Longevity in the Sardinia Island: the AKEA study". Experimental Gerontology. 39 (9): 1423–1429. doi:10.1016/j.exger.2004.06.016. PMID 15489066. 
  4. ^ Poulain, Michel; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Grasland, Claude; Carru, Ciriaco; Ferrucci, Luigi; Baggio, Giovannella; Franceschi, Claudio; Deiana, Luca (2004-09-01). "Identification of a geographic area characterized by extreme longevity in the Sardinia island: the AKEA study". Experimental Gerontology. 39 (9): 1423–1429. doi:10.1016/j.exger.2004.06.016. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Buettner, Dan (21 April 2009) [2008]. "Contents". The Blue Zones: Lessons for Living Longer From the People Who've Lived the Longest (First Paperback ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Geographic. p. vii. ISBN 978-1-4262-0400-5. OCLC 246886564. Retrieved 15 September 2009. 
  6. ^ "Seulo, il paese più longevo del mondo Soprannomi e segreti del paese dei record - Cronaca - L'Unione". L'Unione 2016-04-03. Retrieved 2016-11-27. 
  7. ^ Anderson Cooper, Gary Tuchman (November 16, 2005). "CNN Transcripts on Living Longer". Retrieved 2006-08-25.  See CNN excerpt on YouTube.
  8. ^ "Nicoya, Costa Rica". Retrieved 2011-03-04. 
  9. ^ Dan Buettner (2007-02-02). "Report from the 'Blue Zone': Why Do People Live Long in Costa Rica?". ABC News. Retrieved 2011-03-04. 
  10. ^ The Island Where People Live Longer', NPR: Weekend Edition Saturday, May 2, 2009.
  11. ^ Buettner, Dan: "The Secrets of Long Life.", page 9. National Geographic, November 2005.
  12. ^ Forskarna: Här blir man äldst i Sverige
  13. ^ Power 9™ » Blue Zones – Live Longer, Better: "Blue Zones – Live Longer, Better", Quest Network, 2006.
  14. ^ Buettner, Dan (2012-11-06). The Blue Zones, Second Edition: 9 Lessons for Living Longer From the People Who've Lived the Longest. National Geographic Books. ISBN 9781426209499. 

External links[edit]