|Sander vitreus glaucus|
S. v. glaucus
|Sander vitreus glaucus|
The blue walleye (Sander vitreus vitreus), also called the blue pike, was a unique color morph (formerly considered a subspecies) of walleye which was endemic to the Great Lakes of North America. Morphometric studies led biologists to classify the blue walleye as a separate species in 1926, although it was later downgraded to a subspecies. Listed as an endangered species by the United States in 1967, it was declared extinct in 1983.
Genetic analyses conducted in the 21st century show that the blue walleye was not genetically different from the yellow walleye (Sander vitreus), rendering the taxon invalid.
The blue walleye was long considered to be different from the yellow walleye. Based on morphological study, Carl Leavitt Hubbs declared the blue walleye to be a separate species in 1926. The species was later downgraded to a subspecies.
The blue walleye was a commercially valuable fish in the Great Lakes. Populations appeared to collapse quickly in the 1950s. Between 1950 and 1957, catches in the U.S. and Canada fluctuated between 2,000,000 pounds (910,000 kg) and 26,000,000 pounds (12,000,000 kg) a year. In 1959, however, just 79,000 pounds (36,000 kg) were caught, and in 1964 only 200 pounds (91 kg). The United States declared blue walleye an endangered species in 1967, and extinct in 1983.
A 2014 genetic study of 1,181 preserved "historic" walleye (70 to 90 years old), blue walleye/blue pike, and modern walleye found no evidence for concluding that blue walleye/blue pike was a subspecies of walleye. This rendered the taxon invalid.
A turquoise-colored walleye exists in some waters of the Canadian Shield. A mucosal pigment, named "sandercyanin", was hypothesized to be the source of the color, but this has not been confirmed. This fish was also thought to be a separate subspecies of walleye, but genetic testing showed there is no difference between the turquoise walleye and yellow walleye.
Sander vitreus "glaucus" also known as the "blue pike" is endemic to Lakes Erie and Ontario and co-occurred with Sander vitreus vitreus. It is compared to the walleye in many aspects however, the "blue pike" inhabits the deeper and cooler areas of Lake Erie but was also seen in shallow and warmer areas alongside the walleye. In comparison to the walleye the "blue pike" has a steel blue color, larger eyes placed bit higher than the walleyes eye placement, and the eye distance is smaller as well. 
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- Paradis, Yves; Magnan, Pierre (2005). "Phenotypic variation of walleye, Sander vitreus, in Canadian Shield lakes: New insights on percid polymorphism". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 73 (4): 357–366. doi:10.1007/s10641-005-2261-1. S2CID 22471516. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
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- Schaefer, Wayne F.; Schmitz, Mark H.; Blazer, Vicki S.; Ehlinger, Timothy J.; Bergese, John A. (2015). "Localization and seasonal variation of blue pigment (sandercyanin) in walleye (Sander vitreus)". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 72 (2): 281–289. doi:10.1007/s10641-005-2261-1. S2CID 22471516. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
- Hamponski, Amanda; Stepien, Carol (2014). "A population genetic window into the past and future of the walleye Sander vitreus: relation to historic walleye and the extinct "blue pike" S-v. "glaucus"". BMC Evolutionary Biology (published 17 June 2014). 14: 1–21. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-133. PMC 4229939. PMID 24941945.
- Hubbs, Carl L. (1926). A Check-List of the Fishes of the Great Lakes and Tributary Waters, with Nomenclatorial Notes and Analytical Keys. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Special Publications No. 15. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. 77 pp. + Plates I-IV. (Stizostedion glaucum, new species, pp. 58–59 + Plate IV, figure 2).
- Trautman, Milton B. (1981). The Fishes of Ohio. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press. 782 pp. ISBN 978-0814202135. (Stizostedion vitreum glaucum, new combination).