A blue-water navy is a maritime force capable of operating across the deep waters of open oceans. A term more often used in the United Kingdom to describe such a force is a navy possessing maritime expeditionary capabilities. While definitions of what actually constitutes such a force vary, there is a requirement for the ability to exercise sea control at wide ranges.
The Defense Security Service of the United States has defined the blue-water navy as, "a maritime force capable of sustained operation across the deep waters of open oceans. A blue-water navy allows a country to project power far from the home country and usually includes one or more aircraft carriers. Smaller blue-water navies are able to dispatch fewer vessels abroad for shorter periods of time."
In public discourse, blue-water capability is identified with the operation of iconic capital ships such as battleships and aircraft carriers. For instance, during the debate in the 1970s whether Australia should replace HMAS Melbourne, a former Chief of Navy claimed that if Australia did not replace her last aircraft carrier, she "would no longer have a blue-water navy". In the end Australia did not buy a new carrier, but former Parliamentary defence advisor Gary Brown could still claim in 2004 that her navy remained "an effective blue-water force". The Soviet Navy towards the end of the Cold War is another example of a blue-water navy that had minimal carrier aviation, relying instead on submarines, missile-carrying surface ships, and long-range bombers based on land.
A blue-water navy implies force protection from sub-surface, surface and airborne threats and a sustainable logistic reach, allowing a persistent presence at range. A hallmark of a true blue-water navy is the ability to conduct replenishment at sea (RAS), and the commissioning of underway replenishment ships is a strong sign of a navy's blue-water ambitions. While a blue-water navy can project sea control power into another nation's littoral, it remains susceptible to threats from less capable forces (asymmetric warfare). Maintenance and logistics at range have high costs, and there might be a saturation advantage over a deployed force through the use of land-based air or surface-to-surface missile assets, diesel-electric submarines, or asymmetric tactics such as Fast Inshore Attack Craft. An example of this vulnerability was the October 2000 USS Cole bombing in Aden.
The term 'blue-water navy' should not be confused with the capability of an individual ship. For example, vessels of a green-water navy can often operate in blue water for short periods of time. A number of nations have extensive maritime assets but lack the capability to maintain the required sustainable logistic reach. Some of them join coalition task groups in blue-water deployments such as anti-piracy patrols off Somalia.
In their 2012 publication, "Sea Power and the Asia-Pacific", professors Geoffrey Till and Patrick C. Bratton outlined what they termed as "concise criteria" with regards to the definitions of brown, green and blue-water navies. Quote; "...a brown-water navy standing for a navy capable of defending its coastal zones, a green-water navy for a navy competent to operate in regional sea and finally [a] blue-water navy described as a navy with capability to operate across the deep waters." They go on to say that even with such a definition and understanding of naval hierarchy, it is still "ambiguous". For example, while France and the United States may be considered blue-water navies, he states that the "operational capability and geographic reach of both navies are definitely different." 
Another definition states that 'brown-water' refers to the littoral areas within 100 nautical miles of the coastline. 'Green-water' begins from 100 nautical miles out to the next major land formation. While 'blue-water' is the ability to project force out to aleast 1,500 nautical miles beyond the coast. Traditionally a distinction used to be made between a coastal brown-water navy operating in the littoral zone to 200 nautical miles (or 370 kilometres) and an oceangoing blue-water navy. However, the United States Navy created a new term, green-water navy, to replace the term 'brown-water navy' in US Navy parlance. Today, a brown-water navy has become to be known as a predominately riverine force.
Despite the above however, there is no agreed definition of the term.
There have been many attempts by naval scholars and other authorities to classify world navies, including; Michael Morris, British naval historians Eric Grove and Professor Geoffrey Till, French strategist Hervé Coutau-Bégarie and professors Daniel Todd and Michael Lindberg. All identify a basic common criteria for gauging the capability of navies, such as; total displacement and number of ships; modernity and power of weapons and systems; logistical and geographic reach with capacity for sustained operations; and the professional qualifications/disposition of sailors.
The table below shows the world naval hierarchy according to the classification system by professors Daniel Todd and Michael Lindberg. Their system originates from 1996 and outlines ten ranks, distinguished by capability. Since then it has been used by various other experts to illustrate the subject. According to Todd and Lindberg, a "blue-water navy" is one that can project any sort of power beyond its own territorial waters. However they used the principle of loss of strength gradient and other criteria to distinguish navies by capability under the four "blue-water" ranks. The six ranks of "Non blue-water navies" can be further broken down into "green-water" and "brown-water navies", and according to Todd and Lindberg, these are navies only capable of operating as coastal defence forces, coast guards or riverine forces.
|World Naval Hierarchy 2013, according to the Todd & Lindberg classification system|
|Multiple and sustained power projection missions globally||United States|
|At least one major power projection operation globally||France, United Kingdom|
|Power projection to regions adjacent its own||India, Russia, Italy, Spain, Brazil|
|Limited range power projection beyond exclusive economic zone (EEZ)||China, Japan, Australia, South Korea, Germany (+15)|
|Non blue-water||5||Regional offshore
|Coastal defence within and slightly beyond EEZ||Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Israel (+13)|
|Coastal defence confined to inner EEZ||North Korea (+20)|
|Maritime policing within and slightly beyond EEZ||Ireland, Estonia, Iraq (+16)|
|Maritime policing confined well within EEZ||Philippines (+32)|
|Riverine defence of landlocked states||Bolivia, Paraguay (+14)|
|Very basic constabulary if at all||c. 14 examples worldwide|
Historically, and to present day, blue-water navies have tended to establish overseas bases to extend the reach of supply lines, provide repair facilities and enhance the "effective striking power" of a fleet beyond the capabilities provided by the nations homeports. Generally, these overseas bases are located within areas where potential conflicts or threats to the nations interests may arise. For example, since World War II the Royal Navy and later the United States Navy have continued to base forces in Bahrain for operations in the Persian Gulf. The military importance and value of overseas basing is primarily dependent on geographical location. A base located at choke points in narrow or enclosed seas can be of high value, especially if positioned near, or within striking distance of an enemy's sea lines of communications. However advanced operating bases (or forward operating bases) can be equally as valuable. Naval Station Pearl Harbor acts as a "gateway" for the US Navy to "operate forward" in the Pacific Ocean.
These are examples of navies that have been described by various defense experts or academics as being blue-water navies. Some have successfully used their blue-water capabilities to exercise control on the high seas and from there have projected power into other nations' littoral waters. However, it should be noted that there is no agreed upon definition among authorities as to what constitutes a blue-water navy.
The Peoples Liberation Army Navy is subject to a variety of assessments regarding its capabilities. Writing for the US Naval Institute, Dr James Mulvenon believes that "the Chinese navy is still primarily a brown and green-water navy", highlighting problems with replenishment and logistics as key shortcomings in PLAN ambitions of becoming a blue-water capable fleet. This line of thinking has also been held by a number of academics throughout the years, including Dr Peter Howarth, Professor Timo Kivimäki, Dr Denny Roy, and Professor Bart Dessein.
China's ambition towards blue-water capability has received much attention, particularly from the United States Congress and Department of Defense, with both acknowledging that China's primary aim is to project power in the First and Second island chains. In a 2013 report to Congress, defense experts also assert that over the coming decades, China will gain the capability to project power across the globe – similar to Britain's 1982 Falklands War. In addition, there are those who think China already has a blue-water navy, such as British naval historian and professor, Geoffrey Till, and also, Professor David Shambaugh who believes that the PLAN has transitioned from a green-water navy to that of a "limited" blue-water navy. According to Todd and Lindberg's classification system, the PLAN is a rank four "regional power projection navy".
The French Navy is recognised as being a blue-water navy by various experts and academics.[A] According to professors Daniel Todd and Michael Lindberg, the French Navy is a rank two "limited global-reach power projection navy". However, they also believe the French Navy is on a "downward development trend", and may stand to lose this position in future.
The navy operates a single nuclear-powered aircraft carrier (Charles de Gaulle) which forms the centrepiece of the Navy's principal expeditionary task group (known as the Aeronaval Group). In addition to this, the navy maintains a secondary Amphibious Group (known as Le Groupe Amphibie) based around the Mistral-class amphibious assault ships. Both these formations are part of the Force d'action navale (or Naval Action Force). The 'Forces sous-marines' operates four nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines and six nuclear-powered fleet submarines. France retains a network of overseas naval facilities around the world; from Fort de France in the Caribbean, to Le Port, Réunion in the Indian Ocean, Papeete in the Pacific and in several other parts of the world too, including the Gulf, South Atlantic and the Western Pacific.
The navy's operational duties include the protection of French interests abroad and the security of the nation's many overseas departments and territories, as such the Navy undertakes a number of standing commitments worldwide.
The Indian Navy is unique among Asian navies, due to its long experience in carrier power projection since 1961. This, according to Dr George J. Gilboy and Political Scientist Eric Heginbotham, gives the Indian Navy the "leading power projection capability" in the region". The Indian Navy is also the only Asian navy considered to be a rank three "multi-regional power projection navy" per Todd and Lindberg's classification system. In his discussion paper for Consultancy Africa Intelligence, Greg Ryan asserts that in recent years, the Indian Navy has emerged as a "global power in the blue water sense".
India initially outlined its intentions of developing blue-water capabilities under the 2007 Maritime Capabilities Perspective Plan, with the navy's priority being the projection of "power in India’s area of strategic interest", the Indian Ocean Region. Since 2007 the navy has increased its presence in the Persian Gulf and the Horn of Africa to the Strait of Malacca, and routinely conducts anti-piracy operations and partnership building with other navies in the region. It also conducts routine two to three month-long deployments in the South and East China seas as well as the western Mediterranean simultaneously. The navy has listening posts stationed in Madagascar and Oman.
The navy operates two carrier task forces centered on INS Vikramaditya and INS Viraat, and also possess an amphibious transport dock, INS Jalashwa. In addition, the Indian Navy currently leases one Akula-class nuclear-powered attack submarine from Russia.
The Russian Navy (the then Soviet Navy) maintained naval forces able to rival those of the United States, however following the end of the Cold War and dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the fleet experienced a severe decline due to lack of funding. By the late 1990s, there was little tangible evidence of Russian blue-water capability. It wasn't until 2007, under then President Vladimir Putin, that "naval ambition broadened in scope and aimed at re-creating a large blue-water navy". Today, the Russian Navy is considered to be a rank 3 "multi-regional power projection navy" by Todd and Lindberg's classification system. The Russian Navy has also been described as a blue-water navy by British naval historian, Professor Geoffrey Till.
Analysts have mentioned that as opposed to the focus on submarine operations in the North Atlantic during the Cold War era, Russia's strategic emphasis has shifted towards the Pacific regions where a rising China and the United States 'Asia-Pacific Pivot' are potential threats.
Russia maintains a single overseas naval facility in Tartus, Syria, which hosts a Soviet-era naval supply and maintenance facility. The facility provides technical maintenance and logistical support to Russian warships deployed in the Mediterranean. Since 2008, there has been a notable increase in Russian naval activity, primarily in the Atlantic, Mediterranean, Caribbean and Indian Ocean.
The Royal Navy is considered to be a blue-water navy by a number of experts and academics.[A][B] According to Todd and Lindberg's classification system, the Royal Navy is a rank two "limited global-reach power projection navy". However, they believe the navy is on a "downward development trend", and could lose its rank in future.
The navy supports a number of standing commitments worldwide on a continuous basis and maintains an expeditionary task force known as the Response Force Task Group (RFTG). The Royal Navy Submarine Service operates four nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines and six nuclear-powered fleet submarines which operate globally. The Royal Fleet Auxiliary maintains a number of ships which support Royal Navy operations at range and augment its amphibious capabilities. The United Kingdom maintains four overseas naval facilities, including a refuelling station at Sembawang, Singapore in the Far East.
The U.S. Naval War College identifies the Royal Navy's tasks as fighting wars, conducting distant expeditions, maintaining good order at sea and preventing and deterring conflict. As such, the Navy views the retention of its "world-class" high-end disciplines in anti-air and anti-submarine warfare as strategically important. The Royal Navy has shown many examples of its expeditionary capabilities[C] since World War II, such as the Korean War, the 1982 Falklands War, the 1990-91 Gulf War, Sierra Leone, the War in Afghanistan, the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and during the 2011 military intervention in Libya.
The United States Navy is widely seen as blue-water navy by experts and academics. It is distinguished from other power projection navies, in that it is considered a global blue-water navy, able to operate in the deep waters of every ocean simultaneously. According to Todd and Lindberg's classification system, the United States Navy is a rank one "global-reach power projection navy", and the only navy to occupy this rank.
The USN maintains nine carrier strike groups (centered on the Nimitz-class aircraft carriers), of which six are deployed or ready for deployment within 30 days, and two ready for deployment within 90 days under the Fleet Response Plan (FRP). The USN also maintains a continuous deployment of nine expeditionary strike groups that embark a Marine Expeditionary Unit with an Aviation Combat Element of Landing Helicopter Docks and Landing Helicopter Assault. The US Military Sealift Command is the largest of its kind in the world and is responsible for delivering military transport and ship replenishment around the globe.
The US Navy has seen countless examples of its blue-water combat capabilities and has the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward areas during peacetime, and rapidly respond to regional crises. Some examples of such are; the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, the War in Afghanistan and the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
From green-water to blue-water
While considered to be a green-water navy, the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force is undergoing transition to develop blue-water capabilities. It began in 1981 when Prime Minister Zenkō Suzuki put forward a new doctrine requiring the JMSDF to expand its operations by 1,000 miles for defense of the nations sea lines of communication. To respond to the growing blue-water requirements, the JMSDF has been developing impressive capabilities, most notably the creation of destroyer flotillas centered on large helicopter destroyers (such as the Hyūga-class helicopter destroyers) and large AEGIS equipped destroyers. The first post WWII overseas naval air facility of Japan was established next to Djibouti-Ambouli International Airport, which supports a number of Lockheed P-3 Orion maritime patrol aircraft.
The Republic of Korea Navy also has ambitions to develop blue-water capabilities. In 2001, the then South Korean President, Kim Dae-jung, announced plans to build a "Strategic Mobile Fleet". The plan includes the construction of up to three Dokdo-class amphibious assault ships, with a ski-jump for the operation of V/STOL jet fighters being considered for the second vessel currently under construction.
The Brazilian Navy is experiencing a "shift in maritime priorities" with ambitions of developing a blue-water navy. While it maintains a mix of capabilities enabling it to operate in the wider South Atlantic Ocean, the Brazilian government wishes to be recognized as "the leading maritime power in the Southern Hemisphere" and is seeking to develop a modern naval shipbuilding industry.
- 1. ^ Professor of International Politics, Adrian Hyde-Price, highlights that in the post-Cold War era both Britain and France have re-focused their attention "towards expeditionary warfare and power projection. Power projection has always been an element of British and French military thinking given their residual over seas interests, but it has now moved centre stage."
- 2. ^ Royal United Services Institute (Occasional Paper, September 2013): "As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, the independent ability to deploy a credible and powerful conventional force that enables access to most of the globe by sea is compelling. This force offers Britain the opportunity to commit political support in emerging crises to deter, prevent, coerce or – if necessary – destroy an aggressor, as envisaged in the UK’s National Security Strategy (NSS)."
- 3. ^ The Royal Navy does not typically use the term blue-water navy, but rather the term "expeditionary". "The Navy is always expeditionary and is able to deal with threats to our nation’s interest at range."
- "British Maritime Doctrine, BR 1806, Third Edition". 2004.
The operating areas of maritime forces range from the deep waters of the open oceans (known colloquially as blue water).
- Speller, Ian (2002). "UK Maritime Expeditionary Capabilities and the Lessons of the Falklands Conflict" (pdf).
- "Special Focus Area: Marine Sensors". Targeting U.S. Technologies: A Trend Analysis of Reporting from Defense Industry. Defense Security Service (United States Department of Defense). 2010. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- Brown, Gary (31 March 2004), "Why buy Abrams Tanks? We need to look at more appropriate options", On Line Opinion (The National Forum)
- Andrew Cockburn (1984). "into+a+blue+water" The threat: inside the Soviet military machine. Vintage Books. p. 408. ISBN 978-0-394-72379-2. Retrieved 30 April 2012. In the Congressional hearings for the 1980 Defense Appropriations Act, US CNO Thomas B. Hayward described the Soviet Navy as "a blue water navy powerful enough to challenge the US Navy in most major ocean areas of the world"
- Winkler, David Frank (2000), Cold war at sea: high-seas confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union, Naval Institute Press, p. 32, ISBN 978-1-55750-955-0
- Cole, Bernard D. (2001). The Great Wall at Sea: China's Navy Enters the Twenty-First Century. Naval Institute Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-55750-239-1. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
- Rob van Heijster (April 6, 2005). "Smart Range of Burst fuzes" (PDF). TNO. Retrieved 2009-02-23.
- "Protecting Naval Surface Ships from Fast Attack Boat Swarm Threats". defense-update.com. January 10, 2007. Retrieved 2009-02-23.
- Till, Geoffrey (15 August 2013). Naval Modernisation in South-East Asia: Nature, Causes and Consequences. London: Routledge. p. 267. ISBN 1135953945.
- Dictionary: Blue-water, dictionary.com
- Bratton, Patrick C; Till, Geoffrey (2012). Sea Power and the Asia-Pacific. London, United Kingdom: Routledge. ISBN 1136627243.
- Amardeep, Amardeep (10 Oct 2007). China-India Relations: Contemporary Dynamics. London: Routledge. p. 131, note 12. ISBN 9781134074662.
- "Q&A with Adm. Michael G. Mullen 2006 CNO's Guidance Release Media Roundtable Pentagon,". Washington, DC: US Navy. 13 October 2005. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- U.S. Navy Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Michael Mullen pointed out in an interview with KQV (Pittsburgh): "We are looking at, in addition to the blue-water ships which I would characterize and describe as our aircraft carriers and other ships that support that kind of capability, we're also looking to develop capability in what I call the green-water and the brown-water, and the brown-water is really the rivers . . . These are challenges we all have, and we need to work together to ensure that the sea lanes are secure." KQV RADIO (PITTSBURGH) INTERVIEW WITH JOE FENN MAY 19, 2006
- Phifer, Michiko (13 Jul 2012). A Handbook of Military Strategy and Tactics. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 55. ISBN 9789382573289.
- Small Navies: Strategy and Policy for Small Navies in War and Peace (Dr Deborah Sanders, Dr Ian Speller, Professor Michael Mulqueen). United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing. pp. 34–43. ISBN 9781472417619.
- Till, Geoffrey (2 Aug 2004). Seapower: A Guide for the Twenty-First Century. London: Routledge. pp. 113–120. ISBN 9781135756789. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
- Hervé Coutau-Bégarie, Traité de stratégie, (Economica: Paris 2002). pp 617-621
- Todd, Daniel; Lindberg, Michael (1996). Navies and Shipbuilding Industries: The Strained Symbiosis. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 56–57. ISBN 9780275953102. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- Kirchberger, Sarah (23 Jun 2015). Assessing China's Naval Power: Technological Innovation, Economic Constraints, and Strategic Implications. Springer. p. 60. ISBN 9783662471272.
- Howarth, Peter (18 April 2006). China's Rising Sea Power: The PLA Navy's Submarine Challenge. London: Routledge. pp. 179–179. ISBN 9781134203956.
- Vego, Milan N. (5 Sep 2013). Naval Strategy and Operations in Narrow Seas. Routledge. pp. 61–71. ISBN 1136317945.
- CNO Sees Hawaii as 'Gateway' to Operate Forward, navy.mil, 1/20/2012
- "The Royal Navy: Britain’s Trident for a Global Agenda". http://henryjacksonsociety.org/. Henry Jackson Society. Retrieved 4 November 2006. External link in
- Bennett, James C (1 January 2007). The Anglosphere Challenge: Why the English-speaking Nations Will Lead the Way in the Twenty-first Century. United States: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 286. ISBN 0742533336.
...the United States and the United Kingdom have the world's two best world-spanning blue-water navies... with the French being the only other candidate... and China being the most likely competitor in the long term
- China's Energy Strategy: The Impact on Bejing's Maritime Policies (2012 ed.). United States: Naval Institute Press. 2012. pp. 1–9 (Part 1). ISBN 9781612511511.
- Kivimäki, Timo (2002). War Or Peace in the South China Sea? (Issue 45 ed.). Denmark: NIAS Press. pp. 65–66. ISBN 9788791114014.
- Roy, Denny (1 January 1998). China's Foreign Relations. United States: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 112–113. ISBN 9780847690138.
- Dessein, Bart (26 Nov 2014). Interpreting China as a Regional and Global Power: Nationalism and Historical Consciousness in World Politics. United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 175. ISBN 9781137450302.
- Ronald O'Rourke, "China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress", December 10, 2012, page 7
- "Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2013" (PDF). DOD: ANNUAL REPORT TO CONGRESS: 38–39. 2013.
- O'Rourke, Ronald O'Rourke (September 2014). "China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
- Shambaugh, David (18 January 2013). China Goes Global: The Partial Power. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. pp. 289–290. ISBN 9780199323692.
- Peter A. Dutton & Ryan D. Martinson (13 May 2015). NWC China Maritime Studies 13: Beyond the Wall Chinese far sea operations (PDF). United States: Naval War College. p. 33. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- The overseas military installations of the Member States of the European Union, uroparl.europa.eu, Published 2009, Retrieved 26 June 2014
- French Navy official website, defense.gouv.fr
- Gilboy, George J.; Heginbotham, Eric (12 Mar 2012). Chinese and Indian Strategic Behavior: Growing Power and Alarm. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. pp. 175–176.
- Freeman, Carla P (30 Apr 2015). Handbook on China and Developing Countries. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 455. ISBN 9781782544210.
- Ryan, Greg (8 September 2014). "The expansion of India’s blue water capabilities into African maritime territories". Consultancy Africa Intelligence (Discussion paper). Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Scott, David (Winter 2007–2008). "India's drive for a 'blue water' navy" (PDF). Journal of Military and Strategic Studies 10 (2): 42. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-05-28.
- Sinha, Atish; Mohta, Madhup (2007). Indian Foreign Policy: Challenges and Opportunities. Academic Foundation. ISBN 978-81-7188-593-0.
- Preston, Antony; Jordan, John; Dent, Stephen, eds. (2007). Warship. London: Conway Maritime Press. p. 164. ISBN 1844860418.
- India’s Military Modernization: Plans and Strategic Underpinnings, Gurmeet Kanwal, September 24, 2012
- "Indian Ocean: Reviving IOR-ARC forum". Strategic Affairs. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
- "Indian Navy - Naval Operations". Indian Navy. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "The power of the sea". Deccan Chronicle. 23 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- Brewster, David (2012). India as an Asia Pacific power. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. pp. 140–143. ISBN 1136620087.
- Pubby, Manu (18 July 2007). "India activates first listening post on foreign soil: radars in Madagascar". The Indian Express. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- "Ears across the Arabian Sea". http://www.intelligenceonline.com/. Intelligence Online. Retrieved 15 March 2015. External link in
- Austin, Greg (14 Jul 2000). The Armed Forces of Russia in Asia. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9781860644856.
- Dutton, Peter (2013). Twenty-First Century Seapower: Cooperation and Conflict at Sea. London: Routledge. pp. 119–120. ISBN 1136316965.
- Russian navy shifts strategic focus 23 May 2011
- Russian warships 'ready to sail for Syria' — RT, rt.com, 18 June 2012
- "The Royal Navy Deployed Forward Operating Globally" (PDF). http://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/. Royal Navy. Retrieved 21 May 2014. External link in
- "Royal Navy - A Global Force 2012/13" (PDF). http://www.newsdeskmedia.com/. Royal Navy. Retrieved 26 June 2014. External link in
|website=(help) p. 45 (The Submarine Service)
- The Royal Fleet Auxiliary – Delivering Maritime Operational Support, rusi.org, Published 2011, Retrieved 26 June 2014
- The Royal Fleet Auxiliary – Adding Value to UK Defence, rusi.org, Published 2011, Retrieved 26 June 2014
- "The Status and Location of the Military Installations of the Member States of the European Union" (PDF). Policy Department External Policies: 13–14. February 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
- House of Commons Hansard Written Answers (publications.parliament.uk) 17 June 2013
- Till, Geoffrey. "Great Britain Gambles With The Royal Navy". www.usnwc.edu. U.S Naval War College. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- Status of the U.S Navy Archived December 21, 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- Military Sealift Command, msc.navy.mil, Retrieved 23 June 2014
- Skaridov, Alexander S., Naval activity in the foreign EEZ—the role of terminology in law regime, St. Petersburg Association of the Law of the Sea, 7 Kazanskaya St., St. Petersburg 191186, Russia, Available online 11 November 2004
- Tomohisa Takei (November 2008). "Japan Maritime Self Defense Force in the New Maritime Era" (PDF). Hatou. Retrieved 2012-12-03.
- Katsumata, Hidemichi (February 2009). "Japanese sealane defense today". Ships of the World (Japan: Kaijin-sha) 702: 76–81.
- Koda, Yoji (November 2011). "History of Fleet Escort Force since 1961". Ships of the World (Japan: Kaijin-sha) 750: 76–85.
- Euan Graham (January 2006). Japan's Sea Lane Security, 1940-2004: A Matter Of Life And Death?. Routledge.
- Japan Ministry of Defense. "MOD/JSDF ANSWERS - Anti-Piracy Efforts". Retrieved 2012-11-16.
- "김대통령, 해군사관학교 졸업 및 임관식 참석말씀". Kim Dae-jung Presidential Library Official Website. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
- Roehrig, Terence. "Republic of Korea Navy and China's Rise: Balancing Competing Priorities". Maritime Asia Report. Belfer Centre. Retrieved 2013-04-24.
- Koda, Yoji (Spring 2010). "The Emergence of a Korean Navy". Naval War College Review. p. 23.
- S. Korea Envisions Light Aircraft Carrier, defensenews.com, 26 October 2013
- Pryce, Paul (19 January 2015). "The Brazilian Navy: Green Water or Blue?". Offiziere.ch. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- Professor Adrian Hyde-Price - "European Security in the Twenty-First Century: The Challenge of Multipolarity", published 9 Jan 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group. Chapter - Britain, France and the multipolar challenge.
- Ellwood, Tobias. "A Study into the Preparation for and Use of the Queen Elizabeth-Class Carriers (September 2013)" (PDF). https://www.rusi.org/. Royal United Services Institute. Retrieved 25 May 2014. External link in
|Look up expeditionary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|