As of 2006, Blumenau had an estimated population of 302,000 people, with an area of 519 km². The main ethnic origin of the city inhabitants are German and Italian. The city displays many historical and cultural reminders of their heritage, such as houses and other buildings built in a traditional German style, statues, and memorials.
Blumenau, compared to other Brazilian cities, has a very high standard of living, with a Human Development Index of 0.855 as of 2000.
The city is located in a valley bisected by the Itajaí-Açu River, surrounded by hills with forests. The lower areas, including towers and tall buildings in the city center, constantly suffer from the threat of floods. Blumenau's first recorded flood took place in the dawn on September 23, 1880. The worst took place in 1983 and 1984, when the city was completely isolated for weeks. Today, Blumenau is well-prepared against such threats, but many citizens prefer to live in higher areas spread into the nearby hills and plains to avoid flooding. However, this planning could not avoid an even worse flooding in late November 2008, that killed over 100 and forced thousands evacuated.
Blumenau, like the entire state of Santa Catarina is located south of the Tropic of Capricorn; therefore it is mild in the winter with temperatures averaging 16.6 °C (61 °F) and warm and humid in the summer with temperatures averaging around 30 °C (87 °F). In July 23, 2013 the downtown of the city got a snow-rain mix and higher neighborhoods had drifting snow.
Blumenau is also emphasized in other industrial sectors such as metallurgical, mechanical and electrical equipment, and is the largest producer of pole transformers in Brazil.
It has a strong economy, boosted by strong trade, service and tourism events, with exhibitions of international projection, which are generally held in Vila Germânica (Germanic Ville Park). Additionally, a new but rapidly expanding market is the production of beer craft, such as Eisenbahn.
The Blumenau's Tourism Department maintains four tour routes covering different aspects of the city. Besides these, there's the festival of the municipality. Also, the Oktoberfest of Blumenau, held every October, which attracts over a million tourists every year.