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Queen Boudica by John Opie.jpg
Queen Boudica in John Opie's painting Boadicea Haranguing the Britons
Died60 or 61 AD
Traditional folklore: Flintshire, Wales
Other namesBoudicea, Boadicea, Buddug
OccupationQueen of the Iceni

Boudica or Boudicca (UK: /ˈbdɪkə, bˈdɪkə/, US: /bˈdɪkə/), known in Latin chronicles as Boadicea or Boudicea, and in Welsh as Buddug (IPA: [ˈbɨðɨɡ]),[1][2] was a queen of the Iceni tribe of Celtic Britons, who led an uprising against the conquering forces of the Roman Empire in AD 60 or 61. According to Roman sources, shortly after the uprising failed, she poisoned herself or died of her wounds, although there is no actual evidence of her fate. She is considered a national heroine and symbol of the struggle for justice and independence.[3]

Boudica's husband Prasutagus, with whom she had two daughters whose names are unknown, ruled as a nominally independent ally of Rome, and left his kingdom jointly to his daughters and to the Roman emperor in his will. However, when he died, his will was ignored, and the kingdom was annexed and his property taken. According to Tacitus, Boudica was flogged and her daughters raped.[4] Cassius Dio explains Boudica's response by saying that previous imperial donations to influential Britons were confiscated and the Roman financier and philosopher Seneca called in the loans he had forced on the reluctant Celtic Britons.[5]

In AD 60 or 61, when the Roman governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus was campaigning on the island of Mona (modern Anglesey) on the northwest coast of Wales, Boudica led the Iceni, the Trinovantes and other British tribes in revolt.[6] They destroyed Camulodunum (modern Colchester), earlier the capital of the Trinovantes, but at that time a colonia, a settlement for discharged Roman soldiers, as well as the site of a temple to the former Emperor Claudius. Upon hearing of the revolt, Suetonius hurried to Londinium (modern London), the 20-year-old commercial settlement that was the rebels' next target. He lacked sufficient numbers to defend the settlement, and he evacuated and abandoned Londinium. Boudica led a very large army of Iceni, Trinovantes and others against a detachment of the Legio IX Hispana, defeating them and burning Londinium and Verulamium.

An estimated 70,000–80,000 Romans and Britons were killed in the three cities by those following Boudica,[7] many by torture.[7] Suetonius, meanwhile, regrouped his forces, possibly in the West Midlands, and despite being heavily outnumbered he decisively defeated the Celtic Britons. The crisis caused Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from Britain, but Suetonius's victory over Boudica confirmed Roman control of the province. Boudica then either killed herself to avoid capture (according to Tacitus),[8] or died of illness (according to Cassius Dio).[9]

Interest in these events was revived in the English Renaissance and led to Boudica's fame in the Victorian era and as a cultural symbol in England.[10][11]

Boudica remains an important cultural symbol in Wales and a marble statue of her stands in Cardiff City Hall.[12][13] She has been described as one of Wales' greatest people and as a Celtic Welsh heroine.[14][15]


1855 Bronze statue of Boadicea (Boudica) and her daughters, at Captain's Walk in Brecon, Powys, Wales; by sculptor John Thomas.

Boudica has been known by several versions of her name. In the 16th century, Raphael Holinshed called her Voadicia, while Edmund Spenser called her Bunduca, a variation of which was used in the popular Jacobean play Bonduca of 1612.[16] In the 18th century, William Cowper's poem Boadicea, an ode (1782) popularised an alternative version of the name.[17]

Her name was spelt Boudicca in the most complete manuscripts of Tacitus, which through investigation of the language of the Celts was also proven to be misspelled with the addition of the second 'c.'[18] The misspelling by Tacitus was copied, and further variations on her name began to appear. Along with the second 'c' becoming an 'e,' an 'a' appeared in place of the 'u', which produced the medieval (and most common) spelling 'Boadicea'.[18]

In an epitome of Cassius Dio's histories in Greek, she was Βουδουικα, Βουνδουικα, and Βοδουικα.[19]

Kenneth Jackson concludes, based on later developments in Welsh (Buddug) and Irish (Buaidheach), that the name derives from the Proto-Celtic feminine adjective *boudīkā 'victorious', which in turn is derived from the Celtic word *boudā 'victory' (cf. Irish bua (Classical Irish buadh) 'victory', Scottish Gaelic buaidheach 'victorious; effective', Welsh buddug, buddugol 'victorious', buddugoliaeth 'victory'), and that the correct spelling of the name in Common Brittonic (the British Celtic language) is Boudica, pronounced [boʊˈdiːkaː]. Jackson explains:

"The philological fact is that the name must have been Boudica, pronounced in phonetic terminology /boudi:ka:/ or, to put it in a less technical form, in 'English' spelling it would be Bowdeekah, where ow means the diphthong seen in e.g. the phrases 'tie a bow' or 'bow and arrow', and the stressed syllable is the dee, with long vowel, the final a being also long."

— Kenneth Jackson (1979)[20]

The Gaulish version of her name is attested in inscriptions as Boudiga in Bordeaux, Boudica in Lusitania, and Bodicca in Algeria.[21][22]

John Rhys suggested that the most comparable Latin name, in meaning only, would be "Victorina".[23] Alternatively, Graham Webster claims the name can be directly translated as "Victoria".[24]


Historical sources[edit]

Two primary sources from the classical period refer to Boudica, namely Tacitus and Cassius Dio.[25] Tacitus mentions Boudica in two of his works: the Annals, c.AD 115-117 and the Agricola, c. AD 98.[26] Both were published many years after Boudica's revolt, but Tacitus had an eyewitness at his disposal for the retelling of some of the events, his father-in-law Gnaeus Julius Agricola, who served in Britain three times as a military tribune under Suetonius Paulinus. It was during Suetonius's absence that Tacitus says the Britons rose in rebellion under Boudica.[27] Cassius Dio's account, published over a century after Boudica's death, is only known from an epitome, written by John Xiphilinus. Dio provides a considerable amount of information not found in the work of Tacitus, suggesting that the sources he used were lost long ago.[28]

It is generally agreed that Dio based his account on that of Tacitus, but simplified the sequence of events.[29] The abuses which Boudica and her daughters suffered at the hands of the Romans are not mentioned in Dio's account. Instead he cites three different causes for the rebellion: the recalling of loans that were given to the Britons by Seneca; Decianus Catus' confiscation of money formerly loaned to the Britons by the Emperor Claudius; and Boudica's own entreaties.[30][31]

Tacitus depicts Boudica as a victim of Roman slavery and licentiousness, her fight against which made her a champion of both barbarian and British liberty.[32] It is for this reason that Tacitus's narrative depicts Boudica as an example of the bravery of a free woman, rather than of a queen, sparing her the negative connotations associated with queenship in the ancient world.[32]

Both Tacitus (Tac. Annals. 14.35) and Dio (Dio Cass. 62.3-6) incorporate fictitious speeches by Boudica in their work.[25] These types of pre-battle speeches were invented by ancient historians as a means of arousing dramatic and rhetorical considerations in the reader or listener.[30] Boudica, being neither Greek nor Latin herself, would not have addressed her people in either language, and it is unlikely that either Tacitus or Dio would have been able to recount any of her speeches.[30] Although imaginary, these speeches created an image of patriotism that formed the basis of the legend of Boudica as the first champion of the British people.[33]


Location of Iceni territory in eastern England, including all of Norfolk; modern county borders are shown.

Cassius Dio describes Boudica as very tall and terrifying in appearance, with tawny hair hanging down below her waist, a harsh voice, and a piercing glare.[34] He writes that she habitually wore a large golden necklace (perhaps a torc), a colourful tunic, and a thick cloak fastened by a brooch.[35][36]

Boudica was the wife of King Prasutagus, ruler of the Iceni, a people who inhabited what is now modern Norfolk.[37] When the Roman conquest of southern Britain began in AD 43 under the Emperor Claudius, Prasutagus allied his people with the Romans.[38] The Iceni were proud of their independence, and had revolted in AD 47 when the then Roman governor Publius Ostorius Scapula planned to disarm all the peoples in the area of Britain under Roman control following local uprisings. Ostorius defeated them and went on to put down other uprisings around Britain.[39] The Iceni remained independent under Prasutagus, which suggests that they were not absorbed into the Roman Empire after the first revolt.[40] It is not known whether he became the king only after Ostorius's defeat of the Iceni, but his status as a friendly king suggests that he was a pro-Roman ruler who had supported the invasion of AD 43 and helped the Romans during the revolts in AD 47–48.[41] Further evidence of Prasutagus's alliance with the Romans can be found in his will. Upon his death in AD 60/61, he left half of his fortune to his two daughters and the other half to the Roman Emperor.[34] Tacitus does not date the start of Prasutagus's reign and first mentions him, as a long-reigning king who had died, when he writes about Boudica's rebellion.[42]

Tacitus mentions longstanding reasons for the Trinovantes (a tribe of people from what is now modern Essex) to hate Rome and join forces with the Iceni:

"It was against the veterans that their hatred was most intense. For these new settlers in the colony of Camulodunum drove people out of their houses, ejected them from their farms, called them captives and slaves ...."

— Tacitus[43]

The immediate cause of the rebellion was gross mistreatment by the Romans. Tacitus wrote:

"The Icenian king Prasutagus, celebrated for his long prosperity, had named the emperor his heir, together with his two daughters; an act of deference which he thought would place his kingdom and household beyond the risk of injury. The result was contrary – so much so that his kingdom was pillaged by centurions, his household by slaves; as though they had been prizes of war."

— Tacitus[43]

Tacitus stated that Boudica was lashed, her two daughters were raped, and that the estates of the leading Iceni men were confiscated. [Tacitus[43]]

Cassius Dio wrote:

"An excuse for the war was found in the confiscation of the sums of money that Claudius had given to the foremost Britons; for these sums, as Decianus Catus, the procurator of the island maintained, were to be paid back... [another reason was] the fact that Seneca, in the hope of receiving a good rate of interest, had lent to the islanders 40,000,000 sesterces that they did not want, and had afterwards called in this loan all at once and had resorted to severe measures in exacting it."

— Cassius Dio[44]

The apocryphal speech which Dio attributes to Boudica includes an address to the Trinovantes in which she reminds them of how much better their life was before Roman occupation, stressing that wealth cannot be enjoyed under slavery and placing the blame upon herself for not expelling the Romans as they had done when Julius Caesar had come for their land.[33] The willingness of the barbarians to sacrifice a higher quality of living under the Romans in exchange for their freedom and personal liberty was an important part of what Dio considered to be motivation for the rebellions.[33]


Initial actions[edit]

In AD 60 or 61, the current governor and most senior Roman administrator in the province, Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, was leading a campaign against the island of Mona (modern Anglesey) off the coast of north Wales.[27] On hearing the news of Boudica's uprising, he left Mona garrisoned and marched rapidly southwards to deal with it. Under Boudica's leadership, the Iceni and the Trinovantes comprised an army 120,000 strong.[45] Dio claims that Boudica had called upon the British goddess of victory, Andraste, to aid them in battle.[46]

Memorial to Lucius Duccius Rufinus, a standard bearer of the Ninth Legion, Yorkshire Museum, York.

The first target of the rebels was Camulodunum (modern Colchester), a Roman colonia for retired soldiers.[47] A Roman temple had been erected there to the deified Claudius, at great expense to the local population, which, combined with brutal treatment of the natives by the veterans, had caused much resentment.[48] Once the revolt had begun, the only Roman troops available to provide assistance, aside from the few within the colony, were two hundred auxiliaries located in London who were not equipped to fight Boudica's troops. Camulodunum was captured by the rebels[49] and those who survived the initial attack took refuge in the temple of Claudius for two days before they were also killed.[50] The future governor Quintus Petillius Cerialis, then commanding the Legio IX Hispana, attempted to relieve the city, but suffered an overwhelming defeat.[51] The infantry with him were all killed and only the commander and some of his cavalry escaped. After this disaster the procurator Catus Decianus, whose behaviour had provoked the rebellion, fled to Gaul.[51]

Suetonius hurried along Watling Street through hostile territory to Londinium. He considered giving battle there, but with his insufficient numbers of troops and chastened by Petillius's defeat, he decided to sacrifice the city to save the province and withdrew.[52] The wealthy citizens and traders had fled after the news of Catus Decianus defecting to Gaul. Suetonius took with him as refugees those citizens who wished to escape, and the rest of the inhabitants were left to their fate.[53]

Londinium was abandoned to the rebels, who burned it down after torturing and killing everyone who had remained. The insurgents are thought to have then gone north-west[54] to the municipium of Verulamium (modern St Albans), which was also destroyed, although the extent of its destruction is unclear.[55][56][57]

In the three settlements destroyed, between seventy and eighty thousand people are said to have been killed. Tacitus says that the Britons had no interest in taking or selling prisoners, only in slaughter by gibbet, fire, or cross.[58] Dio's account gives more detail; that the noblest women were impaled on spikes and had their breasts cut off and sewn to their mouths, "to the accompaniment of sacrifices, banquets, and wanton behaviour" in sacred places, particularly the groves of Andraste.[59]

Boudica's last battle[edit]

While Boudica's army continued their assault, Suetonius regrouped his forces. According to Tacitus, he amassed a force including his own Legio XIV Gemina, some vexillationes (detachments) of the XX Valeria Victrix, and any available auxiliaries.[60] The prefect of Legio II Augusta, Poenius Postumus, did not obey the order to bring his troops,[61] and a fourth legion, IX Hispana, had been routed trying to relieve Camulodunum,[62] but nonetheless the governor now commanded an army of almost ten thousand men.[citation needed]

Suetonius took a stand at an unidentified location in a defile with a wood behind him. His men were heavily outnumbered: according to Dio the rebels numbered 230–300,000, but Boudica's army was crushed. According to Tacitus, neither the women nor the animals were spared.[63] The Roman slaughter of women and animals was unusual, as they could have been sold for profit, and points to the mutual enmity between the two sides.[64] Tacitus states that Boudica poisoned herself, although in the Agricola, which was written almost twenty years before the Annals, he mentions nothing of suicide and attributes the end of the revolt to socordia ("indolence"). Dio says she fell sick and died and then was given a lavish burial.[citation needed]

Catus Decianus, who had fled to Gaul, was replaced by Gaius Julius Alpinus Classicianus. After the uprising Suetonius conducted widespread punitive operations among the Britons, but criticism of this by Classicianus led to an investigation headed by Nero's freedman Polyclitus.[65] Fearing that Suetonius's actions would provoke further rebellion, Nero replaced the governor with the more conciliatory Publius Petronius Turpilianus.[66] The historian Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus tells us the crisis had almost persuaded Nero to abandon Britain.[67]

The location of the battle at which Boudica was defeated is unknown. Some historians favour a site along the Roman road now known as Watling Street, although other possible locations have been identified.[68][69] Kevin K. Carroll suggests a site close to High Cross, Leicestershire, on the junction of Watling Street and the Fosse Way, which would have enabled the Legio II Augusta, based at Exeter, to rendezvous with the rest of Suetonius's forces.[70] The Cuttle Mill area of Paulerspury in Northamptonshire has been proposed on the basis that Akeman Street was a possible route from the south-west.[71] Manduessedum (Mancetter), near the modern town of Atherstone in Warwickshire, has also been suggested.[72] It has also been suggested that the Iceni may have been returning to East Anglia along the Icknield Way when they encountered the Roman army in the vicinity of Arbury Banks, Hertfordshire,[73] or that the site could be located at Church Stowe, Northamptonshire.[74] Local legends offer "The Rampart" near Messing, Essex and Ambresbury Banks in Epping Forest, although these accounts are not thought to hold a factual basis.[75]

Boudica then either killed herself to avoid capture (according to Tacitus),[8] or died of illness (according to Cassius Dio).[9]

Legacy and legends[edit]

One of the earliest possible mentions of Boudica (excluding Tacitus' and Dio's accounts) was the 6th-century work On the Ruin and Conquest of Britain by the British monk Gildas. In it, he demonstrates his knowledge of a female leader whom he describes as a "treacherous lionness" who "butchered the governors who had been left to give fuller voice and strength to the endeavours of Roman rule." It is likely that Gildas is referring to Boudica in this statement.[6] Polydore Vergil may have reintroduced her to British history as "Voadicea" in 1534.[76] Raphael Holinshed also included her story in his Chronicles (1577) based on Tacitus and Dio.[77]

16th–18th centuries[edit]

During the reign of Elizabeth I, Boudica began to be seen as an important figure in British history.[78] During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, the works of Tacitus were rediscovered, and therefore interest in Boudica and her rebellion was triggered. It has been said that the Elizabethan era was a time where her popularity could flourish as Elizabeth, in 1588, was required to defend Britain from a possible invasion of Spanish Armada. Boudica had once defended Britain as well, however from the Romans.[79] In 1610, Shakespeare's younger contemporaries Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher wrote a play, Bonduca, said to have been inspired by Holinshed's Chronicles.[16] A version of that play called Bonduca, or the British Heroine was set to music by Henry Purcell in 1695; one of the choruses, Britons, Strike Home!, became a popular patriotic song in the 18th and 19th centuries.[80] William Cowper wrote a popular poem, "Boadicea, an ode", in 1782.[17]

19th–20th century[edit]

During the Victorian era, Boudica's fame took on legendary proportions, as Queen Victoria came to be seen as Boudica's "namesake", their names being identical in meaning. Victoria's Poet Laureate, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, wrote a poem, "Boadicea", and several ships were named after her.[81] Boadicea and Her Daughters, a statue of the queen in her war chariot (anachronistically furnished with scythes after the Persian fashion) was executed by Thomas Thornycroft over the 1850s and 1860s with the encouragement of Prince Albert, who lent his horses for use as models.[82] Thornycroft exhibited the head separately in 1864. It was cast in bronze in 1902, 17 years after Thornycroft's death, by his son Sir John, who presented it to the London County Council. They erected it on a plinth on the Victoria Embankment next to Westminster Bridge and the Houses of Parliament, inscribed with the following lines from Cowper's poem:

Regions Caesar never knew
Thy posterity shall sway.

A statue of her now stands guard over the city she razed to the ground.[21][83] The area of King's Cross, London was previously a village known as Battle Bridge which was an ancient crossing of the River Fleet. The original name of the bridge was Broad Ford Bridge. The name "Battle Bridge" led to a tradition that this was the site of a major battle between the Romans and the Iceni tribe led by Boudica.[84] The tradition is not supported by any historical evidence and is rejected by modern historians. However, Lewis Spence's 1937 book Boadicea – warrior queen of the Britons went so far as to include a map showing the positions of the opposing armies.[85] There is a belief that she was buried between platforms 9 and 10 in King's Cross station in London, England. There is no evidence for this and it is probably a post-World War II invention.[86] At Colchester Town Hall, a life-sized statue of Boudica stands on the south facade, sculpted by L J Watts in 1902; another depiction of her is in a stained glass window by Clayton and Bell in the council chamber.[87]

Boudica was adopted by the Suffragettes as one of the symbols of the campaign for women's suffrage. In 1908, a "Boadicea Banner" was carried in several National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies marches. She appears as character in A Pageant of Great Women written by Cicely Hamilton, which opened at the Scala Theatre, London, in November 1909 before a national tour, and she was described in a 1909 pamphlet as "the eternal feminine... the guardian of the hearth, the avenger of its wrongs upon the defacer and the despoiler".[11]

A "vocal minority" has claimed Boudica as a Celtic Welsh heroine.[15] A statue of Boudica in the Marble Hall at Cardiff City Hall was among those unveiled by David Lloyd George on 27 October 1916.[12] It shows her with her daughters and without warrior trappings.[13] Of the statues, Buddug is the most ancient, the only female, and the only antecedent from outside the modern Welsh nation.[citation needed]

21st century[edit]

Permanent exhibitions describing the Boudican Revolt are at the Museum of London, Colchester Castle Museum and the Verulamium Museum.[88] At the Norwich Castle Museum, a dedicated gallery includes a reproduction of an Iceni chariot.[89] A 36-mile (58 km) long distance footpath called Boudica's Way passes through countryside between Norwich and Diss in Norfolk.[90]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ John Davies (1993). A History of Wales. London: Penguin. p. 28. ISBN 0-14-014581-8.
  2. ^ Fraser, Antonia (1990). The Warrior Queens. Ontario: Penguin books Canada. p. 3.4. ISBN 0140085173.
  3. ^ Pruitt, Sarah (31 May 2016). "Who was Boudica?". Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  4. ^ "iam primum uxor eius Boudicca verberibus adfecta et filiae stupro violatae sunt" Tacitus, Annales 14.31
  5. ^ Thayer, Bill. "Epitome of Book LXII" (a translated and abridged version of Lucius Cassius Dio's Roman History, VIII, LXII, 2).
  6. ^ a b Richard Hingley and Christina Unwin (2006). Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen (New ed.). Hambledon Continuum. pp. 44, 61. ISBN 978-1-85285-516-1.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  7. ^ a b Tacitus, Annals 14.33
  8. ^ a b Tacitus, Agricola 14–16; Annales 14:29–39
  9. ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History 62:1–12
  10. ^ The Gentleman's Magazine. W. Pickering. 1854. pp. 541–.
  11. ^ a b Johnson, Marguerite. "Boadicea and British Suffrage Feminists". Outskirts Online Journal. 31 (1994). Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  12. ^ a b Chappell, Edgar L. (1946). Cardiff's Civic Centre: A historical guide. Priory Press. pp. 21–26.
  13. ^ a b "Statue of Buddug - Boadicea".
  14. ^ "BBC Radio Wales - The Musical Life Of..., Series 1, Boudica". BBC. Retrieved 4 August 2022.
  15. ^ a b "Queen Boudica, A Life in Legend | History Today". Retrieved 4 August 2022.
  16. ^ a b Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher, Bonduca
  17. ^ a b William Cowper, Boadicea, an ode
  18. ^ a b Dudley & Webster (1962). The Rebellion of Boudicca. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. p. 143.
  19. ^ All three spellings are offered in Earnest Cary's translation of the epitome of Book LXII, ISBN 0674991966, Vol. 8, page 84.
  20. ^ Kenneth Jackson (1979). "Queen Boudica?". Britannia. 10: 255. doi:10.2307/526060. JSTOR 526060. S2CID 251373737.
  21. ^ a b Graham Webster (1978). Boudica: The British Revolt against Rome AD 60.
  22. ^ Guy de la Bédoyère. The Roman Army in Britain. Archived from the original on 10 March 2008. Retrieved 5 July 2005.
  23. ^ Rhys, John (1908). Early Britain, Celtic Britain. General Literature Committee: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (Great Britain). p. 284.
  24. ^ Webster, Graham (1978). Boudica, the British Revolt against Rome Ad 60. Totowa: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 15.
  25. ^ a b Hingley & Unwin (2006). Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. p. 42.
  26. ^ Hingley & Unwin (2006). Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. p. 43.
  27. ^ a b Hingley & Unwin (2006). Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. p. 44.
  28. ^ Hingley & Unwin (2006). Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. pp. 52–53.
  29. ^ Evans, Martin Marix (2004). "The defeat of Boudicca's Rebellion" (PDF). Towcester Museum.
  30. ^ a b c Adler, Eric (2008). "Boudica's Speeches in Tacitus and Dio". The Classical World. 101 (2): 173–195. doi:10.1353/clw.2008.0006 – via JSTOR.
  31. ^ Hingley & Unwin (2006). Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. p. 53.
  32. ^ a b Braund, David (1996). Ruling Roman Britain. London: Routledge. p. 132.
  33. ^ a b c Newark, Timothy (1989). Women Warlords: An Illustrated Military History of Female Warriors. Blandford. p. 86.
  34. ^ a b Newark, Timothy (1989). Women Warlords: An Illustrated Military History of Female Warriors. London: Blandford. p. 85.
  35. ^ Peter Keegan. "Boudica, Cartimandua, Messalina and Agrippina the Younger. Independent Women of Power and the Gendered Rhetoric of Roman History". Retrieved 24 February 2016.
  36. ^ The term xanthotrichos translated in this passage as red–brown or tawny can also mean auburn, or a shade short of brown, but most translators now agree on a colour somewhere between light red and reddish brown (i.e., tawny). Carolyn D. Williams (2009). Boudica and her stories: narrative transformations of a warrior queen. University of Delaware Press. p. 62.
  37. ^ Hingley & Unwin (2006). Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. p. 197.
  38. ^ Hingley & Unwin (2006). Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. pp. 19, 23.
  39. ^ Tacitus, The Annals, 12.31–32
  40. ^ Hingley & Unwin (2006). Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. p. 27.
  41. ^ Hingley & Unwin (2006). Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. p. 38.
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  43. ^ a b c Tacitus, The Annals, 14.31
  44. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 62.2
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  46. ^ Hingley & Unwin (2006). Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. p. 55.
  47. ^ Webster, Graham (1978). Boudica, the British Revolt against Rome Ad 60. Totowa: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 88.
  48. ^ Hingley & Unwin (2006). Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. p. 71.
  49. ^ Webster, Graham (1978). Boudica, the British Revolt against Rome Ad 60. Totowa: Rowman and Littlefield. p. 90.
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  51. ^ a b Hingley & Unwin (2006). Boudica: Iron Age Warrior Queen. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC. p. 49.
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  61. ^ Tacitus, Annals 14.37
  62. ^ Tacitus, Annals 14.32
  63. ^ Tacitus, Publius, Cornelius, The Annals, Book 14, Chapter 35
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  66. ^ Tacitus, Annals 14.39
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