Fitzsimmons in 1891.
|Real name||Robert James Fitzsimmons|
The Freckled Wonder
|Height||5 ft 11 1⁄2 in (1.82 m)|
|Reach||71.5 in (182 cm)|
26 May 1863|
Helston, Cornwall, UK
|Died||22 October 1917
Chicago, Illinois, US
|Wins by KO||59|
Robert James "Bob" Fitzsimmons (26 May 1863 – 22 October 1917) was a British professional boxer who made boxing history as the sport's first three-division world champion. He also achieved fame for beating Gentleman Jim Corbett, (the man who beat John L. Sullivan), and he is in The Guinness Book of World Records as the lightest heavyweight champion. Nicknamed "Ruby Robert" and "The Freckled Wonder", he took pride in his lack of scars and appeared in the ring wearing heavy woollen underwear to conceal the disparity between his trunk and leg-development. He was also known for his pure fighting skills due to dislike of training for fights, which cost him at times in his career.
Considered one of the hardest punchers in boxing history, Fitzsimmons is ranked as No. 8 on Ring Magazine's list of 100 greatest punchers of all time.
Fitzsimmons, the youngest of 12 children, was born in Helston, Cornwall. His father was James Fitzsimmons, an Irishman born in County Armagh and his British mother was Jane Strongman, born in St Clement, Cornwall.
Bob emigrated to New Zealand at the age of nine along with his parents, brothers and sisters. His family settled in Timaru, among many other British settlers, and Bob became a blacksmith in his brother Jarrett's smithy. He was a practising blacksmith most of his life [The Village Blacksmith written by Roland Webber]
Between 1880 and 1881, Fitzsimmons reigned as champion of the Jem Mace tournament in New Zealand. Some say[who?] he officially began his career as a professional boxer in New Zealand later in 1881. Records remain unclear whether he received payment for a bout in which he knocked out Herbert Slade in two rounds.
Fitzsimmons had six fights in New Zealand, two of them bare-knuckle events. He won one and lost five. It remains unclear whether any of those bouts involved payment.
Boxing record books show Fitzsimmons officially began boxing professionally in 1883, in Australia. He beat Jim Crawford there by getting a knockout in three rounds. Fitzsimmons had his first 28 definite professional fights in Australia, where he lost for the Australian Middleweight title to Mick Dooley (rumours spoke of a fixed bout) and where he also won a fight by knockout while on the floor: when Edward Starlight Robins dropped Fitzsimmons to the canvas in round nine of their fight, he also broke his hand and could not continue, therefore the referee declared Fitzsimmons the winner by a knockout.
By this stage, Fitzsimmons had established his own style. He developed a certain movement and caginess from one of the greatest bare-knuckle fighters, Jem Mace. Mace encouraged Fitzsimmons to develop his punching technique, drawing on the enormous power he had gained from blacksmithing. Fitzsimmons delivered short, accurate and occasionally conclusive punches. He soon built up a reputation as by far the hardest puncher in boxing.
Winning the Middleweight title
Moving on to the United States, Fitzsimmons fought four more times in 1890, winning three and drawing one.
Then, on 14 January 1891, in New Orleans, he won his first world title from Jack (Nonpareil) Dempsey. Fitzsimmons knocked out Dempsey (from whom the later Jack Dempsey took his name) in the 13th round to become the World Middleweight Champion. Fitzsimmons knocked Dempsey down at least 13 times and by the finish left him in such a pitiable condition that he begged him to quit. Since Dempsey would not do so, Fitzsimmons knocked him out and then carried him to his corner. On 22 July, police broke off his fight with Jim Hall after he had knocked Hall down several times.
Fitzsimmons spent the next two years fighting non-title bouts and exhibitions until giving Hall a chance at the title in 1893. He retained the crown by a knockout in round four. He spent the rest of that year doing exhibitions, and on 2 June, he had scheduled a two-way exhibition where he would demonstrate in public how to hit the boxing bag and then how to box against a real opponent. Reportedly, two freak accidents happened that day: Fitzsimmons hit the bag so hard that it broke, and then his opponent of that day allegedly slipped, getting hit in the head and the boxing exhibition was cancelled.
At a public sparring performance on November 16, 1894 at Jacob's Opera House, Syracuse, New York, Fitzsimmons knocked out sparring partner Con Riordan, who was carried off unconscious and died several hours later. Two months later Fitzsimmons was charged with manslaughter but was acquitted.
After vacating the Middleweight title, Fitzsimmons began campaigning at heavyweight (the light heavyweight division did not exist at that time). On 2 December 1896, the San Francisco Athletic Club sponsored a fight at the Mechanics' Pavilion in San Francisco between Fitzsimmons and Tom Sharkey. Unable to find a referee, they called on former lawman Wyatt Earp. He had officiated 30 or so matches in earlier days, though not under the Marquess of Queensberry rules. The fight may have been the most anticipated fight on American soil that year. Fitzsimmons was favoured to win, and bets flowed heavily his way. Earp entered the ring still armed with his customary Colt .45 and drew a lot of attention when he had to be disarmed. He later said he forgot he was wearing it. Fitzsimmons was taller and quicker than Sharkey and dominated the fight from the opening bell. In the eighth round, Fitzsimmons hit Sharkey with his famed "solar plexus punch," an uppercut under the heart that could render a man temporarily helpless. The punch caught Sharkey, Earp, and most of the crowd by surprise, and Sharkey dropped, clutched his groin, and rolled on the canvas, screamed foul.
Earp stopped the bout, ruling that Fitzsimmons had hit Sharkey when he was down. His ruling was greeted with loud boos and catcalls. Earp based his decision on the Marquess of Queensberry rules, which state in part, "A man on one knee is considered down and if struck is entitled to the stakes." Very few witnessed the foul Earp ruled on. He awarded the decision to Sharkey, who attendants carried out as "...limp as a rag.".
Winning the Heavyweight title
In 1896, Fitzsimmons won a disputed version of the World Heavyweight Championship in a fight in Langtry, Texas, against the Irish fighter Peter Maher. On 17 March 1897, in Carson City, Nevada, he knocked out American Jim Corbett, generally recognised as the legitimate World Heavyweight Champion (having won the title from John L. Sullivan in 1892) in round 14. This constituted a remarkable achievement, as Jim Corbett, a skilled boxer, weighed one stone 3 pounds (17 lb) more than Fitzsimmons. He out-boxed Fitzsimmons for several rounds, knocked him down in the sixth round and badly damaged his face with his jab, left hook and right hand, but Fitzsimmons kept coming and Corbett began to tire. In the 14th round, Fitzsimmons won the title with his "solar plexus" punch. Corbett collapsed in agony. Fitzsimmons' "solar plexus" punch became legendary, although he himself may never have used the phrase. The entire fight was filmed by Enoch J. Rector and released to cinemas as The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight, the longest film ever released at the time. Using her maiden name, it was covered by Nellie Verrill Mighels Davis, the first woman to report a prize fight.
Fitzsimmons spent the rest of 1897 and 1898 doing stage tours.[clarification needed] In 1899, Fitzsimmons fought James J. Jeffries at the Coney Island Athletic Club near Brooklyn, New York. Most people gave Jeffries little chance, even though at over 15 stones (95 kg) he massively outweighed his opponent and was far younger, but Jeffries lifted the World Heavyweight Champion from Fitzsimmons with an 11th-round knockout.
In 1901 he published a book Physical Culture and Self-Defense (Philadelphia: D. Biddle). In 1902, he and Jeffries had a rematch, once again with the World Heavyweight Champion at stake. Fitzsimmons battered Jeffries, who suffered horrible punishment. With his nose and cheek bones broken, most would have sympathized with Jeffries had he quit, but he kept going until his enormous strength and youth wore down Bob and he knocked him out cold in round eight.
Winning the Light Heavyweight title
In November 1903, Fitzsimmons made history by defeating World Light Heavyweight Champion George Gardiner (also known as Gardner) by a decision in 20 rounds, becoming the first boxer to win titles in three weight-divisions.
Soon afterward, he went back to the Heavyweights, where he kept fighting until 1914, with mixed results. In 1907 at age 44, Fitzsimmons fought much younger Jack Johnson, during the time period in which reigning champion James J. Jeffries refused to fight Johnson. The bout between Johnson and Fitzsimmons ended in victory for Johnson with a second round knockout.
Although Fitzsimmons became a world champion in each of the Middleweight, Light Heavyweight and Heavyweight divisions, historians do not consider him the first world Light Heavyweight Champion to become World Heavyweight Champion, because he won the Heavyweight title before winning the Light Heavyweight belt. Michael Spinks counts as the first Light Heavyweight World Champion to win the Heavyweight belt as well. However, Fitzsimmons was the first Middleweight Champion to win the Heavyweight title and the only Heavyweight Champion to drop down and win the Light Heavyweight title. Fitzsimmons and later Henry Armstrong were the only men to win undisputed world championships in three different weight classes.
Fitzsimmons had a final professional record of 66 wins with 59 by knockout, 8 losses, 4 draws, 19 no contests and 2 no decisions (Newspaper Decisions: 2–0–0).
Fitzsimmons's exact record remains unknown, as the boxing world often kept records poorly during his era, but Fitzsimmons said he had had more than 350 fights (which could have involved exaggeration on his part).
He died in Chicago of pneumonia in 1917, survived by his fourth wife. His grave lies in the Graceland Cemetery, Chicago. Having four wives, a gambling habit and a susceptibility to confidence tricksters, he did not hold on to the money he made.
The International Boxing Hall of Fame has made Bob Fitzsimmons a member in its "Old Timer" category.
In 2003 Ring Magazine named Fitzsimmons number eight of all time among boxing's best punchers.
Professional boxing record
|63 Wins (59 Knockouts), 8 Defeats (7 Knockouts), 4 Draws, 7 No Contests|
|NC||-||Jersey Bellew||ND||6||1914-02-20||United States South Bethlehem, Pennsylvania|
|Win||N/A||United States KO Sweeney||NWS||6||1914-01-29||United States Athletic Club, Williamsport, Pennsylvania||Newspaper Decision|
|Loss||63–8–4||Australia Bill Lang||KO||12 (20)||1909-12-27||Australia Sydney Stadium|
|Draw||63–7–4||Canada Jim Paul||PTS||3||1908-09-22||United States Benson Mines, New York|
|Loss||63–7–3||United States Jack Johnson||KO||2 (6)||1907-07-17||United States Washington S.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Win||63–6–3||United States Charlie Haghey||KO||4 (6)||1906-01-31||United States Recreation Park, Webster, Massachusetts|
|Loss||62–6–3||United States Philadelphia Jack O'Brien||RTD||13 (20)||1905-12-20||United States Mechanic's Pavilion, California, San Francisco||Lost World Light Heavyweight Title|
|Win||62–5–3||United States Philadelphia Jack O'Brien||TKO||6 (6), 1:22||1904-07-23||United States Baker Bowl, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Win||61–5–3||Ireland George Gardner||PTS||20||1903-11-25||United States Mechanic's Pavilion, California, San Francisco||Won World Light Heavyweight Title|
|Win||N/A||United States Joe Grim||NWS||6||1903-11-25||United States Southern A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania||Newspaper Decision|
|Win||60–5–3||Ireland Con Coughlin||TKO||1 (6), 2:52||1903-09-30||United States Washington S.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Win||59–5–3||Mike Ranke||KO||2 (4), 0:15||1902-12-27||United States Bozeman, Montana|
|Win||58–5–3||? Steward||KO||1 (4)||1902-12-19||United States Butte, Montana|
|Loss||57–5–3||United States James J. Jeffries||KO||8 (20)||1902-07-25||United States The Arena, California, San Francisco||For World Heavyweight Title|
|Win||57–4–3||Ireland Tom Sharkey||KO||2 (25), 2:06||1900-08-24||United States Coney Island A.C., Brooklyn, New York|
|Win||56–4–3||United States Gus Ruhlin||KO||6 (25)||1900-08-10||United States Madison Square Garden, New York City|
|Win||55–4–3||United States Ed Dunkhorst||KO||2 (25), 2:25||1900-04-30||United States Hercules A.C., Brooklyn, New York|
|Win||54–4–3||United States Jim Daly||TKO||1 (6)||1900-03-27||United States First Regiment Armory, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Win||53–4–3||United Kingdom Geoff Thorne||KO||1 (6)||1899-10-28||United States Tattersall's, Chicago, Illinois|
|Loss||52–4–3||United States James J. Jeffries||KO||11 (20)||1899-06-09||United States Coney Island A.C., Brooklyn, New York||Lost World Heavyweight Title|
|Win||52–3–3||United States Lew Joslin||KO||2 (4)||1897-06-05||United States Leadville, Colorado|
|Win||51–3–3||United States James J. Corbett||KO||14||1897-03-17||United States The Race Track Arena, Carson City, Nevada||Won World Heavyweight Title|
|Loss||50–3–3||Ireland Tom Sharkey||DQ||8 (10)||1896-12-02||United States Mechanic's Pavilion, California, San Francisco|
|Win||50–2–3||Ireland Peter Maher||KO||1, 1:35||1896-02-21||Mexico Coahuila de Zaragoza|
|Win||49–2–3||United States Mike Connors||KO||1 (4)||1895-04-19||United States New York City|
|Win||48–2–3||Al Allich||KO||3 (4)||1895-04-16||United States New York City|
|Win||47–2–3||New Zealand Dan Creedon||KO||2 (20)||1894-09-26||United States Olympic A.C., New Orleans, Louisiana||Retained World Middleweight Title|
|Win||46–2–3||United States Frank Kellar||KO||2 (4)||1894-07-28||United States Driving Park, Buffalo, New York|
|Win||45–2–3||United States Joe Choynski||TKO||5 (5)||1894-06-18||United States Boston Theater, Boston, Massachusetts|
|Win||44–2–3||Ireland Jack Hickey||TKO||3 (4)||1893-09-05||United States Caledonian Park, Newark, New Jersey|
|Win||43–2–3||United States Dan Coner||KO||1 (4)||1893-05-30||United States Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Win||42–2–3||United States Mike Brennan||KO||4 (4)||1893-05-06||United States Boston, Massachusetts|
|Win||41–2–3||United States Joe Godfrey||KO||1 (4)||1893-04-21||United States Academy of Music, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Win||40–2–3||United States Mike Monoghan||KO||1 (4)||1893-04-21||United States Academy of Music, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Win||39–2–3||United States Alexander Kilpatrick||KO||4 (4)||1893-04-21||United States Academy of Music, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Win||38–2–3||Jack Sheridan||TKO||1 (4)||1893-04-15||United States Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Win||37–2–3||United States Dan Curry||KO||2 (4)||1893-04-12||United States Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Win||36–2–3||United States Hank Smith||KO||2 (4)||1893-04-12||United States Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Win||35–2–3||United States Alexander Kilpatrick||KO||3 (4)||1893-04-12||United States Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Win||34–2–3||United States Jack Warner||TKO||1 (4)||1893-03-31||United States Baltimore, Maryland|
|Win||33–2–3||Phil Mayo||KO||2 (4)||1893-03-25||United States 2nd Regiment Armory, Chicago, Illinois|
|Draw||32–2–3||United States Dan Bayliff||PTS||4||1893-03-15||United States Indianapolis, Indiana|
|Win||32–2–2||Australia Jim Hall||KO||4||1893-03-08||United States Crescent City Club, New Orleans, Louisiana|
|Win||31–2–2||United States Jack Britton||RTD||2 (4)||1892-12-10||United States Newark, New Jersey|
|Win||30–2–2||Millard Zender||KO||1 (4)||1892-09-03||United States Anniston, Alabama|
|Win||29–2–2||United States Jerry Slattery||KO||2 (4)||1892-05-11||United States Miners 8th St Theater, New York City|
|Win||28–2–2||United States Joe Godfrey||RTD||2 (4)||1892-05-06||United States Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Win||27–2–2||United States James Farrell||PTS||2 (4)||1892-04-29||United States Newark, New Jersey|
|Win||26–2–2||United States Thomas Robbins||RTD||3 (4)||1892-04-28||United States Newark, New Jersey|
|Win||25–2–2||United States Tom Burns||RTD||3 (4)||1892-04-28||United States Newark, New Jersey|
|Win||24–2–2||United States James Malone||RTD||2 (4)||1892-04-27||United States Newark, New Jersey|
|Win||23–2–2||United States Charles Puff||KO||2 (4)||1892-04-26||United States Newark, New Jersey|
|Win||22–2–2||Ireland Peter Maher||RTD||12||1892-03-02||United States Olympic Club, New Orleans, Louisiana|
|NC||-||United States Harris Martin||ND||4||1891-05-01||United States Washington Rink, Minneapolis, Minnesota|
|Win||21–2–2||Abe Coughle||TKO||2 (3)||1891-04-27||United States Battery D Armory, Chicago, Illinois|
|Win||20–2–2||Ireland Nonpareil Jack Dempsey||RTD||13||1891-01-14||United States Olympic Club, New Orleans, Louisiana||Won World Middleweight Title|
|Win||19–2–2||United States Arthur Upham||KO||9||1890-07-28||United States Audubon Club, New Orleans, Louisiana|
|Win||18–2–2||Australia Billy McCarthy||KO||5||1890-05-29||United States California A.C., California, San Francisco|
|Win||17–2–2||United States Frank Allen||RTD||1 (3)||1890-05-17||United States California A.C., California, San Francisco|
|Win||16–2–2||New Zealand Professor Jack West||KO||1 (4)||1890-03-01||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Win||15–2–2||Australia Edward Starlight Rollins||TKO||9||1890-02-22||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Loss||14–2–2||Australia Jim Hall||KO||4 (20)||1890-02-11||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Draw||N/A||Australia Edward Starlight Rollins||NWS||4||1890-02-10||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales||Newspaper Decision|
|Win||14–1–2||Dave Conway||KO||4 (15)||1890-02-01||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Win||13–1–2||New Zealand Dick Ellis||RTD||3 (20)||1889-12-16||Australia Royal Standard Theatre, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Win||12–1–2||New Zealand Professor Jack West||KO||1 (8)||1889-11-30||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Draw||N/A||Australia Pat Kiely||NWS||4||1889-11-26||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales||Newspaper Decision|
|Win||11–1–2||Australia Jim Hall||RTD||5 (8)||1889-01-19||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Win||N/A||Australia McEwan||NWS||3||1888-12-01||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales||Newspaper Decision|
|Draw||N/A||Australia Jim Hall||NWS||4||1888-11-24||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales||Newspaper Decision|
|Win||N/A||Australia Jim Hall||NWS||4||1888-11-10||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales||Newspaper Decision|
|NC||-||Australia Mick Dooley||ND||4||1888-05-08||Australia Amateur Athletic Club, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Draw||N/A||Australia Bill Slavin||NWS||4||1888-11-24||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales||Newspaper Decision|
|Draw||N/A||Australia Bill Slavin||NWS||4||1888-03-17||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales||Newspaper Decision|
|Win||10–1–2||Australia Bill Slavin||TKO||7 (8)||1888-03-05||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Draw||N/A||Australia Billy McCarthy||NWS||4||1888-02-11||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales||Newspaper Decision|
|Draw||N/A||Australia Tom Taylor||NWS||4||1888-01-26||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales||Newspaper Decision|
|Draw||9–1–2||Australia Dan Hickey||PTS||4||1888-01-23||Australia Athletic Ground, Sydney, New South Wales|
|NC||-||Australia Frank Slavin||ND||4||1888-01-01||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Win||9–1–1||Australia Dave Travers||KO||3||1887-09-24||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Loss||N/A||Australia Jim Hall||NWS||4||1887-05-28||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales||Newspaper Decision|
|Win||8–1–1||George Eager||KO||2 (4)||1887-04-04||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Win||7–1–1||Australia Bill Slavin||TKO||5 (8)||1887-03-21||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Win||6–1–1||New Zealand Dick Sandall||RTD||4 (4)||1887-03-01||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Win||5–1–1||Australia George Seale||PTS||4||1887-02-15||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Win||N/A||Australia Jack Bonner||NWS||4||1887-02-12||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales||Newspaper Decision|
|Draw||N/A||Australia Frank Slavin||NWS||4||1887-01-01||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales||Newspaper Decision|
|Draw||4–1–1||Australia Jack Malloy||PTS||4||1886-11-01||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|NC||-||Australia McArdle||ND||4||1886-10-09||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|NC||-||Australia Australian Billy Smith||ND||4||1886-10-07||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Loss||N/A||Australia Tom Lees||NWS||4||1886-08-25||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales||Newspaper Decision|
|Win||N/A||Australia McArdle||NWS||4||1886-08-07||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales||Newspaper Decision|
|Loss||N/A||Australia Mick Dooley||NWS||4||1886-06-05||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales||Newspaper Decision|
|Loss||N/A||Australia Mick Dooley||NWS||4||1886-06-02||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales||Newspaper Decision|
|NC||-||Australia Steve O'Donnell||ND||4||1886-10-07||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Loss||4–1||Australia Mick Dooley||RTD||3 (4)||1886-05-15||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Draw||N/A||Australia Brinsley||NWS||4||1886-05-08||Australia Foley's Hall, Sydney, New South Wales||Newspaper Decision|
|Win||4–0||Australia Pablo Fanque||KO||2 (4)||1886-02-02||Australia The Green, Sydney, New South Wales|
|Win||3–0||Jack Greentree||KO||3 (4)||1885-05-01||Australia Sydney, New South Wales|
|Win||2–0||Australia Alf Brinsmead||KO||2 (4)||1885-04-01||Australia Sydney, New South Wales|
|Win||1–0||Australia Joe Riddle||PTS||4||1885-03-01||Australia Sydney, New South Wales|
- List of bare-knuckle boxers
- List of lineal boxing world champions
- List of heavyweight boxing champions
- List of boxing triple champions
- "Robert Fitzsimmons". Encyclopædia Britannica.
British boxer, the first fighter to hold the world boxing championship in three weight divisions.
- McWhirter, Norris. The Guinness Book of World Records 1997. p.467. " Lightest heavyweight champion Robert James "Bob" Fitzsimmons of Great Britain, weighed 165 pounds when he won the title by knocking out James J. Corbett". Random House Publishing Group, 1997
- Anne Pimlott Baker, 'Fitzsimmons, Robert Prometheus [Bob] (1862–1917)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, May 2005 accessed 25 March 2010
- Box rec.com. boxer: Bob Fitzsimmons
- Toronto Star, January 19, 1895.
- Reilly, Joe. "Born To Uphold The Law: Frank Sulloway's Principles Applied to the Earp-Clanton Feud of 1879–1882" (PDF). Drexel E-Repository and Archive. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
- Barra, Alan (26 November 1995). "BACKTALK;When Referee Wyatt Earp Laid Down the Law". New York Times. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- Rasmussen, Cecilia (4 June 2000). "LA Then and Now: Mrs. Wyatt Earp Packed Her Own Punch". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
- Shillingberg, William B. (Summer 1976). "Wyatt Earp and the Buntline Special Myth". Kansas Historical Quarterly. 42 (2): 113–154.
- Sonnichsen, C.L. (1968). Pass of the North: Four Centuries on the Rio Grande. Texas Western Press. pp. 358–362.
- "Nellie Mighels Davis". Nevada Women's History Project. University of Nevada, Reno. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- Ken Burns, Unforgivable Blackness
- Bob Fitzsimmons' Professional Boxing Record. BoxRec.com. Retrieved on 3 May 2014.
- Kiwis With Gloves On by Brian F O'Brien, published 1960, Reed.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Bob Fitzsimmons|
- Professional boxing record for Bob Fitzsimmons from BoxRec
- A New Zealand tribute site
- Robert Fitzsimmons in the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography
- Biography in the 1966 Encyclopaedia of New Zealand (birth year wrong)
Nonpareil Jack Dempsey
|World Middleweight Champion
14 January 1891 – 26 September 1894
James J. Corbett
|World Heavyweight Champion
17 March 1897 – 9 June 1899
James J. Jeffries
|World Light Heavyweight Champion
25 September 1903 – 20 December 1905
Philadelphia Jack O'Brien
|Titles in pretence|
|World Heavyweight Champion
21 February 1896 – 2 December 1896