Robert Louis Fosse
June 23, 1927
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
|Died||September 23, 1987 (aged 60)|
Washington, D.C., U.S.
|Resting place||Ashes scattered in the Atlantic Ocean off the shores of Napeague/Amagansett, New York|
Mary Ann Niles
(m. 1947; div. 1951)
(m. 1952; div. 1959)
|Partner||Ann Reinking (1972–1978)|
Robert Louis Fosse (//; June 23, 1927 – September 23, 1987) was an American actor, choreographer, dancer, and film and stage director. He directed and choreographed musical works on stage and screen, including the stage musicals The Pajama Game (1954), Damn Yankees (1955), How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying (1961), Sweet Charity (1966), Pippin (1972), and Chicago (1975). He directed the films Sweet Charity (1969), Cabaret (1972), Lenny (1975), All That Jazz (1979), and Star 80 (1983).
Fosse's distinctive style of choreography included turned-in knees and "jazz hands". He is the only person ever to have won Oscar, Emmy, and Tony awards in the same year (1973). He was nominated for four Academy Awards, winning Best Director for Cabaret, and won the Palme D'Or in 1980 for All That Jazz. He won a record eight Tonys for his choreography, as well as one for direction for Pippin.
Fosse was born in Chicago, Illinois, on June 23, 1927, to a Norwegian American father, Cyril Kingsley Fosse, a traveling salesman for The Hershey Company, and an Irish American mother, Sarah Alice "Sadie" (née Stanton) Fosse. He was the fifth of six children.
He was drawn to dance and took lessons. When he was 13 years old, Fosse performed professionally in Chicago with Charles Grass, as "The Riff Brothers". They toured vaudeville and movie houses in Chicago, as well as USO theaters and Eagles Clubs. Many of these performances included shows at burlesque clubs, such as the Silver Cloud and Cave of Winds. Fosse himself is quoted with saying "I was sixteen years old and I played the whole burlesque wheel". However, many of the women and promoters did not care that Fosse was underage working in adult clubs or that he would be exposed to sexual harassment from the burlesque women. Much of the erotica he saw would inform his future work. In 1943, at age 15. Fosse would come to choreograph his first dance number and earn his first full credit as a choreographer in a film, Hold Evry'thing! A Streamlined Extravaganza in Two Parts, which featured showgirls wearing strapless dresses and performing a fan dance, inspired by his time in burlesque houses.
After graduating from high school in 1945, Fosse was recruited into the United States Navy toward the end of World War II at Naval Station Great Lakes, where he was sent to be prepared for combat. Fosse petitioned his manager, Frederick Weaver, to advocate on his behalf to his superiors after his own failed attempts to be placed in the Special Services Entertainment Division. Fosse was soon placed in the variety show Tough Situation, which toured military and naval bases in the Pacific.
After his discharge, Fosse moved to New York City in 1947 with the ambition of being the new Fred Astaire. He began to study acting at the American Theatre Wing, where he met his first wife and dance partner, Mary Ann Niles (1923-1987). His first stage role was in Call Me Mister, along with Niles. Fosse and Niles were regular performers on Your Hit Parade in its 1950–1951 season. Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis saw their act in New York's Pierre Hotel and scheduled the couple to appear on The Colgate Comedy Hour in 1951.
In a 1986 interview Fosse told an interviewer, "Jerry started me doing choreography. He gave me my first job as a choreographer and I'm grateful for that."
Fosse was signed to an MGM contract in 1953. His early screen appearances as a dancer included Give a Girl a Break, The Affairs of Dobie Gillis and Kiss Me Kate, all released in 1953. Fosse's choreography of a short dance sequence in Kiss Me Kate and dance with Carol Haney brought him to the attention of Broadway producers.
During the late 1940s and early 1950s, Fosse transitioned from film to theatre. In 1948, Tony Charmoli danced in Make Mine Manhattan, but gave the part to Fosse when the show toured nationally. Charmoli also found Fosse work as a dancer on the TV shows he was working on when Fosse returned from the tour.
In 1954, Fosse choreographed his first musical, The Pajama Game, followed by My Sister Eileen and George Abbott's Damn Yankees in 1955. It was while working on Damn Yankees that he first met rising star Gwen Verdon, whom he married in 1960. For her work in Damn Yankees, Verdon won her first Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical in 1956. She had previously won a Tony for Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Musical for Can-Can (1954). In 1957, Fosse choreographed New Girl in Town, also directed by Abbott, and Verdon won her second Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical in 1958.
In 1957, Fosse choreographed the film version of The Pajama Game starring Doris Day. The next year, Fosse appeared in and choreographed the film version of Damn Yankees, in which Verdon reprised her stage triumph as the character Lola. Fosse and Verdon were partners in the mambo number "Who's Got the Pain".
For his work on Redhead, Fosse won the Tony Award for Best Choreography while Verdon won her third Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical. Redhead won the Tony Award for best musical. Fosse's next feature was supposed to be the musical The Conquering Hero based on a book by Larry Gelbart, but he was replaced as director/choreographer.
In 1961, Fosse choreographed the satirical Broadway musical How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying starring Robert Morse. The story revolves around an ambitious man, J. Pierrepont Finch (Morse), who, with the help of the book How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying, rises from window washer to chairman of the board of the World Wide Wicket Company. The musical was an instant hit.
In 1972, Fosse directed his second theatrical film, Cabaret, starring Liza Minnelli, Michael York and Joel Grey. The film is based on the 1966 musical of the same name. In the traditional manner of musical theater, called an "integrated musical", every significant character in the stage version sings to express his or her own emotion and to advance the plot. In the film version, the musical numbers are entirely diegetic. The film focuses on a young romance between Sally Bowles (Minnelli), who performs at the Kit Kat Klub, and a young British idealist played by York. The story set at the backdrop of the rise of Nazi Germany. The film was an immediate success among audiences and critics alike. The film won eight Academy Awards, including Best Director. Liza Minnelli and Joel Grey both won Oscars for their roles in Cabaret.
Fosse performed a song and dance in Stanley Donen's 1974 film version of The Little Prince. According to AllMusic, "Bob Fosse stops the show with a slithery dance routine." In 1977, Fosse had a small role in the romantic comedy Thieves.
In 1979, Fosse co-wrote and directed a semi-autobiographical film All That Jazz (1979), starring Roy Scheider, which portrayed the life of a womanizing, drug-addicted choreographer and director in the midst of triumph and failure. Ann Reinking appears in the film as the protagonist's lover, protégée and domestic partner. All That Jazz won four Academy Awards, earning Fosse his third Oscar nomination for Best Director. It also won the Palme d'Or at the 1980 Cannes Film Festival. In 1980, Fosse commissioned documentary research for a follow-up feature exploring the motivations of people who become performers.
Fosse's final film, Star 80 (1983), was a biographical movie about Dorothy Stratten, a Playboy Playmate who was murdered. The film is based on a Pulitzer Prize-winning article. The film was screened out of competition at the 34th Berlin International Film Festival.
In 1986, Fosse wrote, choreographed and directed the Broadway production of Big Deal, which was nominated for five Tony awards, winning for best choreography, as well as five more for the revival of Sweet Charity at the nearby Minskoff Theater, winning a Tony for Best Revival.
Fosse began work on a film about gossip columnist Walter Winchell that would have starred Robert De Niro as Winchell. The Winchell script was written by Michael Herr. Fosse died before starting the Winchell project.
Notable distinctions of Fosse's style included the use of turned-in knees, the "Fosse Amoeba", sideways shuffling, rolled shoulders and jazz hands. With Astaire as an influence, Fosse used props such as bowler hats, canes and chairs. His trademark use of hats was influenced by his own self-consciousness, according to Martin Gottfried in his biography of Fosse, "His baldness was the reason that he wore hats, and was doubtless why he put hats on his dancers." Fosse used gloves in his performances because he did not like his hands. Some of his most popular numbers include "Steam Heat" (The Pajama Game) and "Big Spender" (Sweet Charity). The "Rich Man's Frug" scene in Sweet Charity is another example of his signature style.
For Damn Yankees, Fosse was inspired by the "father of theatrical jazz dance", Jack Cole. In 1957, Verdon and Fosse studied with Sanford Meisner to develop a better acting technique. According to Michael Joosten, Fosse once said: "The time to sing is when your emotional level is too high to just speak anymore, and the time to dance is when your emotions are just too strong to only sing about how you 'feel.'" In Redhead, Fosse used one of the first ballet sequences in a show that contained five different styles of dance: Fosse's jazz, a cancan, a gypsy dance, a march and an old-fashioned English music hall number. During Pippin, Fosse made the first television commercial for a Broadway show.
Fosse married dance partner Mary Ann Niles (1923–1987) on May 3, 1947, in Detroit. In 1952, a year after he divorced Niles, he married dancer Joan McCracken in New York City; this marriage lasted until 1959, when it also ended in divorce.
His third wife was dancer and actress Gwen Verdon, whom he met choreographing Damn Yankees, in which she starred. In 1963, they had a daughter, Nicole Fosse, who later became a dancer and actress. Fosse's extramarital affairs put a strain on the marriage and by 1971 they were separated, although they remained legally married until his death in 1987. Verdon never remarried.
Fosse's time outside of the rehearsal studio or theater was seldom spent alone. As stated in the biography Fosse by Sam Wasson, "nights alone were murder on Fosse". To alleviate loneliness and insomnia brought on by his prescribed amphetamines, Fosse would often contact dancers he would work with and try to date them, making it hard for many to refuse his advances, but also giving him the affirmation of success he sought.
During their joint career, Fosse would continually take blame from critics while Gwen Verdon would get praise, no matter how much influence Verdon had on a production. However, Verdon always looked out for him and the Fosse family image, hosting grandiose cast parties and being Fosse's personal press secretary throughout their marriage.
Fosse died of a heart attack on September 23, 1987, at George Washington University Hospital while the revival of Sweet Charity was opening at the nearby National Theatre. He had collapsed in Verdon's arms near the Willard Hotel.
|1947||Call Me Mister||Performer – Chorus||National Tour|
|1948||Make Mine Manhattan||Performer||National Tour|
|1950||Dance Me a Song||Performer – Dancer||Royale Theatre, Broadway|||
|1951||Billion Dollar Baby||Actor – Champ Watson||Alvin Theatre, Broadway|||
|1952||Pal Joey||Actor – Joey Evans (understudy)||Broadhurst Theatre, Broadway|
|1954||The Pajama Game||Choreographer|
|1955||Damn Yankees||Choreographer||Adelphi Theatre, Broadway|
|1956||Bells Are Ringing||Co-choreographer||Alvin Theatre, Broadway|
|1958||New Girl in Town||Choreographer||46th Street Theatre, Broadway|
|1961||The Conquering Hero||Choreographer (uncredited)||ANTA Theatre, Broadway|
|1961||How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying||Choreographer||46th Street Theatre, Broadway|
|1962||Little Me||Co-director, Co-choreographer||Lunt-Fontanne Theatre, Broadway|
|1963||Pal Joey||Joey Evans||New York City Center, Broadway|
|1965||Pleasures and Palaces||Director, Choreographer||Fisher Theatre, Detroit|||
|1966||Sweet Charity||Director, Choreographer||Palace Theatre, Broadway|
|1972||Pippin||Book (uncredited), Director, Choreographer||Minskoff Theatre, Broadway|
|1972||Liza||Director, Choreographer||Winter Garden Theatre, Broadway|||
|1975||Chicago||Book; Director, Choreographer||46th Street Theatre, Broadway|
|1978||Dancin'||Director, Choreographer||Ambassador Theatre, Broadway|
|1986||Big Deal||Director, Choreographer||Broadway Theatre, Broadway|
|1953||The Affairs of Dobie Gillis||Yes||Charlie Trask|
|1953||Kiss Me Kate||Yes||Hortensio|
|1953||Give a Girl a Break||Yes||Bob Dowdy|
|1955||My Sister Eileen||Yes||Yes||Frank|
|1957||The Pajama Game||Yes|
|1958||Damn Yankees||Yes||Yes||Mambo Dancer (uncredited)|
|1974||The Little Prince||Yes||Yes||Actor – The Snake|
|1974||Lenny||Yes||Yes||The Interviewer (voice, uncredited)|
|1979||All That Jazz||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|1950||The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show||Dance routine with wife Mary Ann Niles||Episode: Gracie the Artist|
|1959||Startime||Director||Episode: The Wonderful World of Entertainment|
|1972||Liza with a Z||Director||Television special|
Awards and legacy
At the 1973 Academy Awards, Fosse won the Academy Award for Best Director for Cabaret. That same year he won Tony Awards for directing and choreographing Pippin and Primetime Emmy Awards for producing, choreographing and directing Liza Minnelli's television special Liza with a Z. Fosse was the only person to win all three major industry awards in the same year.
Fosse was inducted into the National Museum of Dance in Saratoga Springs, New York on April 27, 2007. The Los Angeles Dance Awards, founded in 1994, were called the "Fosse Awards", and are now called the American Choreography Awards. The Bob Fosse-Gwen Verdon Fellowship was established by their daughter, Nicole Fosse, in 2003 at the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater.
Reinking and Verdon kept Fosse's unique choreography alive after his death. Reinking played the role of Roxie Hart in the New York revival of Chicago, which opened in 1996. She choreographed the dances in Fosse style for that revival. In 1999, Verdon served as artistic consultant on a Broadway musical designed to showcase examples of classic Fosse choreography. Called simply Fosse, the three-act musical revue was conceived and directed by Richard Maltby, Jr. and Reinking, and choreographed by Reinking and Chet Walker. Verdon and Fosse's daughter, Nicole, received a special thanks credit. The show won a Tony for best musical.
Fosse/Verdon is an eight-part American miniseries starring Sam Rockwell as Fosse and Michelle Williams as Verdon. The series, which tells the story of the couple's troubled personal and professional relationship, is based on the biography Fosse by Sam Wasson. It premiered in eight parts on April 9, 2019, on FX. At the 71st Primetime Emmy Awards, Fosse/Verdon received seventeen nominations, including Outstanding Limited Series and acting nominations for Rockwell, Williams, and Qualley. Williams won the Emmy for Outstanding Actress in a Limited Series.
- Gottfried 2003, pp. 449–50.
- McQuiston, John T. (September 24, 1987). "Bob Fosse, Director and Choreographer, Dies". The New York Times.
Robert Louis Fosse was born in Chicago on June 23, 1927, the son of a vaudeville entertainer. He began performing on the vaudeville circuit as a child, and by the age of 13 he was a seasoned veteran of many burlesque shows. ...
- Gottfried 2003, p. 11.
- "Hardcover in Brief". The Washington Post. November 18, 1990. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2008.
- Garraty, John Arthur; Carnes, Mark C. (1999). American National Biography. ISBN 9780195127874.
- Winkler, Kevin (March 22, 2018). "Big Deal". Oxford Scholarship Online. 1. doi:10.1093/oso/9780199336791.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-933679-1.
- Grass, Charles (2015). "Interview by Jenai Cutcher" (MP4). Chicago Dance History Project. Chicago, IL. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
- Wasson, Sam (2013). Fosse. Boston. ISBN 978-0-547-99922-7. OCLC 861509029.
- "Bob Fosse | Biography, Style, Musicals, Movies, Awards, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved November 16, 2021.
- Wasson, Sam (2013). Fosse. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-547-55329-0.
- "The Colgate Comedy Hour". IMDb.
- "Showbiz Today Jerry Lewis Roasted". givethechanceakid. 1986. Archived from the original on November 4, 2021.
- "Choreographer and Director Bob Fosse Dies". Los Angeles Times.
- "Bob Fosse Biography" PBS; accessed January 27, 2010
- Barnes, Mike (August 10, 2020). "Tony Charmoli, Emmy-Winning Choreographer for Mitzi Gaynor and Shirley MacLaine, Dies at 99". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 11, 2020.
- "Gwen Verdon Awards" ibdb.com, retrieved April 27, 2019
- 'Redhead' PBS, accessed January 27, 2010
- "'Redhead' Broadway" Playbill, accessed January 12, 2016
- Gottfried, Martin (1998). All His Jazz: The Life and Death of Bob Fosse. Da Capo Press. pp. 49, 65, 81, 85, 104, 116, 124–125, 130, 139. ISBN 978-0-306-81284-2.)
- "That's Dancin: Fosse on Broadway, How To Succeed in Business Without Really Trying" PBS.
- "'Sweet Charity' Broadway". Playbill, accessed January 12, 2016
- "'Cabaret' Awards" Turner Classic Movies, accessed April 20, 2016
- "'Pippin' Broadway" Playbill, accessed January 12, 2016
- "'Chicago' Broadway" Archived December 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Playbill, accessed January 12, 2016
- Brenner, Paul. [The Little Prince at AllMovie] accessed January 12, 2016
- Eder, Richard (February 12, 1977). "Movie Review. 'Thieves'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014.
- "Berlinale: 1984 Programme". berlinale.de. Retrieved January 6, 2011.
- Cutcher, Jenai (May 1, 2005). Bob Fosse. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 21, 27. ISBN 978-1-4042-0640-3.
- Joosten, Michael (September 4, 2009). Dance and Choreography. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-4358-5261-7. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
- Michigan, Marriage Records, 1867–1952
- New York City, Marriage Indexes, 1907–1995
- Sagolla, Lisa Jo. The girl who fell down: a biography of Joan McCracken (2003), UPNE; ISBN 1-55553-573-9, p. 204: "They were wed in a simple civil ceremony by New York's deputy chief clerk at 3:30 pm on December 30, 1952."
- Fosse/Verdon, Episode 2 "Who's Got the Pain?"
- Berkvist, Robert (October 19, 2000). "Gwen Verdon, Redhead Who High-Kicked Her Way to Stardom, Dies at 75". The New York Times. Retrieved August 8, 2009.
- Pacheo, Patrick (November 3, 2000). "Remembering Gwen Verdon – Bob Fosse's inspiration was perhaps Broadway's greatest dancer". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 8, 2009.
- Pacheco, Patrick. "Every Step She Takes" Los Angeles Times, May 3, 1998
- Hall, Charles and Stevenson, Douglas. "Bob Fosse Dies After Collapsing on D.C. Street" The Washington Post, September 24, 1987
- Barron, James (December 20, 1987). "FOLLOW-UP ON THE NEWS; Fosse's Present Is Show-Stopper". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 30, 2021.
- "Dance Me a Song – Broadway Musical – Original | IBDB".
- IBDb profile: Max Goberman; accessed November 21, 2017.
- Suskin, Steven. "Frank Loesser" Show Tunes : The Songs, Shows, and Careers of Broadway's Major Composers (2010), (books.google.com), Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-988615-6, p.242
- "Liza with a 'Z". The Internet Movie Database. 2008. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- "Fosse". Internet Broadway Database.
- Sam Wasson.
- Beddow, Margery (1996). Bob Fosse's Broadway. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-435-07002-1.
- Gottfried, Martin (2003) . All His Jazz: The Life and Death of Bob Fosse. Bantam. ISBN 978-0-553-07038-5.
- Grubb, Kevin Boyd (1989). Razzle Dazzle: The Life and Work of Bob Fosse. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-03414-6.
- Wasson, Sam (2013). Fosse. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-547-55329-0.