|United States Senator|
January 3, 1969 – October 1, 1995
|Preceded by||Wayne Morse|
|Succeeded by||Ron Wyden|
|Chair of the Senate Finance Committee|
January 3, 1985 – January 3, 1987
|Preceded by||Bob Dole|
|Succeeded by||Lloyd Bentsen|
January 3, 1995 – October 1, 1995
|Preceded by||Daniel Patrick Moynihan|
|Succeeded by||William Roth|
|Chair of the Senate Commerce Committee|
January 3, 1981 – January 3, 1985
|Preceded by||Howard Cannon|
|Succeeded by||John Danforth|
|Member of the Oregon House of Representatives|
from the 6th district
January 14, 1963 – January 3, 1969
|Preceded by||multi-member district|
|Succeeded by||multi-member district|
Robert William Packwood
September 11, 1932
Portland, Oregon, U.S.
|Education||Willamette University (BA)|
New York University (JD)
Robert William Packwood (born September 11, 1932) is an American retired lawyer and politician from Oregon and a member of the Republican Party. He resigned from the United States Senate, under threat of expulsion, in 1995 after allegations of sexual harassment, abuse and assault of women emerged.
Seen as a moderate-to-liberal Republican, Packwood served alongside Mark Hatfield for his entire tenure in the Senate.
Early life and career
Packwood is the great-grandson of William H. Packwood, the youngest member of the Oregon Constitutional Convention of 1857. Packwood had his great-grandfather's political bent from his early years. During his undergraduate years, he participated in Young Republican activities and worked on political campaigns, including later Governor and US Senator Mark Hatfield's first run for the Oregon House of Representatives. He received the Root-Tilden Scholarship to New York University's Law School, where he earned national awards in moot court competition and was elected student body president. After graduating from the NYU Law School in 1957, he was admitted to the bar and practiced law in Portland.
State legislative career
In 1960, he was elected Chairman of the Multnomah County Republican Central Committee, thus becoming the youngest party chairman of a major metropolitan area in the country. In 1962, he became the youngest member of the Oregon Legislature when he was elected to the Oregon House of Representatives after a campaign waged by what The Oregonian called "one of the most effective working organizations in many an election moon in Oregon." Hundreds of volunteers went door-to-door distributing leaflets throughout the district and put up lawn signs that became "literally a geographical feature" of the district. Because of the effectiveness of his own campaigns, Packwood was selected to organize a political action committee that recruited attractive Republican candidates for the Oregon House throughout the state, and trained them in "Packwood-style" campaigning methods. The success of his candidates was credited with the Republican takeover of the Oregon House, thus making Oregon the only state in the Union in which the Republicans were able to score a significant victory in 1964.
He was a member of the Oregon House of Representatives from 1963 to 1968. In 1965, he founded the Dorchester Conference, an annual political conclave on the Oregon coast that "pointedly ignored state leadership in the Grand Old Party" to bring Republican officeholders and citizens together to discuss current issues and pass resolutions taking stands on those issues. Initially a forum for liberal politics, it has become an annual networking event for Oregon Republicans.
In 1968, Packwood was nominated to run for the U.S. Senate as the Oregon Republican candidate against Democrat Wayne Morse. Morse had been elected to the Senate as a Republican in 1944 and 1950, then switched parties due to his liberal views, and was easily reelected as a Democrat in 1956 and 1962. The relatively unknown Packwood was given little chance, but after an 11th-hour debate with the incumbent before the City Club of Portland, which Packwood was generally considered to have won, and a statewide recount in which over 100,000 ballots were challenged by both parties, Packwood was declared the winner by 3,500 votes. He then replaced Senator Ted Kennedy as the youngest senator. Packwood was reelected in 1974, 1980, 1986, and 1992. He became "one of the country's most powerful elected officials". His voting record was moderate. He supported restrictions on gun owners and liberal civil rights legislation. Packwood voted in favor of the bill establishing Martin Luther King Jr. Day as a federal holiday and the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987 (as well to override President Reagan's veto).
Packwood differed with President Richard Nixon on some significant issues. He voted against Nixon's Supreme Court nominees Clement Haynsworth and G. Harrold Carswell, "two of Nixon's most embarrassing defeats," as well as Nixon's proposals for the B-1 bomber, submarines capable of carrying the Trident missile and the supersonic transport (SST). He became the first Senate Republican to support Nixon's impeachment. In a White House meeting of November 15, 1973, he told President Nixon that the public no longer believed the President and no longer trusted the integrity of the administration.
Two years before the Roe v. Wade decision by the Supreme Court, he introduced the Senate's first abortion legalization bill, but he was unable to attract a cosponsor for it. His pro-choice stance earned him the loyalty of many feminist groups and numerous awards including those from the Planned Parenthood Federation of America (January 10, 1983) and the National Women's Political Caucus (October 23, 1985). In 1987, Packwood crossed party lines to vote against the nomination of Robert Bork to the Supreme Court, and he was one of only two Republicans to vote against the nomination of Clarence Thomas to the court in 1991. Both votes were based on the nominee's opposition to abortion rights.
He played a major role in the enactment of the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area Act, which protected scenic Hells Canyon, the deepest river gorge in North America, by making it into a 652,488-acre (2,640.53 km2) National Recreation Area on the borders of northeastern Oregon and western Idaho. Packwood sponsored the bill, and was credited with becoming "a genuine leader in the preservation battle" in Congress and in the end, second only to the idea's originator "the single most important individual in the history of Hells Canyon preservation". Environmentalists also praised his advocacy of solar energy, returnable bottles, and bike paths.
Deregulation was another interest. In the late 1970s, he became a passionate supporter of trucking deregulation and a "persuasive spokesman" for reform. When deregulation became law, newspaper editorials praised Packwood for his pivotal role in the deregulation battle.
He was most noted for his role in the 1986 "unlikely triumph of tax reform" while he was chairman of the powerful Senate Finance Committee. President Ronald Reagan had proposed the idea of tax reform in 1984, but Packwood's initial response was indifference. However, he played a leading role in fashioning a "radically new tax code that will raise business taxes by some $120 billion over five years—and lower personal income taxes by roughly the same amount." Historians of the Act have written that his turnaround "revived the dying tax reform bill", and credited his "ingenuity and astonishing legislative skill" for passage of the law, which "despite its warts and wrinkles…succeeded at the fundamental purpose of reform".
Packwood's debating skills were rated A+ by USA Today in the issue of July 18, 1986. But his debating and legislative skills could kill bills as well as pass them. His "masterful" floor management has been credited with killing President Clinton's 1993 health care bill. And he could be stubborn; in 1988 he was carried feet-first into the Senate Chamber by Capitol Police for a quorum call on campaign finance reform legislation.
Sexual misconduct as a U.S. Senator
Packwood's political career began to unravel in November 1992, when a Washington Post story detailed claims of sexual abuse and assault from ten women, chiefly former staffers and lobbyists. Publication of the story was delayed until after the 1992 election, as Packwood had denied the allegations and the Post had not gathered enough information about the story at the time. Packwood defeated the Democratic nominee, Congressman Les AuCoin, 52.1% to 46.5%–easily his closest race since his initial run for the seat a quarter-century earlier. Eventually 19 women came forward.
As the situation developed, Packwood's diary became an issue. Wrangling over whether the diary could be subpoenaed and whether it was protected by the Fifth Amendment's protection against self-incrimination ensued. He did divulge 5,000 pages to the Senate Ethics Committee but balked when a further 3,200 pages were demanded by the committee. It was discovered that he had edited the diary, removing what were allegedly references to sexual encounters and the sexual abuse allegations made against him. Packwood then made what some of his colleagues interpreted as a threat to expose wrongdoing by other members of Congress. The diary allegedly detailed some of his abusive behavior toward women and, according to a press statement made by Richard Bryan, at that time serving as senator from Nevada, "raised questions about possible violations of one or more laws, including criminal laws".
Expulsion recommendation and resignation
Despite pressure for open hearings from the public and from female Senators, especially Barbara Boxer from California, the Senate ultimately decided against them.[why?] The Ethics Committee's indictment, running to ten volumes and 10,145 pages, much of it from Packwood's own writings, according to a report in The New York Times, detailed the sexual misconduct, obstruction of justice, and ethics charges being made against him. The chairman of the Ethics Committee, Republican senator Mitch McConnell, referred to Packwood's "habitual pattern of aggressive, blatantly sexual advances, mostly directed at members of his own staff or others whose livelihoods were connected in some way to his power and authority as a Senator" and said Packwood's behavior included "deliberately altering and destroying relevant portions of his diary" which Packwood himself had written in the diary were "very incriminating information". On September 7, the committee unanimously recommended that Packwood be expelled from the Senate.
The following morning, the committee released its findings. With bipartisan pressure mounting, Packwood announced his resignation from the Senate in 1995, saying that he was "aware of the dishonor that has befallen me in the last three years" and his "duty to resign." Democratic Representative Ron Wyden won the seat in a special election.
Four years later, during debate on President Clinton's impeachment, McConnell said that the Republicans knew that it was very likely Packwood's seat would fall to the Democrats if Packwood were forced out. However, McConnell said, he and his fellow Republicans felt that it came down to a choice of "retain the Senate seat or retain our honor."
After the U.S. Senate
Soon after leaving the Senate, Packwood founded the lobbying firm Sunrise Research Corporation. The former senator used his expertise in taxes and trade and his status as a former Senate Finance Committee chairman to land lucrative contracts with numerous clients, among them Northwest Airlines, Freightliner Corp. and Marriott International Inc. Among other projects, he played a key role in the 2001 fight to repeal the estate tax. In 2015, Packwood returned to the Senate as a witness for the Senate Finance Committee, which was again considering tax reform. He and Bill Bradley spoke on the 1986 Tax Reform bill.
- List of United States senators expelled or censured
- List of American federal politicians convicted of crimes
- List of federal political sex scandals in the United States
- List of federal political scandals in the United States
- Dielman, Gary. "William Packwood (1832–1917)". The Oregon Encyclopedia. Portland State University. Retrieved February 4, 2010.
- Kirchmeier, Mark (1995). Packwood: The Public and Private Life from Acclaim to Outrage. San Francisco: HarperCollinsWest. ISBN 0-06-258549-5.
- Mahoney, Barbara. "Robert Packwood (1932–)". The Oregon Encyclopedia. Portland State University. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- Kirschmeier, pp. 80–82.
- Kirschmeier, p. 87.
- Portland Oregonian, December 2, 1962.
- Balmer, Western Political Quarterly, June 1965.
- Oregon Journal, June 15, 1965.
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- Christian Science Monitor, April 27, 1965.
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- Portland Oregonian, December 24, 1968.
- Myers, Clay. Oregon Blue Book. Salem, Oregon: Office of the Secretary of State, 1970.
- Kirschmeier, p. 105.
- Zusman, Mark; Henry Stern (September 16, 2009). "Bob Packwood: What one of Oregon's once-most powerful Republicans thinks about the party now". Willamette Week. Retrieved July 24, 2011.
- "TO PASS H.R. 3706. (MOTION PASSED) SEE NOTE(S) 19".
- "TO PASS S 557, CIVIL RIGHTS RESTORATION ACT, A BILL TO RESTORE THE BROAD COVERAGE AND CLARIFY FOUR CIVIL RIGHTS LAWS BY PROVIDING THAT IF ONE PART OF AN INSTITUTION IS FEDERALLY FUNDED, THEN THE ENTIRE INSTITUTION MUST NOT DISCRIMINATE".
- "TO ADOPT, OVER THE PRESIDENT'S VETO OF S 557, CIVIL RIGHTS RESTORATION ACT, A BILL TO RESTORE BROAD COVERAGE OF FOUR CIVIL RIGHTS LAWS BY DECLARING THAT IF ONE PART OF AN INSTITUTION RECEIVES FEDERAL FUNDS, THEN THE ENTIRE INSTITUTION MUST NOT DISCRIMINATE. TWO-THIRDS OF THE SENATE, HAVING VOTED IN THE AFFIRMATIVE, OVERRODE THE PRESIDENTIAL VETO".
- Kirschmeier, p. 124.
- Lukas, J. Anthony (1976). Nightmare: The Underside of the Nixon Years. New York: Viking Press. p. 452. ISBN 0-670-51415-2.
- S.1750 and S.1751, 92d Congress 1st Sess. May 3, 1971.
- O'Beirne, Kate (October 9, 1995). "Bread & circuses – Senator Bob Packwood's public and private stance on women". National Review. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1282?tag=artBody;col1. Retrieved 2008-07-05.
- Public Law 94-199, December 31, 1975, http://www.fs.fed.us/hellscanyon/about_us/docs/hcnra-act.pdf, accessed 12–20–09.
- http://www.fs.fed.us/hellscanyon/, accessed 12–20–09.
- Ashworth, William (1977). Hells Canyon, The Deepest Gorge on Earth. New York: Hawthorn Books. p. 160. ISBN 0-8015-2007-X.
- Nokes, Portland Oregonian, July 10, 1990.
- Robyn, Dorothy L. (1987). Braking the Special Interests: Trucking Deregulation and the Politics of Policy Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 73, 200, 204, 217. ISBN 0-226-72328-3.
- Simpson, William (2007). The Prince: The secret story of the most intriguing Saudi royal : Prince Bandar bin Sultan. Harper Paperbacks. ISBN 9780061189425. Retrieved September 28, 2014.
- Birnbaum, Jeffrey H.; Murray, Alan S. (1987). Showdown at Gucci Gulch: Lawmakers, Lobbyists, and the Unlikely Triumph of Tax Reform. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-75811-0.
- Smith, Hedrick (1988). The Power Game: How Washington Works. New York: Random House. p. 17. ISBN 0-394-55447-7.
- Smith, p. 483.
- Birnbaum and Murray, p. 189.
- O'Donnell, Lawrence, , accessed 12–20–09.
- "U.S. Senate: Feet First".
- "Senator Robert Packwood's History of Sexual Harassment"
- "Congressional Sex Scandals in History". The Washington Post. January 31, 1999. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- "Packwood Story Angers Oregon Women, Want Him To Resign", Joel Connelly, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, December 5, 1992 p. A1.
- https://articles.latimes.com, September 08, 1995|SENATOR PACKWOOD RESIGNS by EDWIN CHEN, 
- "No Thanks for the Memories". Time. Archived from the original on May 25, 2012.
- Seelye, Katharine Q. (September 8, 1995). "The Packwood Case: The Overview; Packwood Says he is Quitting as Ethics Panel Gives Evidence". The New York Times. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
- Gabriel, Trip (August 29, 1993). "The Trials Of Bob Packwood". New York Times. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- McConnell statement on Clinton impeachment
- Seattle Post-Intelligencer, August 4, 1998.
- Mapes, Jeff (February 10, 2015). "Bob Packwood Gets a Polite Homecoming From Senate Finance Committee". OregonLive.com. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
- Mahoney, Barbara. "Bob Packwood". The Oregon Encyclopedia.
- United States Congress. "Bob Packwood (id: P000009)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- Text of the Senate's resolution for investigation, May 17, 1995.
- "Packwood Is Leaving As a Pariah In His State", The New York Times
- Speech by Robert Packwood given on November 3, 1969. Audio recording from The University of Alabama's Emphasis Symposium on Contemporary Issues
- Appearances on C-SPAN