Ross at his easel
|Born||Robert Norman Ross
October 29, 1942
Daytona Beach, Florida, United States
|Died||July 4, 1995
New Smyrna Beach, Florida, United States
|Known for||Painter, art instructor, television host|
|Spouse(s)||Lynda Brown (?–1981; divorced)
Jane Ross (1980s–1993; her death)
|Service/branch||United States Air Force|
|Years of service||1961–1981|
Robert Norman "Bob" Ross (October 29, 1942 – July 4, 1995) was an American painter, art instructor, and television host. He was best known as the creator and host of The Joy of Painting, an instructional television program that aired from 1983 to 1994 on PBS in the United States, and also aired in Canada, Latin America and Europe.
Ross was born in Daytona Beach, Florida, and raised in Orlando, Florida. He had a half-brother, Jim, whom he mentioned in passing on his show. While working as a carpenter with his father, Ross lost part of his left index finger, but it did not affect the way he held his palette while painting.:22
Ross had two sons, Bob and Steven, with his first wife, Lynda Brown. Steven occasionally appeared on The Joy of Painting and became a Ross-certified instructor. The last episode of Season 1 was a question-and-answer forum in which Steven read a series of general "how-to" questions sent in by viewers during the season, and Bob answered them one at a time, technique by technique, until he had completed an entire painting.
Ross and Brown's marriage ended in divorce in 1981. Ross and his second wife, Jane, had a son named Morgan, who is also an accomplished painter. In 1993, Jane died from cancer, and Ross did not remarry.
Ross enlisted in the United States Air Force at 18 years old and served as a medical records technician.:15 He eventually rose to the rank of master sergeant and served as the first sergeant of the U.S. Air Force Clinic at Eielson Air Force Base in Alaska, where he first saw the snow and mountains that later became recurring themes in his artwork. He developed his quick-painting technique to create art for sale during brief daily work breaks. Having held military positions that required him to be, in his own words, "mean" and "tough", "the guy who makes you scrub the latrine, the guy who makes you make your bed, the guy who screams at you for being late to work", Ross decided that if he ever left the military, he would never scream again.
Illness and death
Ross was diagnosed with lymphoma in the early 1990s, which eventually forced his retirement after The Joy of Painting's final episode aired on May 17, 1994. He died at the age of 52 on July 4, 1995. His remains are interred at Woodlawn Memorial Park in Gotha, Florida.
Career as a painter
While staying in Alaska, Ross was working as a part-time bartender when he discovered a TV show called The Magic of Oil Painting, hosted by German painter Bill Alexander.:17-18 Ross studied with Alexander and afterwards discovered that he was able to earn more from selling his artwork than his position in the Air Force. Ross retired from the Air Force after 20 years of service, having the rank of Master Sergeant, and became famous worldwide for creating and hosting the TV program The Joy of Painting.
Before the show launched, Ross tried to promote his painting technique but met with little interest. He also had to find ways to cut back on spending, so he decided to have his hair permed just to save money on haircuts. The perm hairstyle was not comfortable for Ross, but it became an iconic feature of his image and brand.:19
The show had its first run from January 11, 1983, to May 17, 1994, but reruns still[update] continue to appear in many broadcast areas and countries, including the PBS-oriented network Create. During each half-hour segment, Ross would instruct viewers in oil painting using a quick-study technique from the imagination that used a limited palette of paints and broke down the process into simple steps. Art critic Mira Schor compared him to Fred Rogers, host of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, noting that Ross's soft voice and the slow pace of his speech were similar.
Ross later found success in building a $15 million business by creating his own line of art supplies and how-to books, and also offering painting classes taught by instructors trained in the "Bob Ross method". In a 1990 interview, Ross mentioned that all his paintings were donated to PBS stations; his earnings came from sales of his 20 books and 100 videotapes (the total to that date), as well as profits from some 150 Bob Ross–trained teachers and a line of art materials sold through a national supplier. Ross also talked about the donated paintings on the show Towering Glacier (#2341), saying they would help the station out.
Ross also filmed wildlife, squirrels in particular, usually from his garden. Small animals often appeared on The Joy of Painting, even during some of his trickier works, as he would often take in injured or abandoned squirrels and other wildlife.
Ross used the wet-on-wet oil painting technique, in which the painter continues adding paint on top of still-wet paint rather than waiting a lengthy amount of time to allow each layer of paint to dry. From the beginning, the program kept the selection of tools and colors simple so that viewers would not have to make large investments in expensive equipment. Ross frequently recommended odorless paint thinner (aka odorless mineral spirits) for brush cleaning. Combining the wet painting method with the use of large one- and two-inch brushes, as well as painting knives, allowed Ross to paint trees, clouds, mountains, and water in a matter of seconds. Each painting would start with simple strokes that appeared as nothing more than smudges of color. As he added more and more strokes, the blotches would transform into intricate landscapes.
Ross dedicated the first episode of the second season of The Joy of Painting to Bill Alexander, explaining that "years ago, Bill taught me this fantastic [wet-on-wet] technique, and I feel as though he gave me a precious gift, and I'd like to share that gift with you [the viewer]". As Ross's popularity grew, his relationship with Alexander became increasingly strained. "He betrayed me," Alexander told the New York Times in 1991. "I invented 'wet on wet', I trained him, and ... he thinks he can do it better." Art historians have pointed out that the "wet-on-wet" (or alla prima) technique actually originated in Flanders during the 15th century, and was used by Frans Hals, Diego Velázquez, Caravaggio, Paul Cezanne, John Singer Sargent, and Monet, among many others.
Ross noted that the landscapes he painted—typically mountains, lakes, snow, and log cabin scenes—were strongly influenced by his years living in Alaska, where he was stationed for the majority of his Air Force career. He repeatedly stated on the show his belief that everyone had inherent artistic talent and could become an accomplished artist given time, practice, and encouragement, and to this end was often fond of saying, "We don't make mistakes; we just have happy accidents." In 2014 the blog FiveThirtyEight conducted a statistical analysis of the 381 episodes in which Ross painted live, concluding that 91 percent of Ross' paintings contained at least one tree, 44 percent included clouds, 39 percent included mountains and 34 percent included mountain lakes. By his own estimation, Ross completed more than 30,000 paintings in his lifetime.
Ross was well known for the catchphrases he used while painting such as "happy little trees". In most episodes of The Joy of Painting, Ross would note that one of his favorite parts of painting was cleaning the brush. Specifically, he was fond of his method of drying off a brush that he had dipped in odorless thinner by striking it against the thinner can and easel. He would smile and often laugh aloud as he said to "beat the Devil out of it". He also used a palette that had been lightly sanded down, which was necessary to avoid catching the reflections of the strong studio lighting. At the end of each episode, Ross was known for saying, "So from all of us here, I'd like to wish you happy painting, and God bless, my friend."
When asked about his laid-back approach, and his calm and contented demeanor, he commented, "I got a letter from somebody here a while back, and they said, 'Bob, everything in your world seems to be happy.' That's for sure. That's why I paint. It's because I can create the kind of world that I want, and I can make this world as happy as I want it. Shoot, if you want bad stuff, watch the news."
Other media appearances
Ross was a big fan of country music, and in 1987 he was invited on stage by Hank Snow at the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville. The audience gave him a huge ovation; he was a little nervous at first, but felt better after cracking a joke to the crowd. Snow was later given a private painting lesson by Ross.
Ross visited New York City to promote his hardcover book, The Best of the Joy of Painting with Bob Ross, and painting techniques to a studio audience several times. One visit in 1989 he appeared on The Joan Rivers Show. He returned in 1992 for a live show with hosts Regis Philbin and Kathie Lee Gifford. There was one in 1994, when Phil Donahue, who watched his videos and loved his painting technique, invited him to the show to promote his work. Ross took five audience members on-stage to do a painting and even Phil himself did a painting and showed it in that episode.
Ross at one time got an invitation to appear on Oprah, but declined because he wanted to do paintings for the audience, while the show wanted to focus on couples who are in business together, but do not live together.
In the early 1990s, Ross did several MTV promotional spots that, according to the American City Business Journals, "dovetailed perfectly with Generation X's burgeoning obsession with all things ironic and retro."
Commemoration and pop culture
As part of the launch of Twitch Creative, Twitch.tv hosted a nine-day marathon of Bob Ross' The Joy of Painting series which started on October 29, 2015 in commemoration of what would have been his 73rd birthday. Twitch reported that 5.6 million viewers watched the marathon, and due to its popularity, created a weekly rebroadcast with one season of The Joy of Painting to air on Twitch each Monday, and will have a marathon of episodes each October 29th. A portion of the advertising revenue has been promised to charities, including St. Jude Children's Research Hospital.
- "Bob Ross, Television's Favorite Artist". Bob Ross Incorporated. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
- Schenck, Sally (director) (April 19, 2008). "Home Before Nightfall". The Joy of Painting. Season 28. Episode 13. 2:48 minutes in. PBS.
- Congdon, Kristin; Blandy, Doug; Coeyman, Danny (2014). Happy Clouds, Happy Trees: The Bob Ross Phenomenon. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1617039950.
- "Bob Ross 52, Dies; was a painter on TV". The New York Times. July 13, 1995. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
- "Before they were famous, Airman edition". U.S. Air Force Live.
- 5things (2009-11-13). "5 (Happy Little) Things You Didn't Know About Bob Ross". Mental Floss. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- Linda, Shrieves (July 7, 1990). "Bob Ross uses his brush to spread paint and joy". Orlando Sentinel.
- Linda, Shrieves (July 8, 1995). "Painter Bob Ross Dies At 52". Orlando Sentinel.
- Morfit, Cameron (November 18, 2001). "The Mellow, and Undying, Magic of Happy Little Trees". The New York Times. Retrieved January 20, 2011.
- Schor, Mira (1997). Wet: on painting, feminism, and art culture. Durham: Duke University Press. p. 176. ISBN 0-8223-1915-2.
- Stanley, Alessandra (December 22, 1991). "Bob Ross, the Frugal Gourmet of Painting". The New York Times. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- Series 11 Disk 2 (DVD) Episode "Towering Glacier" http://www.bobross.com/detail.cfm?prdID=524
- Thill, Scott (September 5, 2008). "Annuals + Bob Ross = Such Fun". Wired. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
- The Joy of Painting with Bob Ross: Meadow Lake, season 2, episode November 1, 1983
- Stanley, A. (December 22, 1991). Bob Ross, the Frugal Gourmet of Painting. New York Times archive, retrieved December 24, 2015.
- Taubes, F. Mastery of Alla Prima Painting. F&W Pub.(1980), pp. 22-4. ISBN 0891340297.
- Gury, A. Alla Prima: A Contemporary Guide to Traditional Direct Painting. Watson-Guptill (2009), p. 16. ISBN 0823098346.
- Bennett, Kaylen (2005). Rick Benzel, ed. Inspiring Creativity: An Anthology of Powerful Insights And Practical Ideas to Guide You to Successful Creating. Playa del Rey: Creativity Coaching Assoc. Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-9767371-0-8.
- Rife, Katie (April 16, 2014). "Study the happy little numbers with a statistical analysis of Bob Ross’ Joy Of Painting". The A.V. Club..
- Pegley, Kip (2008). Coming to wherever you are: MuchMusic, MTV, and youth identities. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press. p. 41. ISBN 0-8195-6870-8.
- (Joy Of Painting, Season 15, Episode 12- Forest Lake)
- Bob Ross; Annette Kowalski (1989) The Best of the Joy of Painting with Bob Ross, W. Morrow, NY ISBN 978-0-68809-246-7
- Harris, Scott (February 9, 2009) "Happy accidents and the legacy of Bob Ross". American City Business Journals
- Albanesius, Chloe (October 29, 2012). "Bob Ross Paints 'Happy Little Trees' for Google Doodle". PC Magazine. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Driscoll, Molly, "Bob Ross: How did he get so mellow? (+video)", Christian Science Monitor, October 29, 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
- Leopold, Todd (October 29, 2015). "Bob Ross Marathon Underway on Twitch TV". CNN.com. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- Machkovech, Sam (October 29, 2015). "Twitch launches "Creative" category, eight-day Bob Ross Painting marathon". Arstechnica. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "Bob Ross channel on twitch.tv". The Joy of Painting Marathon - Celebrating the official launch of Twitch Creative! #painting #oilpaint #bobross. October 29, 2015.
- Porter, Matt (November 9, 2015). "5.6 Million People Watched Bob Ross's Twitch Marathon". IGN. Retrieved November 9, 2015.
- Bio Staff (October 28, 2015). "Bob Ross: 13 Happy Little Facts About the Iconic PBS Painter". Biography. Retrieved November 1, 2015.
- "PBS Video Mashup Honors 'Joy Of Painting' Host". Huffington Post. Associated Press. July 26, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
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- Official website
- Bob Ross's channel on YouTube
- Bob Ross at the Internet Movie Database
- Bob Ross on Twitch.tv
- Bob Ross Gravesite