Boboshticë

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Boboshticë
Village
Boboshticë is located in Albania
Boboshticë
Boboshticë
Coordinates: 40°33′15″N 20°45′52″E / 40.55417°N 20.76444°E / 40.55417; 20.76444Coordinates: 40°33′15″N 20°45′52″E / 40.55417°N 20.76444°E / 40.55417; 20.76444
Country Albania
County Korçë
Municipality Korçë
Administrative Unit Drenovë
Elevation 1,112 m (3,648 ft)
Population (2005)
 • Total 1,200
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

Boboshticë (Macedonian: Бобоштица, Boboštica, Bulgarian: Бобощица, Boboshtica,) is a village in the former Drenovë Municipality of the Korçë County in southeastern Albania. At the 2015 local government reform it became part of the municipality Korçë.[1]

History[edit]

According to legend, the village was founded by Polish settlers left behind after a Crusade.[2]

It is believed that the local church "St. John" was most probably built in XIII century and it was rebuilt and expanded later.[3]

In 1503 a new church in the monastery St. Nicholas near to the village was built on whose western wall, in a Greek language inscription the names of donors were mentioned - Bogdan, Chelko, Valcho and Telche.[4]

Sultan Bayezid II donated the area to Mirahor (General of Chevalry) Iljas Bey. The village was transformed in 1505 in a Waqf regime of type Evaladiet. By the late 18th century, with the spread of Çiflik type feudalism instead of the Military feudalism inside the Ottoman Empire, many villages of the area were transformed into Çiflik. Ali Pasha Tepelena turned Boboshticë as such in 1817, while the adjacent village of Drenovë was turned in 1814. With the demise of Ali Pasha, the Ottoman Porte confiscated from his domains over 1000 çiflik-s, between others Boboshticë and Drenovë, and turned them into imlak (imperial çiflik). They remained such even after the Tanzimat reforms, and other agrarian laws. The economical situation of the villagers degraded a lot during the 19th century, far worse than what it used to be in the old system of timar. They were obliged to pay the Ashar in addition to other ordinary and extraordinary taxes. By the end of the 19th century, immigration to Romania and Bulgaria became a wide spread phenomena. Other families had migrated even before, i.e. Gerasi family complitely left when Ali Pasha took over. According to some sources nearly half of the villagers emigrated in Wallachia during the rule of Ali Pasha.[4]
The village was internally ruled by an "elderly council" led by a one person from one of the richest families, referred as gocabaşi.
In 1823, for unclassified reasons, Boboshticë suffered a high level of mortality. 23 people recorded to have died from the nearby monastery of St. Nicholas (Alb: Shën Kollit), while 325 in total from the area.[5]

Though not being Greek, many villagers participated in the Greek Revolution. 6 of them died in the Siege of Messolonghi. Two uncles of the well-known Victor Eftimiu participated in future anti-Ottoman wars.[6]

In 1873 the residents of Boboshtica wrote a request to the Bulgarian Exarch Antim I, written in Greek letters in the local dialect. They expressed their Bulgarian affiliation and provided a general information about their village. Boboshchitsa had 150 houses and was divided into five neighborhoods: Popchìshche, Chelkoveàne, Bràtsko, Bùnar and Dòlno Bùnar. The rivers that crossed the village were named: Goleàma reàka (Big river), Màla reàka (Little river) and Pòvrok. The main problem the village faced was to buy the village lands back from the Ottoman state.[4]

In 1878-1879, many diaspora members together with local villagers took the initiative of buying of the village lands back from the Ottoman Empire, 57 years after it had turned as imlak, based on the new imperial laws which allowed the Christians to buy/sell land and similar properties. The diaspora managed to have to the support of Russian diplomat Ignatyev for this purpose. Ignatyev succeeded in convincing the Ottoman authorities to add Boboshticë (and Drenovë) to the list of Ottoman çiflik-s which were destined to auction. At this time the village is recorded to have had 1004 people. The community distributed financial obligations (debentures) written in Bulgarian, Romanian, and Greek in order to facilitate the fund raising.[5]

According to the Bulgarian Exarchate, Boboshticë had 250 houses with 1,471 Bulgarian inhabitants in the early 20th century.[7] Also around this time, in 1903, German scholar Heinrich Gelzer visited the village and described the local population as a Bulgarian island in Albanian see, remained from the old Slavic population before Albanian mass migration from 14th and 15th century.[8]

The villagers of Boboshticë-Drenovë have been a substantial part of the Albanian community in Romania. Their names appear on the statutes of the main organizations of Albanian diaspora there, with a great contribute in the Albanian National Awakening. Such societies were "Diturija", "Drenova", "Boboshtani" etc.[9][10] Thanas Kantili (1863-1933) from Boboshticë was vice-president of the "Diturija" society, and a delegate of the community to the Albanian Congress of Trieste in 1913.[11]

Demographics[edit]

According to German linguist Gustav Weigand during the first decades of XX century Bulgarian villages Boboschtitza and Drenowo were a Bulgarian linguistic island in Albania.[12] The historian Ivan Snegarov noted in 1934 significant processes of albanization among the local Bulgarians.[4] The majority of the population of the village was Bulgarian until 1960. Then the mass migration of Vlachs began, while the old local population emigrated to the cities in Albania.[13]

According to some scientists Boboshticë and the neighboring Drenovë were the only villages in which the Korča dialect of the Macedonian language was still spoken (as of 1991).[14] According to linguist Xhelal Ylli, following a visit to the village in 2005, only five or six speakers remained living in the village.[15] The dialect is classified as part of Bulgarian dialects by other authors.[16][17] [13] Some linguists emphasize that the reflexes of yat in this western Bulgarian dialect is wide, like it is in Eastern Bulgarian dialects.[18][19]

Dhimitër Theodhor Çanço (Tsantso) was a teacher from the village who wrote the historical "Memorandia", a collection of oral transmitted historical facts, as well as documentary facts. The "Memorandia" was written in Greek. The original copy belongs to the person's family. It was copied by two of Canco's nephews and the copy is part of Albanian Archives. In his memoirs, written in Greek, Tcanko defined the local villagers as Orthodox Christians who speak a Bulgarian dialect.[20] Andre Mazon, an expert in Slavic studies, has published an exceptional source of information it in his Documents slaves de l'Albanie de Sud, II, pieces complemetaires (Paris, Institut d'Etudes Slaves, 1965), where Bulgarian scholar Maria Filipova performed the translation from Greek to French.[21]
Mazon also published seventeen correspondence letters written by Mihal Kuneshka, a villager, dating back to the late 19th century. All are in the Macedonian language, proving the existence of Slavic element. Mazon included as well sixteen letters written in French by Victor Efitimiu which described old legends and oral traditions leading to the village assumed origin, as well as lots of third party information from other authors.[21]

In 2005, a Greek-language school opened in the village.[22] The same time, controversies rose regarding testimonies that the Greek government was paying people to declare themselves as Greek and register as Vorio Epeirotes, in attempts to hellenize the area. A memorial is built to commemorate the Greek soldier fallen during the Italo-Greek War. A conflict between the villagers and the Omonia representatives rose because the construction personnel violated the village cemetery while building the memorial. This led to a wider scandal and a 1 year sentence for Omonia's leader of Korça, Naum Disho.[23] The sentence was removed by the Korçe's Court of Appeal.[24] Today, the majority of the villagers identify as Vlachs and many have received Greek citizenship from the Greek government, together with pensions for elderly people.[25] The village is also referred as one of the Vlach villages in Albania.[26] Top-Channel television visited the area and interviewed many people from the area including neighboring villages, and published the findings in the documentary "Searching the Vlachs" (Albanian: Ne kerkim te Vlleheve). The Albanian school, first opened in 1916 with 36 pupils, is suffering because the number of pupils registered each year is decreasing.

Culture[edit]

The village is home to the Church of St Demetrius and the Church of St John, both Cultural Monuments of Albania. The mural icons of St. John's Church have considerable resemblance with the ones from the Arbanasi village in Bulgaria, and many ones from a series of villages of Macedonia and Bulgaria (Mesemvria, Kostur, Veria, etc).[27]

Until the '60s, there were two old monasteries around Boboshticë, Monastery of St. Nicholas (Alb: Shën Kollit) on the east, and Monastery of St. Mary (Alb: Shën Mërisë) on the south.
The monasteries had dedicated guest rooms for hosting pilgrims from other areas of the Balkans during religious feasts and events. The St. Mary monastery had a Prilepska room for guest coming from Prilep area (Alb:Përlep), and an Ohridska for guests coming from Ohrid area (Alb: Ohri).[6]

People from Boboshticë[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Law nr. 115/2014
  2. ^ Petiffer, James. "Blue Guide Albania & Kossovo", London, 2001.
  3. ^ Гюзелев, Боян. Албанци в източните Балкани, София 2004, с. 34. (Gyuzelev Boyan. Albanians in the eastern Balkans, Sofia 2004, p. 34.)
  4. ^ a b c d Снегаров, Иван. Един важен български документ от Корчанско, Македонски преглед, 1934, № 1, p. 1-16. (Snegarov Ivan. An important Bulgarian document from the region of Korcha, Macedonian Review, 1934, Vol. 1, p. 1-16.)
  5. ^ a b Petraq Pepo (1966). "Kritike dhe Bibliografi: Andre Mazon et Maria Filipova, "Documents slaves de l'Albanie de Sud, II, pieces complemetaires", Paris, Institut d'Etudes Slaves, 1965". Studime Historike. Tirana: Universiteti Shteteror i Tiranes, Instituti i Historise dhe Gjuhesise. 2 (XX): 196–197. ISSN 0563-5799. OCLC 3648264. 
  6. ^ a b Petraq Pepo (1966). "Kritike dhe Bibliografi: Andre Mazon et Maria Filipova, "Documents slaves de l'Albanie de Sud, II, pieces complemetaires", Paris, Institut d'Etudes Slaves, 1965". Studime Historike. Tirana: Universiteti Shteteror i Tiranes, Instituti i Historise dhe Gjuhesise. 2 (XX): 198. ISSN 0563-5799. OCLC 3648264. Keta vullnetare qe nuk ishin Greke, kane treguar heroizem ne rrethimin e Misolongjit, bile aty u vrane 6 burra nga Boboshtica. Dy xhaxhallare te Stilian dhe Viktor Eftimiut, Leonidha dhe Themeli Caveja kane marre pjese me vone ne kryengritje te tjera...Ne manastirin e Shen Merise ka qene dhoma prilepska per pelegrinet nga krahu i Perlepit dhe dhoma ohridska per miqte nga Ohri 
  7. ^ Трайчев, Георги. Български селища в днешна Албания, в: Отецъ Паисий, 15-31 юли 1929 година, стр.213.
  8. ^ Gelzer, Heinrich. Vom heiligen Berge und aus Makedonien. Reisebilder aus den Athosklöstern und dem Insurrektionsgebiet, Leipzig 1904, pp. 211-212.

    Bobosnica und das benachbarte Drenkowa sind gleichsam eine bulgarische Insel in dem weiten albanesischen Meere der Ebene von Korytza; es sind Reste der alten slawischen Bevölkerung, die bei der Masseneinwanderung" der Albanesen im vierzehnten und fünfzehnten Jahrhundert sich hier mühsam am Rande des Gebirges gehalten haben.

  9. ^ Lumo Skendo (1927-03-01), "Aktiviteti i Shqipëtarëvet në Rumani: KANONIZMA SHOQËRISH" (PDF), Diturija, 5: 187–189, Uniune albaneza ortodoxa din Bucuresti, statut, Bucuresti, tipografia Cooperativa "Poporul", Bulevardul Elisabeta, Nr. 27. 1912. 10,5...në f. të panum. është këshilla adminisirate: Toma Ceami, Eracle Ouro, Petre Tarpo, Pande Evanghele, Vasili Zografi, Dr A. Shunda, Mihalache Kirita, Ilie Costuri, C. Naumescu, N. Hristea, Sotir Filip, Vanghele Dimitriu, Atanas Cantili, Pandele Durmisi, Dimitri Beratti, Visarion Dodani, Ch. Tico, Grigore Goda, Victor Eftimiu, Cristache Cotadi, Theodor Emanail, Alexe Drenova, Vanghele Atanasiu, Ioan Danga, Filip Papajani.
    Societatea fratia Bobosteni,dare de seama pe anul 1913.
     
  10. ^ a b Bakiu Ymeri (2009-11-22), Himni kombëtar dhe Dita e Flamurit shqiptar, Gazeta Kritika Online, i pasuar prej fjalimesh të shqiptarëve, të cilat kurdoherë më çdo festë, kurorëzoheshin në fund prej veteranit të madh Thanas Kantili, të zjarrtit, të flaktit, të djegurit dhe të zhuriturit luftëtar të Kolonisë në Rumani. 
  11. ^ a b [1] Kongresi i Triestes, ja procesverbali i bisedimeve 1-4 mars 1913 (in Albanian)
  12. ^ Weigand, Gustav Ethnographie von Makedonien. Geschichtlich-nationaler, spraechlich-statistischer Teil von Prof. Dr. Gustav Weigand, Leipzig, Friedrich Brandstetter, 1924, p. 80.
  13. ^ a b Бело, Миранда. Етикетният език в говора на село Бобощица (Република Албания), електронно списание "Онгъл", Год. VI, 2014, бр. 8, с. 45-53.(Belo, Miranda. The language label in a manner of speaking in Boboshtitsa, electronic magazine "Ongal", 2014, vol. 8, pp. 45-53.)
  14. ^ Македонските дијалекти во Егејска Македонија: (Обид за класификација). Македонските дијалекти во Егејска Македонија: научен собир, Скопје 23–24 декември 1991. Skopje: MANU, 1994, стр. 23–60.
  15. ^ Xhelal Ylli. Die slavischsprechende Bevölkerung in Südostalbanien und ihre Mundarten. в Языки и диалекты малых этнических групп на Балканах. Международная научная конференция. Санкт-Петербург, 11-12 июня 2004 г.
  16. ^ Trubetzkoy, Nikolai. Principles_of_Phonology, Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1977, p. 277, 279 (note 9))
  17. ^ Милетич, Любомир. Нови сведения за македонските българи в Бобощица (Корчанско) и техният език, Македонски преглед, X, 1937, 3 и 4, с. 19-32, (Miletic, Ljubomir. "New information about the Macedonian Bulgarians in Boboshtica (Korchansko) and their language, Macedonian Review, X, 1937, 3 and 4, pp. 19-32.)
  18. ^ Георгиева, Елена и Невена Тодорова, Българските народни говори, София 1986, с. 79. (Georgieva, Elena and Nevena Todorova, Bulgarian dialects, Sofia 1986, p. 79.)
  19. ^ Бояджиев, Тодор А. Помагало по българска диалектология, София 1984, с. 62. (Boyadzhiev Todor A. Handbook on Bulgarian Dialectology, Sofia 1984, р. 62.)
  20. ^ Mazon, André "Documents, contes et chansons slaves de l’Albanie du Sud", Paris, 1936, рp. 382-383

    Οι κάτοικοι Βοβοστίτσης λογιζόμενοι περί των 210 οικογενειών και του Δρενόβου 110 οικογενειών εισίν άπαντες χριστιανοί ορθόδοξοι λαλοΰντες ιδίαν τινά Βουλγαρικήν διάλεκτον, εν δε τοις σχολείοις αυτών παραδίδεται ή ελληνική καθομιλουμένη γλώσσα δια ταύτης έκτελούσιν εν τοις ναοΐς αυτών τα ιερά τελεστήρία.

  21. ^ a b Petraq Pepo (1966). "Kritike dhe Bibliografi: Andre Mazon et Maria Filipova, "Documents slaves de l'Albanie de Sud, II, pieces complemetaires", Paris, Institut d'Etudes Slaves, 1965". Studime Historike. Tirana: Universiteti Shteteror i Tiranes, Instituti i Historise dhe Gjuhesise. 2 (XX): 194. ISSN 0563-5799. OCLC 3648264. 
  22. ^ webalbania.com Shkollës 9 vjeçare të fshatit Boboshticë
  23. ^ Another arrest order for Disho
  24. ^ Dafina Ismaili (2013-05-27), Korçë, të pafajshëm dhunuesit e varreve të Boboshticës, shqiptarja.com 
  25. ^ Pensionet bëjnë vllehët grekë (in Albanian), Top-Channel, 2011-03-14 
  26. ^ Robert Elsie (2010), Historical Dictionary of Albania, Historical Dictionaries of Europe, 75 (2 ed.), The Scarecrow Press, Inc., p. 472, communities are Voskopoja, Mborja, and Boboshtica. 
  27. ^ Antonín Stránský (1936), "L'église Saint-Jean de Boboščica, en Albanie", Revue des études slaves (in French), 16 (16-1-2): 77, ISSN 2117-718X 
  28. ^ Vani Trako passes away at the age of 86 (in Albanian)
  29. ^ Mazon, André. "Documents, contes et chansons slaves de l’Albanie du Sud", Paris, 1936, р. 382-383.