Bocaparvovirus

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Bocaparvovirus
Virus classification
Group: Group II (ssDNA)
Order: Unassigned
Family: Parvoviridae
Subfamily: Parvovirinae
Genus: Bocaparvovirus
Type species
Ungulate bocaparvovirus 1

Bocaparvovirus is a genus in the family Parvoviridae, subfamily Parvovirinae. The type species is Ungulate bocaparvovirus 1.

History[edit]

Bocaviruses were first described in animals in the early 1960s.

Genome[edit]

Like the other members of this family, bocaparvoviruses have two open reading frames—ORF1 and 2. Unique among parvoviruses, the bocaparvoviruses contain a third open reading frame between non-structural and structural coding regions.[1] This gene encodes a highly phosphorylated nonstructural protein (NP1).

ORF1 encodes a nonstructural protein (NS1) that is involved in viral genome replication. ORF2 encodes the two capsid proteins—VP1 and VP2.

Like other parvoviruses, the VP1 unique region contains a phospholipase A(2) motif with a conserved HistidineAspartic acid-XXY motif in the catalytic center.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

In the Parvoviridae species are now generally defined as a cluster of viruses that encode replication initiator proteins (called NS1) that have amino acid sequences that are at least 85% identical to those encoded by all other members of the species.[3]

Species[edit]

There are currently twelve recognized species of Bocaparvovirus. They are Carnivore bocaparvovirus 1–3, Pinneped bocaparvovirus 1 and 2, Primate bocaparvovirus 1 and 2, and Ungulate bocaparvovirus 1–5. The human bocaviruses belong to the two primate species. The former (pre-2014) "type species" of the genus, Bovine bocavirus, is now recognized as the founder virus sequence in a broader species called Ungulate bocaparvovirus 1, which is the new type species. Canine minute virus is now classified as a virus in the species Carnivore bocaparvovirus 1.

Virology[edit]

Bovine bocaviruses utilise endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles to enter cells; they are dependent upon acidification, and appear to be associated with actin and microtubule dependency.[4]

All bocaparvoviruses encode a novel protein called NP1 that is not present in parvoviruses from other genera. In Canine minute virus NP1 has been shown to be essential for an early step in viral replication and is also required for the read through of an internal polyadenylation site that is essential for expression of the capsid proteins.[5]

Clinical[edit]

These viruses generally infect the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. Some may cross the placenta and cause congenital infection of the fetus.

Canine minute virus, first isolated in 1967 and associated with disease in 1970, causes respiratory disease with breathing difficulty and enteritis with severe diarrhoea, spontaneous abortion of fetuses, and death of newborn puppies.

Human bocaviruses were first isolated in 2005 in Sweden.[6] They may be able to cause hepatitis in an immunosuppressed host.[7]

Bocaparvoviruses have been isolated from human colon and lung cancers.[8] The clinical importance of this finding—if any—remains to be seen.

The incidence of bocavirus in patients with cancer is higher than that of health controls.[9]

Structure[edit]

Like other parvoviruses, bocaparvoviruses have an icosohedral structure. The capsid is composed of 60 copies of up to six types of capsid proteins (called VP1 through to VP6) which share a common C-terminal region. The structure of a virus-like particle composed only of VP2 protein was determined by cryo electron microscopy and image reconstruction.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Manteufel J, Truyen U (2008) Animal bocaviruses: a brief review. Intervirology 51: 328–334.
  2. ^ Qu XW, Liu WP, Qi ZY, Duan ZJ, Zheng LS, Kuang ZZ, Zhang WJ, Hou YD (2008) Phospholipase A2-like activity of human bocavirus VP1 unique region. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 365(1):158–163
  3. ^ http://talk.ictvonline.org/files/ictv_official_taxonomy_updates_since_the_8th_report/m/vertebrate-official/4844.aspx
  4. ^ Dudleenamjil E, Lin CY, Dredge D, Murray BK, Robison RA, Johnson FB (2010) Bovine parvovirus uses clathrin-mediated endocytosis for cell entry. J Gen Virol 91(12):3032–3041
  5. ^ Sukhu L, Fasina O, Burger L, Rai A, Qiu J, Pintel DJ (2012) Characterization of the non-structural proteins of the bocavirus minute virus of canine (MVC). J Virol
  6. ^ Allander T, Tammi MT, Eriksson M, Bjerkner A, Tiveljung-Lindell A, Andersson B (2005) Cloning of a human parvovirus by molecular screening of respiratory tract samples. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(36):12891–12896
  7. ^ Kainulainen L, Waris M, Söderlund-Venermo M, Allander T, Hedman K, Ruuskanen O (2008) Hepatitis and human bocavirus primary infection in a child with T-cell deficiency. J Clin Microbiol 46(12):4104–4105
  8. ^ Schildgen V, Malecki M, Tillmann RL, Brockmann M, Schildgen O (2013) A human bocavirus is associated with some lung and colorectal cancers and persists in solid tumors. PLoS One 8(6):e68020
  9. ^ Li Y, Dong Y, Jiang J, Yang Y, Liu K, Li Y (2012) High prevelance of human parvovirus infection in patients with malignant tumors. Oncol Lett 3(3):635–640
  10. ^ Gurda BL, Parent KN, Bladek H et al. (June 2010). "Human bocavirus capsid structure: insights into the structural repertoire of the parvoviridae". J. Virol. 84 (12): 5880–9. doi:10.1128/JVI.02719-09. PMC 2876641. PMID 20375175.