Body-focused repetitive behavior
|Body-focused repetitive behavior|
|Dermatillomania of the knuckles (via mouth), illustrating disfiguration of the distal and proximal joints of the middle and little fingers|
The cause of BFRBs is unknown.
Emotional variables may have a differential impact on the expression of BFRBs.
Research has suggested that the urge to repetitive self-injury is similar to a body-focused repetitive behavior but others have argued that for some the condition is more akin to a substance abuse disorder.
BFRBs most often begin in late childhood or in the early teens.
The main BFRB disorders are:
- Morsicatio buccarum, cheek biting
- Morsicatio labiorum, inner lip biting
- Morsicatio linguarum, tongue biting
- Mucus fishing syndrome - compulsion to remove or "fish" strands of mucus from the eye
Treatment can include behavior modification therapy, medication, and family therapy. The evidence base criteria for BFRBs is strict and methodical. Individual behavioral therapy has been shown as a "probably effective" evidence-based therapy to help with thumb sucking, and possibly nail biting. Cognitive behavioral therapy was cited as experimental evidence based therapy to treat trichotillomania and nail biting; a systematic review found best evidence for habit reversal training and decoupling. Another form of treatment that focuses on mindfulness, stimuli and rewards has proven effective in some people. However, no treatment was deemed well-established to treat any form of BFRBs.
BFRBs are among the most poorly understood, misdiagnosed, and undertreated groups of disorders. BFRBs may affect at least 1 out of 20 people. These collections of symptoms have been known for a number of years, but only recently have appeared in widespread medical literature. Trichotillomania alone is believed to affect 10 million people in the United States.
- Scientific Advances in Trichotillomania and Related Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors Archived July 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, November 4, 2004, National Institute of Mental Health
- AAMFT Consumer Update - Hair Pulling, Skin Picking and Biting: Body-Focused Repetitive Disorders Archived 2009-04-25 at the Wayback Machine, American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy
- Grant, Jon E.; Stein, Dan J. (2014). "Body-focused repetitive behavior disorders in ICD-11". Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria. 36 (suppl 1): 59–64. doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2013-1228. PMID 25388613.
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- ABC News 20/20 Hair Pulling, 2006
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- Families & Health Archived March 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy
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