Body and Soul (1925 film)
|Body and Soul|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Oscar Micheaux|
|Produced by||Oscar Micheaux|
|Written by||Oscar Micheaux (novel and screenplay)|
Julia Theresa Russell
|Distributed by||Micheaux Film Corporation|
Body and Soul is a 1925 race film produced, written, directed, and distributed by Oscar Micheaux and starring Paul Robeson in his motion picture debut. In 2019, the film was selected by the Library of Congress for inclusion in the National Film Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
An escaped prisoner seeks refuge in the predominantly African-American town of Tatesville, Georgia, by passing himself off as the Rt. Reverend Isaiah T. Jenkins. He is joined in town by a fellow criminal, and the pair scheme to swindle the phony reverend's congregation of their offerings. Jenkins falls in love with a young member of his congregation, Isabelle Perkins, even though she is in love with a poor young man named Sylvester, who happens to be Jenkins’ long-estranged identical twin brother. Jenkins steals money from Martha Jane, Isabelle's mother and convinces the young woman to take the blame for his crime. She flees to Atlanta and dies just as her mother locates her. Before dying, Isabelle reveals to her mother that Jenkins raped her and that he is the one who took her mother's money. She explains that she did not speak up before because she knew her mother would not believe her. Returning to Tatesville, Martha Jane confronts Jenkins in front of the congregation. Jenkins flees and during a twilight struggle he kills a man who tries to bring him to justice. The following morning, Martha Jane awakens and realizes the episode with Jenkins was only a dream. She provides Isabelle (who is not dead) and Sylvester with the funds to start a married life together.
- Paul Robeson as Reverend Isaiah T. Jenkins / His brother Sylvester
- Mercedes Gilbert as Sister Martha Jane - Isabelle's Mother
- Julia Theresa Russell as Isabelle - the Girl
- Lawrence Chenault as Yello-Curley' Hinds - the Phony Reverend's Former Jailmate
- Marshall Rogers as Speakeasy proprietor
- Lillian Johnson as "Sis" Caline, a Pious Lady
- Madame Robinson as "Sis" Lucy, a Pious Lady
- Chester A. Alexander as Deacon Simpkins, a Church Elder
- Walter Cornick as Brother Amos, a Church Elder
Paul Robeson made his film debut at the age of 27 in Body and Soul, playing the dual role of Jenkins and Sylvester. As part of the agreement to star in the film, Robeson received a $100 per week salary plus three percent of the gross after the first $40,000 in receipts.
The original version of Body and Soul was a nine-reel production. When the filmmaker applied for an exhibition license from the Motion Picture Commission of the State of New York, it was denied approval on the grounds it would "tend to incite to crime" and was "immoral" and "sacrilegious". Micheaux was forced to re-edit the film twice before the commission approved the film, which was reduced from nine to five reels. The surviving copy of Body and Soul is based on this edited version; Micheaux's director cut is considered a lost film. Body and Soul is one of three surviving silent films created by Micheaux, who is credited with making 26 silent productions. Body and Soul holds an 80% approval rating on aggregate film site Rotten Tomatoes.
Body and Soul was originally released to cinemas catering to an exclusive African-American audience, and for many years the film was unknown to white moviegoers. In 2000, Body and Soul was presented at the New York Film Festival with a new musical score composed by trombonist Wycliffe Gordon and performed live by the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra.
- Chow, Andrew R. (December 11, 2019). "See the 25 New Additions to the National Film Registry, From Purple Rain to Clerks". Time. New York, NY. Retrieved December 11, 2019.
- "Women Rule 2019 National Film Registry". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved September 17, 2020.
- "Complete National Film Registry Listing | Film Registry | National Film Preservation Board | Programs at the Library of Congress | Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved September 17, 2020.
- Musser, Charles. "To Redream the Dreams of White Playwrights: Reappropriation and Resistance in Oscar Micheaux's Body and Soul." Oscar Micheaux and His Circle: African American Filmmaking and Race Cinema of the Silent Era. 2001.
- "Overview for Body and Soul", Turner Classic Movies.
- "Body and Soul: Overview Article", Turner Classic Movies.
- "Oscar Micheaux’s Body and Soul: Visual Representation and Social Construction of African-American Identity", p. 29, Universite de Caen Archived May 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- "Body and Soul", AfricanAmericans.com. Archived October 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- "Citizen Micheaux", After Image, September 2001.
- "Body and Soul (1925): FILM REVIEW; Reverend's Wrongs Unrighted", New York Times, September 23, 2000.
- Pioneers of African American Cinema, retrieved September 17, 2020