Boeing KC-767

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KC-767
The KC-767J of 404th Squadron.jpg
Japan Air Self-Defense Force KC-767J
Role Air-to-air tanker
Manufacturer Boeing Integrated Defense Systems
First flight 21 May 2005
Status In service
Primary users Italian Air Force
Japan Air Self-Defense Force
Colombian Air Force
Brazilian Air Force
Produced 2003–present
Number built 11
Unit cost
~US$145 million
Developed from Boeing 767
Variants Boeing KC-46 Pegasus

The Boeing KC-767 is a military aerial refueling and strategic transport aircraft developed from the Boeing 767-200ER. The tanker received the designation KC-767A, after being selected by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) initially to replace older KC-135Es. In December 2003, the contract was frozen and later canceled due to corruption allegations.

The tanker was developed for the Italian and Japanese air forces, who ordered four tankers each. Financing of the development of the aircraft has largely been borne by Boeing, in the hope of receiving major orders from the USAF. Boeing's revised KC-767 proposal to the USAF was selected in February 2011 for the KC-X program under the designation KC-46.

Development[edit]

Commercial Derivative Air Refueling Aircraft[edit]

The USAF ran a procurement program to replace about 100 of its oldest KC-135E Stratotankers, part of the "Commercial Derivative Air Refueling Aircraft" program. Most USAF KC-135s are of the updated KC-135R variant.

In early 2002 the USAF began negotiations with Boeing on the lease of tankers based on the Boeing 767 after it considered the Airbus A330-based tanker, the KC-330 to be more costly and a higher technical risk.[1] The USAF said that an assessment of the two types shows that the EADS offering presents a higher-risk technical approach and less preferred financial arrangement it also said that the larger KC-330 does not bring with it a commensurate increase in available air-refuelling offload.[1]

In addition, the KC-767 has manual flight controls with an unrestricted flight envelope.[2] The Boeing tanker officially received the KC-767A designation from the U.S. DoD in 2002 and that appeared in the 2004 edition of the DoD Model Designation report.[3]

USAF lease, cancellation and re-award[edit]

For its Commercial Derivative Air Refueling Aircraft program, the USAF decided to lease around 100 KC-767 tankers from Boeing after it was selected.[4] Despite other nations engaging in leasing of military aircraft, there was some criticism. U.S. Senator John McCain questioned whether it is really cost-effective for the USAF to lease aircraft at all, particularly as the aircraft would probably not have many, if any, buyers when their U.S. military service ended. This was derided as an uninformed criticism, as there were many U.S. allies in need of tanker aircraft. The Congressional Budget Office has also criticized the draft leasing agreement as fiscally irresponsible. In November 2003, a compromise was struck whereby the Air Force would purchase 80 KC-767 aircraft and lease 20 more.[5][6]

In December 2003, the Pentagon announced the project was to be frozen while an investigation of allegations of corruption by one of its former procurement staffers, Darleen Druyun (who had moved to Boeing in January) was undertaken. Reporter Joseph Galloway wrote that some documents found in congressional investigation indicated the A330-based tanker met more of the USAF specifications than the Boeing tanker and had a lower proposed cost.[7][8] Druyun pleaded guilty and was sentenced to nine months in jail for "negotiating a job with Boeing at the same time she was involved in contracts with the company".[9] Additional fallout included the termination of Boeing CFO Michael M. Sears, who was sentenced to four months in prison in 2005, and the resignation of Boeing CEO Philip M. Condit.[10][11] The Air Force's KC-767A contract was officially canceled by the DoD in January 2006.[12]

International programs[edit]

Italian Air Force[edit]

A KC-767 for the Italian Air Force refueling a USAF B-52H in 2007

Boeing continued development of the aircraft. Italy selected the KC-767A and signed a contract in 2002 becoming the launch customer, with delivery set for 2005. The Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare) ordered four aircraft. This version is based on the 767-200ER and is named the KC-767 Tanker Transport, and is fitted with boom and hose-drogue refueling systems on the centerline with hose-drogue wingpod systems.[13]

Italy's aircraft became the first KC-767 to be assembled. The aircraft were initially built as 767-200ER commercial airplanes, then flown to a separate facility for conversion into tankers. Italy's first aircraft made its maiden flight on 21 May 2005.[14] Italy's second aircraft arrived for modification at the Naples, Italy facility of Boeing's partner, Aeronavali on 6 May 2005.[15]

Delivery of the tankers to the Italian Air Force was delayed due to an issue with flutter of the wing pods and other technical issues. Boeing provided a 767 for training during this time.[16][17] After resolving the issues, Boeing delivered the first KC-767 in January,[18] and the second in March 2011.[19] These aircraft officially entered service on 17 May 2011.[20] After entering service, the two KC-767s have supported NATO operations in Afghanistan and Libya.[21][22] The final two tankers were delivered in late 2011.[23]

Japan Self-Defense Forces[edit]

A Japan Air Self-Defense Force Boeing KC-767J tanker departs RIAT at RAF Fairford, England, 2014

In 2001, Japan selected the KC-767 over the Airbus A310 MRTT and signed a contract in 2003.[24][25] The Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) ordered four aircraft and has designated the tanker KC-767J. In June 2005, Japan's first aircraft arrived at Boeing's Wichita, Kansas modification center to be fitted out with the tanker equipment.[26]

Delivery of the first KC-767J for the JASDF was delayed approximately two years due to development issues and the addition of the aircraft receiving FAA certification. The Japanese version of the tanker is equipped only with the boom refueling system. Boeing and its Japanese representative Itochu agreed with Japan Ministry of Defense (MoD) to pay a penalty fee for the delivery delay, according to the MoD Statement.[27][28] The first operational KC-767J was delivered to the JASDF on 19 February 2008,[29] with the second KC-767J following on 5 March.[30] The third KC-767 was delivered to the JASDF in March 2009. The three KC-767J aircraft reached initial operational capability (IOC) status with the JASDF in May 2009.[31] The fourth tanker was delivered in January 2010.[32]

Others[edit]

Australia selected the Airbus A330 MRTT in April 2004 after competition with the KC-767 due to the A330's larger fuel and cargo capability.[33]

Boeing, teamed with BAE Systems and British Airways, offered the KC-767 to the UK's RAF for its Future Strategic Tanker Aircraft. The companies formed the Tanker Transport Services Consortium (TTSC). British Airways would provide the 767 aircraft, Boeing would provide the conversion technology based on its KC-767 tanker design and BAE Systems would perform the majority of aircraft modifications. Marshall Aerospace, Serco, Spectrum, and Capital were also part of TTSC. The Ministry of Defence announced in January 2004 that it had selected the Airbus A330 MRTT to fulfill this requirement.[34]

The KC-767 was to compete with the A330 MRTT for the Republic of Korea Air Force's procurement of four tanker aircraft.[35] In June 2015, South Korea selected the A330 MRTT over the KC-46 for the procurement.[36]

USAF KC-X Program[edit]

On 24 February 2011, Boeing's KC-767 proposal was selected by the USAF as the winning offer to replace part of the KC-135 fleet.[37][38] The aircraft will receive the designation KC-46A.[39] Boeing was also awarded a development contract to build, and deliver 18 initial operational KC-46 tankers by 2017.[40]

Operational history[edit]

Flight testing[edit]

A Japan Air Self Defense Force boom operator crewman simulates refueling an aircraft at Travis AFB.

On 23 January 2007, the KC-767 flight test aircraft set a program milestone by making its first hookup with a receiver aircraft, a Boeing B-52 Stratofortress. The "dry contact" transferred no fuel, but was intended to test the tanker's fifth-generation fly-by-wire telescoping boom. Unlike the KC-135 boom operator, who is prone, the KC-767 operator uses a remote station with a video display. The testing was being done at Edwards Air Force Base, and the test aircraft was destined for Italy once testing was complete.[41]

The KC-767 extended its air refueling boom and transferred fuel to another aircraft for the first time on 5 March 2007.[42] The tanker completed another test milestone on 12 April 2007 when its aircrew successfully extended and retracted both wing refueling hoses.[43] In November 2007, Boeing decided to shift modification work on the KC-767A tankers for Italy and Japan from subcontractor Aeronavali's facility in Italy to Boeing's Wichita facility in an effort to meet delivery schedules.[44]

Variants[edit]

KC-767A
Tanker variant of the 767-200 for the United States Air Force, order cancelled but four similar aircraft built for the Italian Air Force.
KC-767J
Designation for the KC-767A built for the Japan Air Self Defence Force, four built.
KC-46A
Tanker variant of the 767-2C for the United States Air Force.

Israeli tanker conversions[edit]

767 MMTT
Multi Mission Tanker Transport is a conversion of the Boeing 767 by Bedek Aircraft Division of Israeli Aerospace Industries (IAI).[45] The first 767 MMTT was converted in June 2010 with the addition of wing refueling pods, and a side cargo door. The variant can perform aerial tanker, cargo, and VIP transport duties.[46] The Colombian Air Force took delivery of one 767 MMTT in 2010.[45]
An IAI converted Boeing 767 operated by the Colombian Air Force
KC-X2
Boeing 767-300ER tanker conversions ordered from IAI by Brazilian Air Force under its KC-X2 program.[47][48]

Operators[edit]

 Italy
 Japan
 Brazil
 Colombia

Specifications (KC-767)[edit]

External image
Boeing KC-767 cutaway
Hi-res[dead link] cutaway of the Boeing KC-767A by Flight Global.

Data from KC-767A,[49] Boeing 767-200ER specifications[50]

General characteristics

Performance

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "USA rules out higher-risk EADS tanker proposal and opts for 767". Flight International. 9–15 April 2002. 
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-11. Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  3. ^ DoD 4120.15L, Model Designation of Military Aerospace Vehicles. US DoD, 12 May 2004.
  4. ^ Tirpak, John A. "100 Tankers". Air Force magazine, August 2003.
  5. ^ Tirpak, John A. "Tanker Twilight Zone". Air Force magazine, February 2004, Vol. 87, No. 2.
  6. ^ Pope, Charles. "Pentagon finalizes Boeing tanker deal". Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 7 November 2003.
  7. ^ Galloway, Joseph L. "Air Force Allowed Boeing to Rewrite Terms of Tanker Contract, Documents Show" Archived 2012-09-25 at the Wayback Machine.. commondreams.org, 28 March 2004.
  8. ^ Galloway, Joseph L. "Air Force Let Boeing Rewrite Contract". military.com, 31 March 2004.
  9. ^ Cahlink, George (1 October 2004). "Ex-Pentagon procurement executive gets jail time". Govexec.com. Retrieved 2006-12-21. 
  10. ^ Holmes, Stanley. "Boeing: What Really Happened". Business Week Online, December 15, 2003.
  11. ^ "Ex-Boeing CFO gets jail for tanker scandal". Chicago Tribune, February 18, 2005.
  12. ^ Majumdar, Dave. "Boeing wins KC-X tanker battle". AirForceTimes, 24 February 2011.
  13. ^ "Boeing, Italian MoD Sign Contract for 767 Tanker Transports" Archived 2011-06-28 at the Wayback Machine.. Boeing, 11 December 2002.
  14. ^ "Boeing Built First Italian Air Force KC-767 Tanker Makes First Flight" Archived 2007-02-03 at the Wayback Machine., Boeing, 21 May 2005.
  15. ^ "Italy KC-767 Tanker #2 Arrives in Naples for Modifications" Archived 2007-02-04 at the Wayback Machine.. Boeing, 6 May 2005.
  16. ^ Peruzzi. Luca. "Italian budget crunch threatens AMX fleet". Flight International, 8 April 2009.
  17. ^ "Italian Air Force Nicknames 1st Tanker 'I Have a Dream'". Defense News, 17 June 2009.
  18. ^ Kington, Tom. "Italian Air Force Receives 1st Tanker From Boeing"[permanent dead link]. Defense News, 27 January 2011.
  19. ^ Kington, Tom."Italy Enters First 2 Boeing Tankers Into Service". Defense News, 17 May 2011.
  20. ^ Sanchez, Felix and Marcello Bruni. "Boeing KC-767 Tankers for Italian Air Force Formally Enter into Service." Boeing, 17 May 2011.
  21. ^ Allport, Dave. "Italian Air Force KC-767As Pass 1,000 Flight Hours". Key Publishing via key.aero, 5 October 2011.
  22. ^ "Tanker used against Gadhafi". 
  23. ^ Boeing (January 5, 2012), Boeing Reports Fourth-Quarter Deliveries, Boeing 
  24. ^ Boeing, Japan Sign 767 Tanker Transport Contract Archived 2007-11-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Boeing
  25. ^ "Boeing Begins Conversion of Initial 767 To Tanker Standard For Italy". Defense Daily, 7 August 2003.
  26. ^ "First Boeing 767 Aircraft for Japan Tanker Program Arrives in Wichita" Archived 2007-02-10 at the Wayback Machine.. Boeing news release, 2005-06-08.
  27. ^ KC-767 tanker transport aircraft for delivery delays. Japan's MoD, 2007-07-30, translation
  28. ^ KC-767 tanker transport aircraft for delivery delays Archived 2007-10-01 at the Wayback Machine.. Japan's MoD, 2007-03-16, translation
  29. ^ "Boeing Delivers First KC-767 Tanker to Japan" Archived 2008-03-05 at the Wayback Machine.. Boeing, 19 February 2008.
  30. ^ "Boeing Delivers 2nd KC-767 Tanker to Japan" Archived 2008-10-20 at the Wayback Machine.. Boeing, 5 March 2008.
  31. ^ "Boeing KC-767J Aerial Refueling Tankers Join Active Air Wing in Japan". Boeing, 26 May 2009.
  32. ^ "Boeing Delivers 4th KC-767 Tanker to Japan Ministry of Defense". Boeing, 12 January 2010.
  33. ^ Senator Robert Hill Press Conference transcript, Australian Department of Defence, 16 April 2004.
  34. ^ Future Strategic Tanker Aircraft (FSTA) fact sheet Archived 2008-03-12 at the Wayback Machine., UK Ministry of Defence.
  35. ^ "Korea to Pick Aerial Refueling Tanker by Next Year". The Chosun Ilbo. 28 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013. 
  36. ^ https://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/airbus-beats-boeing-in-south-korean-tanker-competition-414161/
  37. ^ Trimble, Stephen (24 February 2011). "USAF selects Boeing for KC-X contract". Washington DC: Flightglobal. Retrieved 24 February 2011. 
  38. ^ Donna Cassata, Lolita C. Baldor. "Boeing gets $35 billion Air Force tanker order". Associated Press, 24 February 2011. Accessed: 26 February 2011.
  39. ^ "Boeing Wins $35B Air Force Tanker Deal". Bloomberg, 24 February 2011.
  40. ^ "Boeing Receives US Air Force Contract to Build Next-Generation Refueling Tanker". Boeing, 24 February 2011.
  41. ^ "KC-767 tanker completes first contact" Archived 2007-02-20 at the Wayback Machine.. Boeing news release, 24 January 2007.
  42. ^ Boeing KC-767 Tanker Completes First Fuel Offload to Receiver Archived 2007-03-28 at the Wayback Machine.
  43. ^ Boeing KC-767 Tanker extends wing refueling hoses for first time[permanent dead link]
  44. ^ Warwick, Graham (27 November 2007). "Boeing rejigs KC-767 modification, testing to meet schedule". Washington DC: Flightglobal. Retrieved 27 November 2007. 
  45. ^ a b IAIs Advanced 767 MMTT will also carry boom refueling system. defense-update.com
  46. ^ Egozi, Arie (9 June 2010). "IAI tests Colombia's new 767 tanker". Flight International. Retrieved 2 September 2011. 
  47. ^ "IAI wins Brazilian KC-X competition". UPI.com. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2013. 
  48. ^ a b "Brazil to add third converted 767 tanker". Flight International. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2015. 
  49. ^ a b "KC-767 International Tanker Backgrounder". Boeing. Archived August 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  50. ^ "767-200ER specifications". Boeing. archived

External links[edit]