Boeing P-8 Poseidon
|A P-8 flies over Chesapeake Bay in 2012|
|Role||Anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare and maritime patrol aircraft|
|National origin||United States of America|
|Manufacturer||Boeing Defense, Space & Security|
|First flight||25 April 2009|
|Primary users||United States Navy
|Number built||21 P-8A, and 8 P-8I aircraft as of Jan. 2015|
|Program cost||US$33.638 billion (by FY2013)|
|Developed from||Boeing 737 Next Generation|
The Boeing P-8 Poseidon (formerly the Multimission Maritime Aircraft or MMA) is a military aircraft developed for the United States Navy (USN). The aircraft has been developed by Boeing Defense, Space & Security, modified from the 737-800ERX.
The P-8 conducts anti-submarine warfare (ASW), anti-surface warfare (ASUW), and shipping interdiction, along with an electronic signals intelligence (ELINT) role. This involves carrying torpedoes, depth charges, Harpoon anti-ship missiles, and other weapons. It is able to drop and monitor sonobuoys. It is designed to operate in conjunction with the Northrop Grumman MQ-4C Triton Broad Area Maritime Surveillance unmanned aerial vehicle. The aircraft has been ordered by the Indian Navy as the P-8I Neptune, Royal Australian Air Force, and Royal Air Force.
- 1 Development
- 2 Design
- 3 Operational history
- 4 Variants
- 5 Operators
- 6 Specifications (P-8A)
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The Lockheed P-3 Orion, a turboprop ASW aircraft, has been in service with the United States Navy since 1962. In the 1980s, the Navy began studies for a P-3 replacement, the range and endurance of which was reducing due to increasing weight and airframe fatigue life limitations. The specification required a new aircraft to have reduced operating and support costs. In 1989, the Navy awarded Lockheed a fixed-price contract to develop the P-7, but this was canceled the following year. A second competition for a replacement began in 2000. Lockheed Martin submitted the Orion 21, an updated new-build version of the P-3. Boeing's proposal was based on its 737-800 airliner. BAE Systems offered a new-build version of the Nimrod MRA4, a British jet-powered maritime patrol aircraft. BAE withdrew from the competition in October 2002, recognizing that without a production partner based in the United States, the bid was politically unrealistic. On 14 May 2004, Boeing was selected as the winner.
In June 2004, the U.S. Navy awarded a development contract to Boeing. The project was planned to be for at least 108 airframes for the Navy. More orders are possible from the other nations operating over 200 P-3s. Project value is expected to be worth at least $15 billion. Raytheon, Northrop Grumman, Spirit AeroSystems, GE Aviation Systems, Marshall Aerospace and Defence Group, CFMI, BAE Systems, and Marotta are major subcontractors. In July 2004, the Navy placed an order for five MMA aircraft, and the first flight-test aircraft was to be completed in 2009. On 30 March 2005, the P-8A designation was assigned to the aircraft.
Design phase and testing
The P-8 is to replace the P-3 Orion. At first, it will be equipped with legacy P-3 systems, but later upgrades will incorporate more advanced technology. The Government Accountability Office credited the incremental approach with keeping the project on schedule and on budget. In 2008, the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) deleted the requirement for the P-8A to be equipped with magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) equipment as part of an effort that reduced weight by 3,500 lb (1,600 kg) to improve endurance and range. A hydrocarbon sensor detects fuel vapors from diesel-powered submarines and ships.
The P-8's first flight was on 25 April 2009. The second and third P-8s had flown and were in flight testing in early August 2010. On 11 August 2010, the US approved the P-8 for low-rate production. A P-8 released sonobuoys for the first time on 15 October 2010, dropping six sonobuoys in three separate low-altitude passes. In 2011, it was found that the P-8's ice detection system was defective due to the use of counterfeit components; allegedly these computer parts were poorly refurbished and sold to subcontractor BAE Systems as new by a Chinese supplier.
The first production P-8A was handed over to the Navy on 4 March 2012. It flew to Naval Air Station Jacksonville, Florida, for training with the Fleet Replacement Squadron (FRS), Patrol Squadron 30 (VP-30). On 24 September 2012, Boeing announced a $1.9 billion order for 11 aircraft. On 10 June 2013, a DoD Inspector General (IG) report noted that the Navy should delay full-rate production over a lack of key information to assess if the P-8 meets operational requirements. Additional testing was also needed to guarantee a 25-year lifespan. Boeing executives dismissed the report, saying that the test program is on track. In 2013, full-rate production was delayed until the P-8 could demonstrate it can survive its 25-year lifespan without structural fatigue, overcome mission-limited deficiencies, track surface ships, and perform primary missions.
On 24 June 2013, a P-8 successfully scored a direct hit with a live AGM-84D Block IC Harpoon anti-ship missile during weapons integration testing. On 1 July 2013, an initial operational test and evaluation (IOT&E) report found that the P-8A was "operationally effective, operationally suitable, and ready for fleet introduction." Six test and nine low-rate initial production aircraft had been delivered at that point. On 31 July 2013, Boeing received a $2.04 billion contract to build 13 P-8As in the fourth low-rate initial production lot, for a fleet of 37 aircraft by the end of 2016, and long-lead parts for 16 P-8As of the first full-rate production lot.
As of September 2013[update] it was intended to replace all Navy P-3s with 117 P-8As by 2019, but budget cuts may delay this by two years. On 3 January 2014, the Naval Air Systems Command proceeded with full-rate production of the P-8A. Increment 1 systems include persistent anti-submarine warfare capabilities and an integrated sensor suite; in 2016, Increment 2 upgrades will add multi-static active coherent acoustics, an automated identification system, and high-altitude anti-submarine weapons. Increment 3 in 2020 shall enable "net-enabled anti-surface warfare".
In July 2014, Fred Smith, business development director for the P-8, noted that the program had proved "so efficient, it saved $2.1 billion on 2004 estimates of the cost of production"; and that "the aircraft is now selling for $150 million, down from the forecasted $216 million". The halving of USN orders from 16 aircraft per year down to 8 in 2015 due to the expiration of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 was expected to be partially offset by commercial 737 sales and export sales of the P-8.
In 2010, Boeing proposed to replace the U.S. Air Force's Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint STARS fleet with a modified P-8 at the same cost Northrop Grumman proposed for re-engining and upgrading the E-8s. The proposed P-8 Airborne Ground Surveillance (AGS) would integrate an active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, and have ground moving target indicator (GMTI) and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) capabilities.
The main distinguishing feature of the P-8 AGS was a pod-mounted radar on the lower centerline of the fuselage; the pod is lowered so the engine nacelles do not interrupt the radar's line of sight. Two aft ventral fins increase aircraft stability. The P-8 AGS reused the P-8A's Raytheon AN/APY-10 multi-mission surface search radar. In 2010, the Air Force launched an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) of the JSTARS platform. In 2013, Boeing proposed repackaging P-8 systems in the smaller and less expensive Bombardier Challenger 600 series business jet, as the Boeing Maritime Surveillance Aircraft (MSA), instead. In 2014, Boeing also offered a JSTARS replacement based on the Boeing 737-700, rather than the P-8's 737-800.
The P-8 is a militarized version of the 737-800ERX, a 737-800 with 737-900-based wings. The fuselage is similar, but longer, than the 737-700-based C-40 Clipper transport aircraft in service with the U.S. Navy. The P-8 has a strengthened fuselage for low-altitude operations and Boeing 767-400ER-style raked wingtips, instead of the blended winglets available on 737NG variants. In order to power additional onboard electronics, the P-8 has a 180kVA electric generator on each engine, replacing the 90kVA generator of civilian 737s; this required the redesigning of the nacelles and their wing mountings. The P-8 has a smoother flight experience, subjecting crews to less turbulence and fumes than the preceding P-3, allowing them to focus better on missions.
The five operator stations (two naval flight officers plus three enlisted Aviation Warfare Operators/naval aircrewman) are mounted in a sideways row, along the port side of the cabin. None of the crew stations have windows; a single observer window is located on each side of the forward cabin. A short bomb bay for torpedoes and other stores opens behind the wing. The P-8 is to be equipped with the High Altitude Anti-Submarine Warfare Weapon Capability (HAAWC) Air Launch Accessory (ALA), turning a Mark 54 torpedo into a glide bomb for deploying from up to 30,000 ft (9,100 m).
The P-8 features the Raytheon APY-10 multi-mission surface search radar; the P-8I features an international version of the APY-10. Unlike the preceding P-3, the P-8 lacks a magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) due to its higher operational altitude; its acoustic sensor system is reportedly more effective at acoustic tracking and thus lacking a MAD won't impede its detection capabilities; India's P-8I is equipped with a MAD per the contract request. Various sensor data are combined via data fusion software to track targets. Following the cancellation of Lockheed Martin's Aerial Common Sensor project, Boeing proposed a signals intelligence variant of the P-8 for the Navy's requirement. During the P-8A Increment 2 upgrade in 2016, the APS-149 Littoral Surveillance Radar System (LSRS) will be replaced by the Advanced Airborne Sensor radar.
In U.S. service, the P-8 fleet will be complemented by around 40 MQ-4C Triton unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for the Broad Area Maritime Surveillance system to provide continuous surveillance. In January 2015, BAE Systems was awarded a contract for the Navy's High Altitude ASW (HAASW) Unmanned Targeting Air System (UTAS) program to develop a sub-hunting UAV equipped with a MAD for launching from the P-8. The P-8 cannot use the Navy's typical hose-and-drogue in-flight refueling method, instead featuring a flying boom receptacle on the upper-forward fuselage. For extended endurance, six additional fuel tanks from Marshall Aerospace are housed in the forward and rear cargo compartments.
In February 2012, the P-8 made its mission debut during "Bold Alligator" 2012, an annual littoral warfare exercise. In April 2012, it took part in Exercise Joint Warrior, flying out of RAF Lossiemouth. During RIMPAC 2012 in the Hawaiian area, two P-8As participated in 24 scenarios as part of Air Test and Evaluation Squadron One (VX-1) while forward deployed to Marine Corps Base Hawaii. On 29 November 2013, the P-8's inaugural deployment began when six aircraft and 12 air crews of squadron VP-16 departed its home station of NAS Jacksonville, Florida, for Kadena Air Base in Okinawa, Japan. This forward deployment with the U.S. Pacific Fleet was pre-planned as part of a regional re-balance, but occurred shortly after China's establishment of the East China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone, heightening tensions.
During exercises in 2012 and 2013, and an overseas deployment to Japan, the P-8 reportedly exhibited radar, sensor integration, and data transfer problems, leading to additional testing. In January 2014, the Pentagon's Director of Operational Test and Evaluation office called the P-8A "ineffective" for large area ISR and anti-submarine warfare missions, and said that the initial aircraft were not ready for deployment. The same report found that the P-8 was effective at the small-area search mission, and with much better range, speed, and reliability than older aircraft. Pentagon acquisition undersecretary Frank Kendall disputed the report, saying that although its findings are factual, it did not acknowledge future capability upgrades for anti-submarine and wider-area surveillance.
A second squadron, VP-5, completed its transition to the P-8 in August 2013 with its next overseas deployment slated for mid-2014. A third squadron, VP-45, began its transition to the Poseidon in July 2013. During mid-2014, a pair of P-8s were dispatched to Perth, Australia for two months as part of an international search for the missing Malaysia Airlines Flight 370. USN P-8s may routinely rotate through bases of allies. In September 2014, Malaysia offered the use of bases in Borneo for P-8s, but no flights have yet been approved.
On 19 August 2014, a Chinese J-11 fighter came within 30 feet of a P-8 around 135 miles east of Hainan Island. The J-11 flew past the P-8's nose and performed a barrel roll at close proximity. A Pentagon spokesperson said the J-11's unit had made close intercepts earlier that year. The U.S. sent a diplomatic note to China about the pattern of behavior by the commander of the Chinese fighter group. China stated that the claims were "totally groundless", and that the event's root was U.S. surveillance of China; the U.S. stated it will continue to operate in international airspace and waters.
On 7 December 2015, P-8s were deployed to Singapore to monitor the Southeast Asia region as part of a Defense Cooperation Agreement signed by the US and Singapore to enhance "cooperation between the two countries in fighting terrorism and piracy." China criticized the basing of P-8s in Singapore as "regional militarization by the U.S." The third detachment of two P-8s based in Paya Lebar Air Base, Singapore are involved in naval military drills conducted with the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) in July-August 2016.
In January 2008, Boeing proposed the P-8I, a customized export variant of the P-8A, for the Indian Navy. It features two major components not fitted on the P-8A, a Telephonics APS-143 OceanEye aft radar and a magnetic anomaly detector (MAD). On 4 January 2009, India's Ministry of Defence signed a US$2.1 billion agreement with Boeing for the supply of eight P-8Is to replace the Indian Navy's aging Tupolev Tu-142M maritime surveillance turboprops. India was the P-8's first international customer and was also Boeing's first military sale to India. In October 2010, India's Defence Acquisition Council approved the purchase of four additional P-8Is; this purchase is reportedly under consideration as of 2014. In 2011, India planned to order 12 more P-8Is at a later date. In July 2016, it was confirmed India had ordered another four P-8Is that will be delivered by 2020.
The Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) Data Link II communications allows the P-8I to exchange tactical data between Indian Navy aircraft, ships and shore establishments. The P-8I features an integrated BEL-developed IFF system. India has purchased AGM-84L Harpoon Block II Missiles and Mk 54 All-Up-Round Lightweight Torpedoes for the P-8I. In July 2012, Boeing began flight testing of the P-8I. On 19 December 2012, the first P-8I was handed over to an Indian naval team at Boeing's Seattle facility. The Indian Navy inducted its first P-8I on 15 May 2013. The second and third P-8Is were received on 16 and 22 November 2013 respectively. The aircraft are based at INS Rajali, in Tamil Nadu. In 2014, several Indian Navy P-8Is conducted search operations for the missing Malaysia Airlines Flight 370. The fourth, fifth and sixth aircraft was delivered in May, September and November 2014 respectively. The seventh and eight aircraft were delivered in February and November 2015 respectively. Indian Navy inducted the first squadron in November 2015.
Foreign involvement and potential exports
The U.S. Department of Defense wants to follow a program template for the P-8 similar to that of the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program, with international cooperation from prospective MMA users.
On 20 July 2007, the Australian Minister for Defence announced selection of the P-8A MMA as the preferred aircraft to replace the Royal Australian Air Force fleet of Lockheed AP-3C Orions in conjunction with a yet-to-be-selected unmanned aerial vehicle. The last AP-3C is scheduled to be retired in 2018, after nearly 30 years of service. In March 2009, Australia's Chief of Air Force stated that subject to government approval, the RAAF would begin to introduce the P-8 in 2016. In October 2012, Australia formalized its participation with a commitment of A$73.9m (US$81.1m) in an agreement with the USN. In July 2013, Air Marshal Geoff Brown, head of the RAAF, said Australia was considering purchasing more P-8s and fewer MQ-4C Triton UAVs than earlier planned. On 21 February 2014, Prime Minister Tony Abbott announced Australia's intention to procure eight P-8s plus options for four more; entry into service is planned for 2021.
In July 2014, negotiations commenced between Boeing and the Department of Defense for integration of the AGM-84 Harpoon Block 1G anti-ship missile onto the P-8A on behalf of Australia, which is reportedly a matter of interfacing with the aircraft's combat system software. In August 2014, the US Navy had reportedly concluded an advanced acquisition contract on the first four of up to 12 P-8As to be purchased by Australia, with delivery expected from 2017. Boeing confirmed that "production of the first Australian P-8A will begin later in 2015, with delivery to the RAAF scheduled for 2016." In January 2016, Australia ordered a further four P-8s. The 2016 Defence White Paper stated that eight P-8s would be in service in early 2020s and that 15 P-8s are planned to be in service by the late 2020s. On 19 July 2016, the US DoD announced Boeing's award of a $100 million contract for the next tranche of four P-8As, with completion projected for June 2017. Including support facilities, the first tranche of eight aircraft's total cost is estimated at $3.6 billion (AU$4 billion).
In August 2012, it was reported that Boeing saw the United Kingdom as a market for the P-8, following the cancellation of Nimrod MRA4. On 23 November 2015, the UK announced its intention to order nine P-8 aircraft as part of the Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015. The aircraft are to be based at RAF Lossiemouth, Scotland and be used to protect the UK's nuclear deterrent and new aircraft carriers, as well as to perform search-and-rescue and overland reconnaissance missions.
On 25 March 2016, the U.S. State Department approved a proposed Foreign Military Sale to the UK for up to nine P-8 aircraft and associated support, at an estimated cost of $3.2 billion. The Royal Air Force plans to operate the P-8 with U.S. weapons initially, and possibly transition to British weapons later. It is unclear whether the UK will have access to future ground-surveillance capabilities developed for the P-8. On 11 July 2016, Boeing announced that the signing of a procurement contract with the Royal Air Force for nine P-8 aircraft and support infrastructure at a cost of $3.87 billion (£3 billion). Manufacture will be spread across three production lots over a ten year period, with deliveries commencing in 2019.
Italy indicated interest in purchasing MMA aircraft, with fleet support provided by Alitalia in 2004. However, in December 2008, Italy announced the purchase of four ATR 72 turboprop aircraft to replace its aging Atlantic Maritime Patrol Aircraft, possibly as a temporary solution because Italy remained interested in the P-8.
In March 2014, Norwegian newspaper Dagbladet reported that the Norwegian Navy is looking at possibly leasing the aircraft from Boeing. The Navy has six P-3 Orions and is having increasing difficulty keeping them operational. In June 2016, Norwegian newspaper Verdens Gang reported that the Norwegian government has in its long-term plan for Norwegian defense will buy four new surveillance aircraft. The government did not mention a specific aircraft type, but the main option is the P-8 Poseidon.
Turkey indicated that it is planning to acquire a new MMA aircraft to supplement existing aircraft with the P-8A being the main candidate based on the required operational performance.
- P-8A Poseidon – Production variant for the U.S. Navy
- P-8I Neptune – Export variant for the Indian Navy.
- P-8 AGS – An Airborne Ground Surveillance variant proposed to the United States Air Force in 2010 as an alternate to upgrades to the Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint STARS fleet. Its design adds a pod-mounted, active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar on the bottom of the fuselage.
- Royal Australian Air Force - 8 P-8As on order. Australia approved the acquisition of four more P-8As in March 2016.
- United States Navy – to acquire 122 aircraft. 28 P-8s were delivered through August 2015.
- Crew: Flight: two; Mission: seven
- Length: 129 ft 5 in (39.47 m)
- Wingspan: 123 ft 6 in (37.64 m)
- Height: 42 ft 1 in (12.83 m)
- Empty weight: 138,300 lb (62,730 kg)
- Useful load: 19,800+ lb (9,000+ kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 189,200 lb (85,820 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × CFM56-7B turbofan, 27,000 lbf (120 kN) each
- Maximum speed: 490 knots (907 km/h, 564 mph)
- Cruise speed: 440 kn (815 km/h, 509 mph)
- Combat radius: 1,200 nmi (2,222 km) ; 4 hours on station (for anti-submarine warfare mission)
- Ferry range: 4,500 nautical miles (8,300 km) ()
- Service ceiling: 41,000 ft (12,496 m)
- 5 internal and 6 external stations for AGM-84H/K SLAM-ER, AGM-84 Harpoon, Mark 54 torpedo, missiles, mines, torpedoes, bombs, and a High Altitude Anti-Submarine Warfare Weapon system
- Raytheon APY-10 multi-mission surface search radar
- (Advanced Airborne Sensor surface search radar and SIGINT package to be follow on system)
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- "Boeing P-8A Poseidon successfully completes 1st flight." Boeing, 27 April 2009.
- Majumdar, Dave. "Picture: Boeing delivers first production P-8A." Flight International, 8 March 2012.
- "P-8 Poseidon". Boeing.com. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- "GAO-13-294SP DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs" (PDF). US Government Accountability Office. March 2013. pp. 103–4. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- "United States Department Of Defense Fiscal Year 2015 Budget Request Program Acquisition Cost By Weapon System" (pdf). Office Of The Under Secretary Of Defense (Comptroller)/ Chief Financial Officer. March 2014. p. 24.
- "Budget Line Item Justification: PB 2016 Navy" (pdf). February 2015.
- Bailey, John (1–7 August 1990). "Lockheed loses to Survive". Flight International. 138 (4227). Sutton, Surrey, England: Reed Business Publishing Group. pp. 20–21. ISSN 0015-3710. Retrieved 27 March 2014. "page 21".
- "Boeing 737 MMA." Flug Revue, 17 June 2004.
- Cortes, Lorenzo and Amy Butler. "Boeing wins Navy's $3.88 Billion MMA bid over Lockheed Martin." Defense Daily, 15 June 2004.
- Lewis, Paul. "BAE pulls out of MMA competition; Lack of US partner prompts Nimrod MRA4 withdrawal." Flight International, 8 October 2002, p. 5. Retrieved: 6 December 2006.
- LeMond-Holman, Ellen et al. "Boeing team wins $3.89 Billion multi-mission Maritime Aircraft Program." Boeing, 14 May 2004. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
- "Boeing to develop Navy's multi-mission maritime aircraft." U.S. Navy, 15 June 2004. Retrieved: 7 June 2011.
- Lemond, Ellen, Chick Ramey and Debiie Gann. "Boeing-led Poseidon team begins production of first P-8A fuselage." Boeing, 12 December 2007. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
- Hatcher, Renee. "MMA is designated P-8A." U.S. Navy Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), 1 April 2005. Retrieved: 7 June 2011.
- Freedberg, Sydney J. Jr. "Navy's P-8 Sub Hunter Bets On High Altitude, High Tech; Barf Bags Optional." AOL Defense, 2 October 2012.
- GAO-09-326SP "Assessments of major weapon programs." GAO. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
- Ramey, Chick and Doug Abbotts. "Boeing P-8A Poseidon aircraft T3 enters flight test." Boeing, 2 August 2010.
- Trimble, Stephen. "Boeing P-8A approved to launch production." Flight International, 13 August 2010. Retrieved: 28 September 2011.
- "P-8A Poseidon milestone reached." AirForces Monthly, 13 August 2010.
- Goettee, Liz. "U.S. Navy Boeing P-8A Poseidon launches first sonobuoys." Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 22 October 2010. Retrieved: 7 June 2011.
- Reed, John. "Counterfeit Parts found on the P-8." defensetech.org, 8 November 2011. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
- ""Boeing Receives $1.9 Billion Contract for 11 P-8A Poseidon Aircraft." Boeing, 24 September 2012.
- Audit: Submarine Hunter Needs ‘Critical’ Testing - Defensetech.org, 12 July 2013
- Boeing Dismisses Pentagon’s P-8 Poseidon Audit - Defensetech.org, 17 June 2013
- McGarry, Brendan. "Navy P-8 Deal Tops $17 Billion in July Awards." Dodbuzz.com, 6 August 2013.
- P-8 Poseidon fires first Harpoon anti-ship missile - Flightglobal.com, 9 July 2013
- P-8A judged ready for fleet introduction - Flightglobal.com, 9 July 2013
- Boeing receives $2bn contract to build 13 P-8As - Flightglobal.com, 1 August 2013
- Greenert, Admiral Jonathan (18 September 2013). "Statement Before The House Armed Services Committee On Planning For Sequestration In FY 2014 And Perspectives Of The Military Services On The Strategic Choices And Management Review" (pdf). US House of Representatives. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
- Troubled P-8A Poseidon enters full production Navytimes.com, 27 January 2014.
- Norris, Guy (24 April 2014). "Increasing P-8A Capability". Penton. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- "Boeing Sees UK C-17 Lease as Model for P-8". Defense News. 15 July 2014.
- Hemmerdinger, Jon (9 April 2014). "Reduced P-8 buy to affect price, not fleet plan". www.flightglobal.com. Reed Business Information. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
- Rector, Gene. "Uncertainty, perseverance characterized local joint STARS mission." The Warner Robins Patriot, 4 March 2011.
- Trimble, Stephen. "Boeing pitches P-8 variant to replace JSTARS." Flight International, 18 February 2010.
- "Overview: P-8 airborne ground surveillance." Boeing. Retrieved: 3 February 2012.
- Cohen, Aubrey. "Boeing looks to sell more 737-based military jets." Seattle PI, 9 June 2011.
- "Joint STARS mission area analysis of alternatives (AoA) RFI." hanscom.af.mil. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
- "Maritime Surveillance Aircraft: Boeing selects a Bombardier 'Bizjet', the Challenger 605, as the preferred airframe for its proposed MSA". Canadian American Strategic Review. July 2013.
- Boeing Eyes 737-700 Solution for New JSTARS - Defensenews.com, 12 September 2014
- "B-8A Poseidon: Overview." Boeing. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
- "FARNBOROUGH 2008: Boeing 737 embarks on its Poseidon adventure". Flight Global, 15 July 2008.
- Warwick, Graham. "New MMA wingtips combat icing." Flight International, 7 June 2005. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
- Reed Business Information Limited. "CUTAWAY: P-8A Poseidon - A Boeing with boost of bravado". flightglobal.com.
- Navy’s P-8 Sub Hunter Bets On High Altitude, High Tech; Barf Bags Optional - Breakingdefense.com, 2 October 2012
- BAE Systems to develop MAD ASW drone to help Navy P-8A find submarines from high altitudes Militaryaerospace.com, 14 January 2015.
- "AN/APY-10 maritime, littoral and overland surveillance radar." Raytheon, 2011.
- "Raytheon to develop international version of APY-10 radar for P-8I." Theasiandefence.blogspot.com, 18 July 2010. Retrieved: 13 March 2011.
- Navy: P-8A’s Acoustic Sensor System Twice as Effective as the P-3’s - Seapowermagazine.org, 14 April 2015
- How The Navy's Latest Anti-Submarine Aircraft Sees Under The Waves - Businessinsider.com, 27 November 2014
- "Boeing: P-8A Poseidon". boeing.com.
- Wastnage, Justin. "Boeing unveils new 737 signals intelligence concept." Flight International, 26 January 2006. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
- Boeing P-8A Begins Advanced Airborne Sensor Testing - Defense-Update.com, 17 April 2014
- Cavas, Christopher P. "P-8A makes debut in 'Bold Alligator' exercise." Navy Times, 7 February 2012.
- Crowther, Stuart. "Senior RAF officer reveals MoD may be considering Nimrod replacement." STV Local, 18 April 2012.
- "VX-1 flies P-8 Poseidon during RIMPAC 2012 (NNS120729-04)." RIMPAC Public Affairs, 29 July 2012.
- "Poseidon's inaugural deployment starts Friday". Navy Times. 27 November 2013.
- Brewan, Bob. "Navy Deploys High Tech Surveillance Jets in East Asia" DefenseOne.com, 3 December 2013.
- "Navy P-8A Surveillance Planes Deploy to Tense Pacific". DoDBuzz.com, 3 December 2013
- Boeing Surveillance Plane Found Not Effective for Mission - Bloomberg.com, 23 January 2014
- Capaccio, Tony (23 January 2014). "Boeing Surveillance Plane Not Yet Effective, U.S. Tester Finds". Bloomberg News. Bloomberg L.P.
- Cenciotti, David (25 January 2014). "The Navy's $35-Billion Surveillance Plane Has Lots of Flaws". medium.com. War is Boring.
- Top Weapons Buyer Disputes P-8 Testing Woes - DoDBuzz.com, 28 January 2014
- "Welcome to Navy Forces Online Public Sites". navy.mil.
- Schogol, Jeff (13 March 2014). "Navy adjusts effort in search for missing Malaysian airliner". Gannett Government Media. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- Poseidon completes debut deployment - Militarytimes.com, 2 August 2014
- Shalal-Esa, Andrea and Eveline Danubrata. "U.S. Navy may station ships in Singapore, Philippines." Reuters, 16 December 2011.
- "U.S. says Malaysia offers to host spy planes that irk China". Reuters, 13 September 2014.
- Cohen, Tom (22 August 2014). "'Aggressive' Chinese fighter jet flies dangerously close to U.S. Navy plane". CNN. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.
- Whitlock, Craig (22 August 2014). "Pentagon: China tried to block U.S. military jet in dangerous mid-air intercept". Washington Post. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
Fisher Jr, Richard D (26 August 2014). "Chinese J-11BH 'aggressive' with USN P-8A, says DoD". IHS Janes 360. IHS.
- Burns, Robert; Baldor, Lolita C. (22 August 2014). "Pentagon Cites 'Dangerous' Chinese Jet Intercept". ABC News. ABC News Internet Ventures. Associated Press.
- Lubold, Gordon (22 August 2014). "Call Sign 'Rogue': Pentagon Says One Chinese Commander Responsible for Spate of Air Confrontations". Foreign Policy.
Tilghman, Andrew (2 September 2014). "Chinese jet's run-in with P-8 seen as pattern". Army Times. Gannett.
- "China urges U.S. to stop close-in surveillance". Xinhua. Xinhua News Agency. 23 August 2014.
Hutzler, Charles (23 August 2014). "Beijing Denies Fighter Flew Dangerously Close to U.S. Patrol Plane". Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, Inc.
- Gertz, Bill (26 August 2014). "Pentagon: No Plan to Reduce Spy Flights". Washington Free Beacon.
- "US P-8 spy plane deployed to Singapore." BBC News
- "US to deploy Poseidon spy plane amid South China Sea territory tensions". The Guardian. 7 December 2015.
- "China Decries US P-8 Deployment in Singapore as 'Regional Militarization'." The Diplomat, 9 December 2015.
- Post, The Jakarta. "US spy planes deployed in Singapore till next month for exercises".
- Pandit, Rajat. "India eyes $2b defence deal with US." The Times of India, 29 January 2008.
- "Indian Navy pleased with P-8I performance on first op deployment". SP's Aviation. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
- Pandit, Rajat. "India inks largest-ever defence deal with US." The Times of India, 5 January 2009.
- "India, US to ink arms deal worth Rs 10,700 crore." Rediff News, 17 March 2012.
- Ratnam, Gopal and Edmond Lococo. "Boeing to sell eight reconnaissance planes to India." Bloomberg, 6 January 2009.
- "Rs 20,000-cr booster for Navy's sea lift, snooping capabilities." The Times of India, 6 October 2010.
- Raman, P.K. "Navy stamps blue Water presence across IOR, bolsters capacity with induction of MiG-29k, INS Shivalik." India: Press Information Bureau English Releases, 2010.
- "Navy gets 6th maritime patrol plane, likely to order four more". indiatimes.com. PTI. 24 November 2014.
- Luthra, Gulshan. "Indian Navy to induct 24 Boeing P8-I maritime reconnaissance aircraft." India Strategic, December 2011.
- "P-8i: India's Navy Picks its Future High-End Maritime Patrol Aircraft." Defense Industry Daily, 26 January 2014.
- DiMascio, Jen (28 July 2016). "India Orders Four More P-8I Aircraft". Defense News.
- "Boeing gets equipment from BEL for Indian Navy aircraft." Deccan Herald, 12 May 2012.
- "Boeing to use BEL designed Datalink-II." The Siasat Diary, 12 May 2010.
- "BEL supplies P-8I aircraft equipment to Boeing." The Hindu, 23 December 2010.
- "Indian Navy gets its most sophisticated system yet in P8-I Maritime Aircraft". India Strategic, January 2013.
- "Боинг" начал программу летных испытаний первого самолета БПА Р-8I "Нептун" ВМС Индии: Boeing launched the first aircraft flight test program BKA p-8I "Neptune" Indian Navy (in Russian)." flotprom, 13 July 2012.
- "Navy gets first long-range maritime reconnaissance aircraft." The Times of India. Retrieved: 9 January 2013.
- "Indian Navy Anti-submarine aircraft." India Today. Retrieved: 9 January 2013.
- "Navy Inducts Boeing Poseidon-8I to Tighten Coastal Security". TimesofIndia.com, 15 May 2013.
- "Boeing Delivers 3rd P-8I to India". Boeing. 22 November 2013.
- "Indian Navy receives second P8I maritime patrol aircraft". The Economic Times, 16 November 2013.
- "Indian Navy receives second P8I maritime patrol aircraft". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 16 November 2013.
- "Navy scouring area size of UK". The Hindustan Times. 15 March 2014.
- "Boeing Delivers Fourth P-8I Aircraft To Indian Air Force". Defense World. 23 May 2014.
- "Navy gets 6th maritime patrol plane, likely to order four more". The Times of India. 24 November 2014.
- Diplomat, Franz-Stefan Gady. "India Inducts First Squadron of Anti-Submarine Warfare Plane". The Diplomat. Retrieved 2016-06-05.
- "India clears defense deals worth $4.7 billion, buys four Boeing spy planes". Reuters. 14 July 2015.
- Baglole, Joel. "P-8 Poseidon: Future aircraft of the U.S. Navy." About.com, 7 June 2011.
- "First pass approval for Orion replacement." The Hon. Dr Brendan Nelson, Minister for Defence, 20 July 2007. Retrieved: 16 September 2007.
- "Asia Pacific: Avalon 2009: Australia looks set to join P-8 programme." Jane's. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
- "Address to the Air Power Conference." Minister of Defence (Australia), 10 May 2012. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
- Waldron, Greg. "Australia signs A$73.9m deal to participate in P-8A development." Flight International, 5 October 2012.
- "Australia plans to procure more P-8 Poseidon MPA than planned, reducing MQ-4C Triton UAS order" - Airrecognition.com, 18 July 2013.
- "New Poseidon aircraft on the way". AAP. 26 August 2014.
- "Abbott government to spend $4b on new patrol aircraft". Canberra Times. 21 February 2014.
- "Australia pushes for Harpoon integration on P-8As." Flightglobal.com, 29 July 2014.
- "USN contracts for first four Australian P-8As." Flightglobal.com, 27 August 2014.
- "Navy Issues Boeing $1.49B P-8A Contract Includes Australia's First 4 Planes, 9 for U.S.". USNI News. 28 August 2015.
- "Boeing secures deal for 20 US and Australian P-8 Poseidons". flightglobal.com. 29 January 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- 2016 Defence White Paper (PDF). Australia: Commonwealth of Australia. 2016. pp. 87, 94. ISBN 978-0-9941680-5-4.
- "Boeing to Produce 4 Anti-Submarine Warfare Planes for Australia". The Diplomat. 24 July 2016.
- "UK eyes maritime surveillance aircraft." AirForces Monthly, August 2012, p. 5.
- Osborne, Anthony (12 September 2013). "U.K. Maritime Patrol Capability Re-Enters The Fray". Aviation Week.
- "PM pledges £178 billion investment in defence kit". UK Ministry of Defence. 23 November 2015.
- "National Security Strategy and Strategic Defence and Security Review" (PDF). UK Ministry of Defence. 23 November 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- "U.K. To Buy 138 F-35s, Will Boost Fighter Squadrons". Aviation Week. 23 November 2015.
- "United Kingdom – P-8A Aircraft and Associated Support". Defense Security Cooperation Agency. 25 March 2016.
- "US, UK Still Discussing Anti-Sub Gap Options". Defense News. 19 April 2016.
- "U.K. Strives To Become More Reliable Defense Partner". Aviation Week. 26 November 2015.
- "Boeing agrees surveillance aircraft deal with UK". Financial Times. 12 July 2016.
- Hotten, Russell (11 July 2016). "Boeing signs £3bn deal for nine marine patrol planes". BBC News.
- "U.S. MMA decision reverberates in Italy". Aviation Week & Space Technology, 21 June 2004.
- "Eyes Forward: Italy choses ATR 72s for sea surveillance, but still awaits UAV type selection". Aviation Week and Space Technology, 15 December 2008. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
- Cenciotti, David. "Four ATR72MP to replace the ageing Italian fleet of Br.1150 Atlantic." The Aviationist, 22 December 2008.
- Alegi, G. Dedalonews "Quattro ATR 72 da pattugliamento marittimo" (in Italian). l’Aeronautica Militare, 12 December 2008. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
- "Norge vurderer å lease overvåkningsfly fra USA". Dagbladet.no.
- "Regjeringens plan: Slik blir det nye Forsvaret". vg.no.
- "Farnborough News: P-8 Program already looking into crystal ball." Defense News. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
- "Boeing identifies 14 nations for P-8A exports". Flight Global, 18 June 2008.
- Burak Ege Bekdil (May 25, 2016). "Turkish Navy Mulls Buying Long-Range Patrol Aircraft". Defense News. Retrieved May 30, 2016.
- Hoyle, Craig. "Picture: India's first 737-based P-8I nears flight debut." Flight, 21 September 2011. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
- Carey, Bill. "U.S. Navy Awards Second P-8 Full-Rate Production Contract". AINonline, 28 August 2015. Retrieved: 9 October 2015.
- "Second batch of four P-8s for the RAAF approved". australianaviation.com.au. Australian Aviation. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
- DiMascio, Jen (28 July 2016). "India Orders Four More P-8I Aircraft". Defense News. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- "Boeing signs £3bn deal for nine marine patrol planes". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
- Moran, Captain Michael T. "P-8A Poseidon." NAVAIR – U.S. Navy Naval Air Systems Command – Navy and Marine Corps Aviation Research, Development, Acquisition, Test and Evaluation. Retrieved: 29 August 2012.
- Eckstein, Megan (August 28, 2015). "Navy Issues Boeing $1.49B P-8A Contract Includes Australia's First 4 Planes, 9 for U.S.". U.S. Naval Institute. USNI News.
- "P-8A Multi-mission maritime aircraft." United States Navy, 25 January 2007. Retrieved: 15 March 2011.
- "P-8A Poseidon fires Harpoon, hits mark". NAVAIR News. Naval Air Systems Command. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "P-8A Poseidon". Boeing. Retrieved: 6 July 2007.
- Royal Australian Air Force. "P-8A Poseidon". airforce.gov.au. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- "P-8A Poseidon". Boeing. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- "US Navy to start P-8 operational tests in the summer". Flightglobal.com
- Conway, Thais C. "Raytheon secures prime development contract for advanced airborne sensor." Raytheon, 31 July 2009. Retrieved: 12 September 2012.
- Endres, Günter (2001). The Illustrated Directory of Modern Commercial Aircraft. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing. ISBN 0-7603-1125-0.
- Norris, Guy; Wagner, Mark (1999). Modern Boeing Jetliners. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint. ISBN 0-7603-0717-2.
- Shaw, Robbie (1999). Boeing 737-300 to 800. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing. ISBN 0-7603-0699-0.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Boeing P-8 Poseidon.|