Boeing Phantom Works

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Boeing Phantom Works
Operating Division
Industry Aerospace and Advanced Research and Development
Founded by McDonnell Douglas
Headquarters St. Louis, Missouri, United States
Key people
Darryl Davis (President)[1]
Number of employees
2,600
Parent The Boeing Company
Website www.boeing.com

Phantom Works is a division of Boeing specifically involved in research and development (R & D), including prototyping, of advanced military technologies.[2]

History[edit]

The division Phantom Works is in some respect a continuation of Advanced Systems and Technology - Phantom Works (New Aircraft Products Division, otherwise known as Phantom Works [3]) group of McDonnell Douglas corporation, since the purchase of the corporation by Boeing during 1997.[4][5] An announcement of an intended merger was made on December the 15th 1996.[6] The division Advanced Systems and Technology-Phantom Works had been in prior planning, to be established within the future, during 1995.[7] Boeing had had a more active role within military affairs since the end of World War II. The presidency of Harry S. Truman, when the U.S. Air Force sought to engage the company in issues of military concern, and the military-industrial complex (D.D. Eisenhower) which later formed within Seattle, promoted the production interests of the company for the purposes of defense during the Cold War.[8]

Phantom works functioned from sometime early in its inception to:

1. - provide technologies to businesses within (internal to) the company.[9][10]

2.- "develop governmental-funded advanced systems for the military side of Boeing" that would be subsequently transferred to the responsibility of "Integrated Defense Systems" for full production.[10]

Scope and responsibility[edit]

Organization[edit]

Employees[edit]

According to information current as of 2015, Phantom Works has about 2,700 employees situated at various locations on the Earth.[11] The work-force, amongst other capacities, includes corporate members, program managers and engineers.[12]

The Seal beach location had 438 employees within it, for the year 2010.[13]

Presidencies and vice-presidencies[edit]

Darryl Davis is the current president (2015).[14]

David O. Swain was president of the division during 2010.[15]

Robert Krieger was president and also chief technology officer during 2006.[10]

Alan Wiechman was vice president during 2014. Projects he worked on included production of the Lockheed Have Blue, F-117 Nighthawk, Sea Shadow and Bird of prey.[16]

A. Logan was at some time responsible for the Works, later joining Armour Designs, Inc. - Scorpion Works (also R & D).[17]

Dr David Whelan was at some time Vice President-General Manager and Deputy to the president.[18]

Structure[edit]

Phantom Works is a smaller part of the larger Defense, Space & Security.[11] Phantom Works' organization mirrors that of Boeing's Defense business units, with 'Advanced' versions of each unit (e.g. Advanced Boeing Military Aircraft). The underlying technology is provided by the Boeing Research and Technology (BR&T) organization, who develop new technologies (i.e. Technology Readiness Level 1-4) for use by Boeing's Commercial and Defense units. Phantom Works responsibility is to grow those technologies into prototype (i.e. Technology Readiness Level 4-6) to then transition those prototypes to the business units to turn into products (i.e. Technology Readiness Level 7-9).

Division & Units[edit]

Division: Advanced Aircraft Programs - includes within it, the Aircraft Protection Group. Chantal Joubert was manager of this group (1998).[19]

Advanced Precision Engagement and Mobility Systems - is a business element. Darryl Davis was at some time vice-president of this.[20]

Advanced Vehicle Systems Technology [21]

Air vehicle advanced design - Charles L. Guthrie was at some time director (2006) [22]

Engineering and Technology - Daryl Pelc was Vice President of Engineering and Technology from 2007, to at least 2012.[23] An Engineering, Operations and Technology organization was created during June 2006.[10] Don Winter was vice-president of engineering and information technology during 2008.[24]

Human-Systems Integration is based within Seattle. This group was at some time involved in the development of the Multimission Maritime Aircraft.[25] Jeffrey Erickson was at some time (prior to September 2006) manager of this unit.[26]

Integrated Defense Advanced Systems (IDeAS) - was made a part of Defense, Space & Security instead, from 2005 onwards.[10]

Mathematics and Computing Technology (M & CT). [27]

Product development - Stuart Voboril holds directorship of Product development during 2015.[28]

Strategic Development & Analysis - for the period 2005 - 2008 (and not limited to) retired US Air Force Major General Dick Paul was Vice-president.[29][30] The role of this unit is to "identify U.S. government technology initiatives that align with Boeing's advanced research and development efforts, help capture associated government R&D contracts, and shape future government technology initiatives." [30]

Strategy, Experimentation and Ventures - [31] includes the previous unit Phantom Works Ventures, which operates with the aim of the production of new business opportunities for the Boeing-wing, Defence Space and Security. Ventures is based within the @4240 building within Cortex innovation district,[32] within St Louis.[33] Timothy Noonan was vice president of Boeing’s Phantom Works Ventures until June 2015.[32] Ventures was amalgamated to Strategy & Experimentation sometime about June 2015.[34] Tracey Cowan held directorship of Strategy, Experimentation and Ventures during October 2015.[31]

Survivability Design and Integration - includes work on aircraft susceptibility reduction technology (Don Bingaman) [35]

Unmanned systems rapid prototyping and advanced concepts - Charles L. Guthrie was at some time director (2006) [22]

Virtual Warfare Center - U.S. Defense Secretary Ash Carter visited the center sometime circa September 2015.[36]

Locations[edit]

Originally headquartered in St Louis, Phantom Works has subsequently re-located to Seattle.[4] McDonnell Douglas corporation already had a site located at St Louis prior to being bought by Boeing.[31][37]

Boeing Phantom Works is also located at Seal Beach, Orange County, California.[38] A site within California was located at Huntington Beach, Orange County, during 2004.[39][40] A site located at Long Beach, California during 2001.[41] Huntington Beach were accorded black budget projects by Boeing for the Pentagon (Peterson 2015).[42] McDonnell Douglas corporation already had a site located at Huntington Beach prior to being bought by Boeing.[7][37]

Additionally an international group does modelling and simulation work for governments of the United States,[43] Britain,[44] and India.[45]

A new Phantom Works was based within Australia, circa 11 March 2008.[46]

Internal design[edit]

DLR group internally designed 276,000 square feet (ft2) of the Works, a project they completed during 2006.[47]

Activities[edit]

According to a 2007 publication, Phantom Works at the time of the publication date, was partnered to the then four business units of Boeing (these being: Boeing Capital Corporation, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Connexion, and Integrated Defense Systems, the latter (IDS) now known as Boeing Defense, Space & Security.[48][49] The Works is reputed for involving itself with so-called black projects.[50]

Product creation and development[edit]

Boeing Phantom Works creates and advances new products and capabilities by drawing on its expertise in innovation, advanced experimentation, and prototyping.

— website of Boeing [51]

Products are developed through a process of "analysis, 3-D modeling, simulation and real world experimentation".[52]

Within a structure initiated during April 2015, oriented to a so-called create-develop-produce-support directive, the Works were made responsible for all of the productions (inc. simulations) within Boeing of the proceeding generation.[53]

A Near Field Test Facility is used to test Radar cross-section of aircraft parts, models, and actual products. The facility was designed by The Howland Company.[54]

Business position[edit]

See also: Market opportunity, Business, Company

Boeing Phantom Works addresses emerging market opportunities to capture vital new business that will enhance Boeing Defense, Space & Security's core and extend the company's presence in new and untraditional frontiers.

— website of Boeing [55]

October 2005, Phantom Works provided members to a group including also persons from the then IDS to form a SBIR council.[56] According to a 2007 source, Phantom Works is responsible for most of Boeings' engagement with small firms through the fact of the Works being the group within Boeing primarily involved in Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR).[57][58]

External Activities[edit]

Personnel[edit]

Two members of the Works were attendants of an August 2000 meeting of the International Aircraft Systems Fire Suppression working group.[59]

Dr. Harwood (International Strategy and Business Development) was due to speak at the 25 and 26 February 2015 Defence Innovation and Technology Conference hosted by the Abu Dhabi Technology Development Committee.[60]

Mr. Geery and Dr. Arnott spoke August 6, 2015 at the Royal Australian Airforce Plan JERICHO Design-Led Innovation seminar hosted by the Williams Foundation .[61]

Collaboration[edit]

Washington University in St. Louis announced, by an online publication dated to August the 19th 2015, their Skandalaris Center for Interdisciplinary Innovation and Entrepreneurship would enter into a term of partnership with Phantom Works Ventures [62]

2015 Projects[edit]

T-X program[edit]

During June 2015 the organisation were working with Saab Group on the T-X program,[53] and T-X trainer (September 2015).[63] Darryl Davis declined to say whether the Saab T-X would fly when asked by Flight Global during the week ending December 20, 2015.[64]

Long-range Strike Bomber[edit]

A new Long range strike-bomber, the division is utilizing the Black Diamond manufacturing concept to improve productivity for this project.[36][65] The programme is reportedly worth more than $80 billion.[66]

Talon H.A.T.E.[edit]

Talon H.A.T.E.; the U.S. Air Force needed to create connectivity between the F-22 fighter-plane and the F-15.[67] The program takes the form of a pod which combines datalinks.[68]

Mach 10 space-plane[edit]

Development of a Mach 10 capable space plane known by the designation XS-1.[69]

Other projects[edit]

An air vehicle prototype with the aim of providing to U.S. of A. Navy - Unmanned Carrier Launched Surveillance and Strike U-class. Four vehicle test flights made to provide to the DARPA T3 program. Outside of direct military applications, the organization were creating a new type of avionics architecture.[53] Development of a Massive Ordnance Penetrator.[70] A laser-nuclear engine, a concept proposed by R. Budica, J. Herzberg, and F. Chandler.[71]

Incomplete list of additional known production (01.12.2015)[edit]

X vehicles[edit]

Other projects[edit]

2014[edit]

The Phantom Swift was chosen to be part of the DARPA Vertical Takeoff and Landing X-plane program, according to a report published May the 19th 2014.[85][86]

2013[edit]

Phantom Phoenix small-satellite platforms.[87]

2012[edit]

study of Dominator UAV for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance missions and potential strike capability.[88]

During 2012 the Works were working to produce miniature satellites for U.S. National Reconnaissance Office and reusable boosters for U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory.[3]

2010[edit]

The Solar Eagle was under development after receipt of contractual agreement dated to September 14, 2010, with DARPA in their Vulture II program.[80][89]

2009[edit]

Paper[edit]

Boeing Phantom Works Fusion Architecture: A flexible approach for multiple projects and domains - J.D. King, B. Hartman [90]

2007[edit]

Paper[edit]

Mission Health Management for 24/7 Persistent Surveillance Operations - M. Valenti; D. Dale; J. How; D. Pucci de Farias; J. Vian (Seattle).[91]

2003[edit]

  • X-46 [92]
  • Orbital Express Propellant Resupply Servicing - specifically, Phase II - ASTRO servicing vehicle, automated guidance, navigation, craft rendezvous and docking.[93]
Papers (2003)[edit]
  • Potential Applications of the HIP at Boeing - S.C. Venema (Mathematics and Computing Technologies).[94]
  • Improvements to Boeing SCHNOZ Predictions per Transonic Powered SERN Wind Tunnel Data (invited) - T. O'Brien; D. Farrell (St Louis).[95]
  • Flight tests of wings of adapted F/A-18A - P. Weiss.[96]

2002[edit]

Papers[edit]

2001[edit]

Papers[edit]
  • Open Control Platform - (BPW Embedded Systems Research Team).[101]
  • Static aeroelastic response predictions of the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) Flight Research Vehicle - B.Boehm et al [E. Reichenbach (St. Louis), S. Zillmer (Long Beach)][102]
  • Systems Synthesis: Towards a new paradigm and discipline for knowledge, software, and system development and maintenance. - K. Williamson (Mathematics and Computing Technology BPW).[103]
  • Effect of Lightning Currents on Structural Performance of Composite Material - D.L. Heidlebaugh, W.B. Avery, S.T. Uhrich.[104]

2000[edit]

The group was reported to be working on inventions of information technology for a computer technology involving haptics, during 2000.[105]

Papers (2000)[edit]

1999[edit]

A cyber defense - active network technology: automated intrusion repsonse (in partership with NAI Labs, and also in partership with NAI Labs, U.C. Davis, and Silicon Defense) [113]

1999 Papers[edit]
  • The need for distributed asynchronous transactions - L. Do, P. Ram, P. Drew (Seattle - Mathematics and computing technologies).[114]
  • Direct adaptive reconfigurable flight control for a tailless advanced fighter aircraft - K.A. Wise, J.S. Brinker (St Louis).[115]
  • Ordering sparse matrices and transforming front trees - C. Ashcraft.[116]
  • Adaptive Fighter engine inlet - M. Hopkins et al.[117]
  • Effect of Space Environment on material effects - Dr. H.G. Pippin.[118]

1998[edit]

Paper[edit]

High Stability Engine Control (HISTEC) system - J. Orme et al (Paul Doane BPW).[119]

1997[edit]

Papers[edit]
  • Flight testing the X-36 - The Test Pilot's perspective - L.A. Walker (St. Louis).[120]
  • Capture—Recapture Studies, with special attention to Yule's Association Paradox and Ignored Stratum Heterogeneity. - J.B. Kadane, M.M. Meyer, (J.W. Tukey - Mathematics and Computing Technology, Seattle).[121][122]

1996[edit]

Paper[edit]

Maximum likely threshold for Type 1 censored Weibull Data including co-variants - F. Scholz. [123]

Funding & Financial matters[edit]

JTRS program provided $54.9 million during 2010.[39]

$10 million contract from the U.S.A Air Force Research Laboratory made during October 2012.[88]

$6.6 million contract to design a reusable XS-1, reported August 2015.[124]

Black Diamond, a secret new operation or "manufacturing technology initiative", begun from at least July 2015 onwards, is aimed in part to reduce costs for "large and highly complex programs" within the division.[36][125]

Publications[edit]

Latent Semantic Analysis and Beyond - A. Kao, S. Poteet, J. Wu, W. Ferng, R. Tjoelker, L. Quach, (2008)

(in, Handbook of Research on Text and Web Mining Technologies (ed. M. Song) [126]

see: Latent semantic analysis, Latent semantic indexing


Knowledge dissemination in portals - S. Woods, S. Poteet, A. Kao, L. Quach, (2012)

(in, Industrial Engineering: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications (ed. Information Resources Management Association) [127]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Executive Biographies. Boeing. Retrieved on June 29, 2009.
  2. ^ K. Vaughan - AE285 Seminar published November 8, 2013 University of Michigan [Retrieved 2015-11-06]
  3. ^ a b D. Werner. report. published by Spacenews October 23rd, 2012. Retrieved 2015-11-30. (Retrieved also: December 11, 2015)
  4. ^ a b The Seattle Times (including information from P. Lane). article. published by The Seattle Times September 16, 1999. Retrieved 2015-11-06. 
  5. ^ Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica - article published by Encyclopædia Brittanica online [Retrieved 2015-11-06]
  6. ^ report published by American University [Retrieved 2015-12-08]
  7. ^ a b Staff of Aerospace Daily. report. published August 16, 1995 by Aerospace Daily. Retrieved 2015-12-08. 
  8. ^ R.S. Kirkendall - article published by University of Washington [Retrieved 2015-12-08]
  9. ^ Staff Aerospace Daily - report published April 3, 2001 by Penton [Retrieved 2015-12-11]
  10. ^ a b c d e Boeing. Frontiers: August 2006 (PDF). published by Boeing August 2006. Retrieved 2015-12-11. 
  11. ^ a b Boeing. Profile of President of Phantom Works - 2015. published by The Boeing Company. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  12. ^ journal published by the U.S. Naval postgraduate school [Retrieved 2015-12-09]
  13. ^ California in the NanoEconomy - Company Information published by California in the NanoEconomy 2013 [Retrieved 2015-12-10]
  14. ^ W. Sweetman - report published June 15, 2015 by Aviation week (Penton) [Retrieved 2015-12-11]
  15. ^ A.F. Grandt, W. A. Gustafson, L.T. Cargnino - One Small Step: The History of Aerospace Engineering at Purdue University Purdue University Press, 2010 (revised), ISBN 155753599X [Retrieved 2015-11-06]
  16. ^ a b A. George. article. published by Wired magazine March 26, 2014. Retrieved 2015-12-05. (Additional Retrieval: 2015-12-10)
  17. ^ news published by Armour designs, Inc. [Retrieved 2015-12-01]
  18. ^ CALCIT (Aerospace conference celebrating 50 years of space technology) - [1] published by Graduate Aerospace Laboratories of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) July 26, 2007 [Retrieved 2015-12-12]
  19. ^ Committee to Identify Potential Breakthrough Technologies and Assess Long-Term R & D Goals in Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council. text (p.111). published by National Academies, October 7, 1998, 134 pages, Technology & Engineering, Compass series. Retrieved 2015-12-11. 
  20. ^ Boeing - Executive Biography Boeing [Retrieved 2015-12-12]
  21. ^ Committee on Assessment of Security Technologies for Transportation, National Materials Advisory Board, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, National Research Council - text (p.33) published by National Academies Press, 10 Jan 2006 , 46 pages, Medical, ISBN 0309100747 [Retrieved 2015-12-11]
  22. ^ a b Committee on Future Air Force Needs for Survivability, Air Force Studies Board, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, National Research Council. text (p.76). published by National Academies Press, October 3, 2006, 116 pages, ISBN 0309102197. Retrieved 2015-12-11. 
  23. ^ Donald Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences. Biography (PDF). published by UCI. Retrieved 2015-12-01. 
  24. ^ J. Robinson - report published by St. Louis Business Journal July 24, 2008 [Retrieved 2015-12-14]
  25. ^ Cornell University - internship description published by Cornell University Ergonomics Web for the Cornell Human Factors and Ergonomics Research Group (CHFERG) [Retrieved 2015-12-12]
  26. ^ Steering Committee for the Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, National Research Council - Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics:: Foundation for the Future National Academies Press, 27 Sep 2006, 212 pages, Technology & Engineering, ISBN 0309180236 [Retrieved 2015-12-12]
  27. ^ S.E.Poltrock & G. Mark. text (p.131). published by Springer Science & Business Media, December 6, 2012, 308 pages, ISBN 1447100735, Computer Supported Cooperative Work. Retrieved 2015-12-12. 
  28. ^ pdf published by Boeing & Washington University in St Louis (part of Boeing-Skandalaris collaboration) [Retrieved 2015-1208]
  29. ^ J.R. Gawalt - Science and Engineering Indicators (2 Vol. ) DIANE Publishing, 2008 - 1164 pages ISBN 1437903924 [Retrieved 2015-12-12]
  30. ^ a b W. Cole. Frontiers magazine. published by Boeing. Retrieved 2015-12-12. 
  31. ^ a b c T. Sheridan. article. published by The Venture Cafe October 6, 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-08. (please see the following link to The Venture Cafe)
  32. ^ a b B. Feldt. St. Louis Business Journal report. published June 9, 2015 by American City Business Journals. Retrieved 2015-12-08. 
  33. ^ page published by Cortex Innovation Community (Washington University in St. Louis, BJC HealthCare, University of Missouri – St. Louis, St. Louis University, Missouri Botanical Garden) [Retrieved 2015-12-08]
  34. ^ St. Louis Business Journal - article facsmile Missouri Business Alert June 11, 2015 [Retrieved 2015-12-10]
  35. ^ Don Bingaman - profile published by LinkedIn [Retrieved 2015-12-11]
  36. ^ a b c C. ClarK. article. published September 10, 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-08. 
  37. ^ a b britannica.com/topic/McDonnell-Douglas-Corporation
  38. ^ Information published by California in the NanoEconomy [Retrieved 2015-11-30]
  39. ^ a b Defence Industry Daily. report. published by Defence Industry Daily April 18o, 2010. Retrieved 2015-12-01. 
  40. ^ R. Howard - archive published by Boeing Frontiers, Volume 2 Issue 10, March 2004 [Retrieved 2015-12-01]
  41. ^ B.Boehm et al - Abstract AIAA ASSOCIATION 2001 [Accessed 2015-12-02]
  42. ^ Melody Petersen (Ricardo DeAratanha) - article published by Los Angeles Times 06 (June).13.2015 [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  43. ^ Boeing: Boeing Dedicates Virtual Warfare Center in St. Louis
  44. ^ Boeing UK - 404
  45. ^ http://www.allbusiness.com/company-activities-management/research-development/12246876-1.html
  46. ^ Minister for Innovation, industry, Science and Research (Australian Government) - [2] published by the Australian government March 11, 2008 [Retrieved 2015-12-03]
  47. ^ report published by DLR group 2015 [Retrieved 2015-12-08]
  48. ^ J. Slatter - publication published by Adams Media, October 1, 2007, 368 pages, ISBN 159869166X [Retrieved 2015-12-12]
  49. ^ Boeing - media room published by Boeing ST. LOUIS, January 7, 2010 [Retrieved 2015-12-12]
  50. ^ Chalmers A. Johnson - text published by Verso, 2004 - Civil-military relations - 389 pages, ISBN 1859845789 [Retrieved 2015-12-12]
  51. ^ Boeing - About: Boeing Defence and Security [Retrieved 2015-12-08]
  52. ^ Boeing. Overview: Defence (PDF). Boeing November 23, 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-12. 
  53. ^ a b c W. Sweetman (D. Davies). report. published Aviationweek.com June 15, 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-30. 
  54. ^ page published by The Howland Company [Retrieved 2015-12-09] (& The Howland Company June 2011)
  55. ^ Boeing - About [Retrieved 2015-11-04]
  56. ^ Committee for Capitalizing on Science, Technology, and Innovation, National Research Council - site published by National Academies Press, September 28, 2009, 468 pages, ISBN 0309145694 [Retrieved 2015-12-13]
  57. ^ Committee on Capitalizing on Science, Technology, and Innovation; National Research Council - SBIR and the Phase III Challenge of Commercialization:: Report of a Symposium published by National Academies Press, March 15, 2007, 200 pages, ISBN 030910341X [Retrieved 2015-12-13]
  58. ^ Federal government of the United States - site published by the United States Government [Retrieved 2015-12-13]
  59. ^ List published by faa (Federal Aviation Administration of the USA) [Retrieved 2015-12-01]
  60. ^ public release published by Vocus PRW Holdings, LLC - December 9, 2014 [Retrieved 2015-12-04]
  61. ^ public release published by Williams Foundation [Retrieved 2016-02-01]
  62. ^ Rosemary Gliedt - [3] published by Washington University August 19th, 2015 [Retrieved 2015-11-30]
  63. ^ A. Mehta - report published by Defense news September 10, 2015 [Retrieved 2015-12-04]
  64. ^ J. Drew - News report Flight Global December 19, 2015 [Retrieved 2015-12-24]
  65. ^ A. Mehta - [4] published by Defence News (Tegna, Inc.) September 10, 2015 [Retrieved 2015-12-08]
  66. ^ J. Drew - News report Flight Global December 14, 2015 [Retrieved 2015-12-24]
  67. ^ report published by Aviation week (Penton) [Retrieved 2015-12-12]
  68. ^ Defense Industry Daily staff - report published January 23, 2015 [Retrieved 2015-12-12]
  69. ^ D. Axe - article August 7, 2015[Retrieved 2015-12-03]
  70. ^ N. Thompson - article published November 25th, 2015 Nexstar Broadcasting Group [Retrieved 2015-12-04]
  71. ^ B. Zhang - article published by Business insider July 7, 2015 [Retrieved 2015-12-05](first sourced here (reporter: K. Grossman), please see ...Frank O. Chandler, director of Advanced Vehicle Subsystems and Technologies at Boeing's The Phantom Works...)
  72. ^ D. Szondy - report published by gizmag April 18, 2014 [Retrieved 2015-12-03]
  73. ^ Bharat Verma - Indian Defence Review Vol. 28.2 Lancer Publishers LLC [Retrieved 2015-12-12]
  74. ^ E. Ackerman - [5] published May 4, 2011 by IEEE Spectrum [Accessed 2015-11-30]
  75. ^ report published by NASA May 23, 2011 [Retrieved 2015-12-09]
  76. ^ Vertical magazine. News. published by MHM publishing October 28, 2005. Retrieved 2015-12-12. 
  77. ^ article published October 21, 2002 by New Scientist magazine [Retrieved 2015-12-10]
  78. ^ Military Analysis Network of the F.A.S. - article published by the Federation of American Scientists [Retrieved 2015-12-09]
  79. ^ Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) - release published by The United States of America government March 24, 1999 & the Federation of American Scientists [Retrieved 2015-12-09]
  80. ^ a b E. Lee & R. Johnson. Review. published March 26th, 2012 by Business Insider. Retrieved 2015-11-30. 
  81. ^ G. Creech, photograph credit: A. Landis report published by NASA April 5, 2010 [Retrieved November 30, 2015]
  82. ^ Popular Mechanics May 2003 (p.100) [Retrieved 2015-12-12]
  83. ^ C. Gorey. article. published by October 16, 2014 Siliconrepublic. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  84. ^ "Factsheet". published by the United States Air Force March 2, 2011. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  85. ^ Boeing - report published March 19th, 2014 [Retrieved 2015-11-30]
  86. ^ un-used sources - [6] un-used source [Accessed 2015-12-04]
  87. ^ D. Leone - News page published by Space.com (TechMediaNetworks, Inc.) April 9, 2013 [Retrieved 2015-12-04]
  88. ^ a b W. Carey. report. published November 2, 2012 by AIN online. Retrieved 2015-12-04. 
  89. ^ Boeing - Media room item 1425 published by Boeing (foot: C. Haddox) [Retrieved 2015-11-30]
  90. ^ J.D. King, B. Hartman - synopsis published by IEEE Xplore 2009 [Retrieved 2015-12-12]
  91. ^ M. Valenti; D. Dale; J. How; D. Pucci de Farias; J. Vian - [7] published by AIAA Association 20–23 August 2007 [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  92. ^ Popular Mechanics May 2003 [Retrieved 2015-12-12]
  93. ^ detailed within: N. Dipprey, S. Rotenberger (Northrop Grumman Space Technology)- 2003-4898 AIAA Association 20–23 July 2003 [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  94. ^ S.C. Venema - article published Boeing 2003 [Retrieved 2015-12-03]
  95. ^ T. O'Brien; D. Farrell - Abstract published by American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 20–23 July 2003 [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  96. ^ P. Weiss - preview published by Science News Vol. 164, No. 23 (Dec. 6, 2003) (& Jstor)[Accessed 2015-12-02]
  97. ^ P.M. Wegner, J.E. Higgins, B.P. VanWest - Abstract published by AIAA Association 22–25 April 2002 [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  98. ^ R. Devlieg et al - DOI:10.4271/2002-01-2626 Abstract published by SAE International 2002-09-30 [Accessed 2015-12-02]
  99. ^ E. Lavretsky - Abstract published by AIAA Association August 2002 [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  100. ^ J.C. Vassberg et al - Abstract published by AIAA Association 14–17 January 2002 [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  101. ^ J.L. Paunicka (Seattle), B.R. Mendel, D.E. Corman - DOI:10.1109/ACC.2001.946163 published by IEEE (Proceedings of the 2001 American Control Conference, 2001.) ISBN 0-7803-6495-3 [Retrieved 2015-012-02]
  102. ^ B.Boehm et al - Abstract AIAA ASSOCIATION [Accessed 2015-12-02]
  103. ^ K. Williamson - paper 03(March).15.2015 [Accessed 2015-12-02]
  104. ^ D.L. Heidlebaugh, W.B. Avery, S.T. Uhrich - Abstract (International Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity) published by SAE International 2001-09-11 doi:10.4271/2001-01-2885 [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  105. ^ G.H. Anthes - Computerworld July 17, 2000 (p.71) [Retrieved 2015-11-29]
  106. ^ C Chenault, J Dorri, D Smith, V Kibens - A00-33853 published by AIAA Association 2000 [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  107. ^ J.Guell - article synopsis published by Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE September 2000 DOI:10.1109/62.873473 [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  108. ^ D. Cameron , N. Princen - A00-37181 Abstract published by AIAA Association 14–17 August 2000 [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  109. ^ Y. Ikeda, M. Hood - A00-37206 published by American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 16–17 August 2000 [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  110. ^ F.W. Roos - Abstract AIAA ASSOCIATION [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  111. ^ R.L Karkkainen et al (K.M. Nelson - BPW) - Abstract 45th International SAMPE Symposium [Accessed 2015-12-01]
  112. ^ D, Schnackenberg et al - report DARPA Information Survivability Conference and Exposition, 2000. DISCEX '00. Proceedings [Retrieved 2015-12-01]
  113. ^ DARPA Information Survivability Conference & Exposition: DISCEX'00, 25-27 January 2000, Hilton Head, South Carolina : proceedings published by DARPA & IEEE Xplore Computer Society, 1999, ISBN 0769504906 [Retrieved 2015-12-12]
  114. ^ L. Do, P. Ram, P. Drew - data sheet SIGMOD '99 Proceedings of the 1999 ACM SIGMOD international conference on Management of data [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  115. ^ K.A. Wise, J.S. Brinker, A.J. Cannis, D.F. Enns, M.R. Elgersma, P. Voulgaris - Article summary International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear control 1999 [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  116. ^ Ashcraft, Cleve. "Ordering sparse matrices and transforming front trees." Boeing Phantom Works (1999).
  117. ^ M. Hopkins et al - A99-24833 AIAA ASSOCIATION [Retrieved 2015-12-01]
  118. ^ Dr. H.G. Pippin - report published by Langley Research Center NASA February 1999 [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  119. ^ J. Orme et al (Paul Doane BPW) - Abstract published by American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics [Retrieved 2015-12-01]
  120. ^ L.A. Walker - NASA contractor report 198058 published by NASA [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  121. ^ J.B. Kadane, M.M. Meyer & J.W. Tukey - Abstract published by the Journal of the American Statistical Association 1999 (Received: April 1st 1997) DOI:10.1080/01621459.1999.10474190 [Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  122. ^ H.A. David, A.W.F. Edwards - text (p.137) published by Springer Science & Business Media, June 29, 2013 ISBN 1475735006 [Retrieved 2015-12-08]
  123. ^ F. Scholz (Mathematics and Computing technology BPW) - DATAFILES 498B2008 published August 22, 1996 by Washington State University, Dept. of Statistics -[Retrieved 2015-12-02]
  124. ^ M. Prigg. article. published by Daily Mail 5–6 August 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-04. 
  125. ^ W. Sweetman - article summary published by Aviation Week Network July 16, 2015 Aviation Week & Space Technology [Retrieved 2015-12-08]
  126. ^ M. Song (NJIT) - [8] published by IGI Global, September 30, 2008, 901 pages, ISBN 1599049910 IGI Global research collection [Retrieved 2015-12-10]
  127. ^ Information Resources Management Association - text published by IGI Global, August 31, 2012, 1823 pages, ISBN 1466619465 [Retrieved 2015-12-10]

External links[edit]