Boeing WC-135 Constant Phoenix
|WC-135 Constant Phoenix|
|A WC-135 Constant Phoenix approaching a tanker|
|Role||Atmosphere Testing Related to Nuclear Incidents|
|Manufacturer||Boeing Military Airplanes Division|
|Primary user||United States Air Force|
|Number built||10 original WC-135B, plus 1 converted former EC-135C, Two aircraft currently in active service|
|Developed from||C-135 Stratolifter|
|Variants||OC-135B Open Skies|
The WC-135 Constant Phoenix is a special purpose aircraft derived from the Boeing C-135 and used by the United States Air Force. Its mission is to collect samples from the atmosphere for the purpose of detecting and identifying nuclear explosions. It is also informally referred to as the "weather bird" or "the sniffer" by workers on the program.
The WC-135C and WC-135W Constant Phoenix atmospheric collection aircraft support national level intelligence consumers by collecting particulate debris and gaseous effluents from accessible regions of the atmosphere in support of the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963.
The WC-135W (tail number 61-2667) is a modified C-135B. The WC-135C (tail number 62-3582) is an extensively modified former EC-135C Looking Glass aircraft. The Constant Phoenix’s modifications are primarily related to the aircraft's on-board atmospheric collection suite, which allows the mission crew to detect radioactive debris "clouds" in real time. The aircraft is equipped with external flow-through devices to collect particulates on filter paper and a compressor system for whole air samples collected in high-pressure holding spheres.
The interior seats 33 people, including the cockpit crew, maintenance personnel, and special equipment operators from the Air Force Technical Applications Center. On operational sorties, the crew is minimized to just pilots, navigator, and special equipment operators, to reduce radiation exposure to mission-essential personnel only.
WC-135B aircraft flew 25 sorties in 1979 to try to ascertain if a double flash in the south Atlantic that was detected by a Vela satellite was a nuclear weapons test, however the result was inconclusive.
Pakistan & India
On Friday 6 October 2006 Japan's Kyodo News agency reported that a US military aircraft, equipped to detect radiation from a nuclear test, took off from southern Japan. This was believed to be part of US efforts to prepare to monitor a North Korean nuclear test.
On Monday 9 October 2006 North Korea's official Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) reported that the country had performed a successful underground nuclear test.
On October 13, 2006 CNN reported: "The U.S. Air Force flew a WC-135 Constant Phoenix atmospheric collection aircraft on Tuesday to collect air samples from the region. A preliminary analysis of air samples from North Korea shows "radioactive debris consistent with a North Korea nuclear test," according to a statement from the office of the top U.S. intelligence official. The statement, from the office of Director of National Intelligence John Negroponte, was sent to Capitol Hill but not released publicly. CNN obtained it from a congressional source. The national intelligence office statement said the air samples were collected Wednesday, and analysis found debris that would be consistent with a nuclear test "in the vicinity of Punggye" on Monday. The South Korean Defense Ministry told CNN that the United States has informed it that radioactivity has been detected." The aircraft was based at Offutt AFB, and was sent to Kadena Air Base on Okinawa to operate during the sampling missions.
On June 17, 2009 JoongAng Daily reported, in reference to a purported May 25 nuclear test by North Korea: "The U.S. Air Force twice dispatched a special reconnaissance jet, the WC-135 Constant Phoenix from Kadena Air Base in Okinawa, Japan, to collect air samples." 
On January 31, 2013 the WC-135W was reported to be conducting surveillance flights out of Kadena Air Base in anticipation of another North Korean nuclear test.
On January 6, 2016 the Air Force confirmed plans to soon deploy the WC-135 to test for radiation near North Korea to examine North Korea's claim that they had successfully conducted a Hydrogen-bomb test on January 5 (EST).
On March 17, 2011 CNN reported WC-135W had been deployed from Offutt Air Force Base to assist in detecting radioactive materials in the atmosphere around Japan, monitoring radioactivity released from the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant caused by the magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami of March 11, 2011.
- Crew: varies with mission
- Length: 139 ft 11 in (42.6 m)
- Wingspan: 130 ft 10 in (39.9 m)
- Height: 42 ft (12.8 m)
- Wing area: 2,433 ft² (226 m²)
- Max. takeoff weight: 300,500 lb (136,300 kg)
- Powerplant: 4 × WC-135,Pratt & Whitney TF33-P-5; WC-135C, Pratt & Whitney TF33-P-9 turbofan, 16,050 lbf (71.4 kN) each
- Maximum speed: 350 KIAS (648 km/h)
- Range: 4000 miles (6437 km)
- Service ceiling: 40,000 ft (12,200 m)
- Wing loading: 123.5 lb/ft² (603 kg/m²)
- Thrust/weight: 0.21
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- "History of the Air Force Technical Applications Centre, Patrick Airforce Base, Florida: Volume 1" (PDF). United States Airforce via National Security Archive. 2006-05-04. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
- Timesonline.co.uk, Cold War aircraft searches the sky for proof of test
- joongangdaily.joins.com, U.S. finds that North test in May was nuclear
- "U.S. Moves Spy Aircraft in Preparation for N.Korean Nuke Test". The Chosun Ilbo (English Edition). 24 November 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- Park Hyun and Jeong Nam-ku (January 31, 2013). "Clinton still hoping North Korea won’t conduct a nuclear test". The Hankyoreh. Retrieved February 13, 2013.
- Lamothe, Dan (6 January 2016). "This is the Air Force radiation sniffer plane deploying after North Korea’s nuclear test". Washington Post. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "Japan quake tsunamiThis Just In". CNN. March 16, 2011.
- USAF: WC-135 Constant Phoenix - Factsheet
- Airliners.net Boeing WC-135W (717-158)
- GlobalSecurity.org WC-135 page
- Fas.org WC-135 page
- CNN coverage of Constant Phoenix and North Korean Nuclear Test