The Bogle-Chandler case refers to the mysterious deaths of Dr Gilbert Stanley Bogle (1924–1963) and Mrs Margaret Olive Chandler née Morphett (1934–1963) on the banks of the Lane Cove River in Sydney, Australia on 1 January 1963. The case became celebrated because of the circumstances in which the bodies were found and because the cause of death could not be established. In 2006 a filmmaker discovered evidence to suggest the cause of death was hydrogen sulphide gas. In the early hours of 1 January an eruption of gas from the polluted river bed may have occurred, causing the noxious fumes to pool in deadly quantities in the grove.
Background to the case
Dr Gilbert Bogle was a physicist who worked at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). Married with several children, he was considered to be a brilliant scientist and had been a Rhodes Scholar. The Police discovered that Bogle was also involved in relationships with other women, many of whom he took to parks. The Coroner stood down a key female witness before she could give evidence, to protect the families.
Mrs Chandler was married to Geoffrey Chandler, who also worked in the same CSIRO building as Dr Bogle. They had two children. Witnesses later suggested that she may have been bored with her life and upset at her husband's philandering.
Dr Bogle, the Chandlers, and several others attended a barbecue just prior to Christmas 1962. On the way home Mrs Chandler told her husband that she was quite taken with Dr Bogle. Mr Chandler told the police that he and his wife had "an understanding". He told her: "If you want to take Gib as a lover, if it would make you happy, you do it."
The Chatswood party
Two of the other people at the barbecue were Ken and Ruth Nash. Ken Nash also worked at the CSIRO. He invited the Chandlers to his New Year's Eve party, to be held at his home in Waratah Street, Chatswood.
The Chandlers arrived late for the party, with Geoffrey Chandler underdressed. Chandler soon left the party and drove to another party (organised, he says, by the Sydney Push) in the suburb of Balmain where he met Pam Logan, with whom he was having an affair. He returned to the Chatswood party in the early hours of the morning but left again, with the understanding that Dr Bogle would drive Mrs Chandler home.
Dr Bogle and Mrs Chandler left the party soon after 4 a.m. and drove to the nearby Lane Cove River, which was known as a lovers' lane. What happened next is still unclear, but several hours later, their bodies were found.
Discovery of the bodies
Dr. Bogle's body was discovered near Fullers Bridge first, by two youths searching for golf balls. They saw his body and presumed him to be drunk. When they returned an hour later to find that he had not moved and that his face had turned blue, they went to fetch help.
When police arrived at the scene they discovered that Bogle's body was half-undressed. Somebody had placed his trousers over the back of his legs in such a way that he appeared to be dressed, but was not. A piece of carpet was also laid on top of his back underneath his jacket, which was laid perfectly on his back.
Shortly after this Mrs. Chandler's body was discovered a short distance away. She was also in a state of undress, and her body had been covered with a broken up cardboard beer box. It was initially believed that she had covered Bogle's body first and then her own, but closer examination suggested that someone had covered her body, as well.
It was obvious that both had died from some sort of poisoning. At the scene were signs of vomit and excreta. Excreta from both victims along with items of clothing were found on the exposed bed of the river. Because New Year's Day was a public holiday, forensic examination of the bodies was delayed for 36 hours. When forensic examination did take place, no traces of any poison could be found.
The case attracted instant publicity. It involved a high-society party, alleged wife-swapping, an unidentified third person at the death scene, and an unidentified poison. There was also speculation that Bogle was involved in research important in the Cold War.
The inquest in May 1963 did not help to resolve the mystery. The coroner, Mr J. J. Loomes, concluded that Bogle and Chandler had died because of "...acute circulatory failure. But as to the circumstances under which such circulatory failure was brought about, the evidence does not permit me to say." In other words, he stated that Bogle and Chandler died either because their hearts stopped beating, or they stopped breathing.
The police investigated hundreds of theories including the drug LSD. The state government analyst found no trace of LSD. In 1996 relic tissues were sent to America and new forensic techniques were applied to them. A first pass suggested the presence of LSD. A more sensitive scan on the same equipment came up negative - Bogle and Chandler had not used LSD. Against this, there have been no documented human deaths from an LSD overdose.
Peter Butt's documentary, Who Killed Dr Bogle and Mrs Chandler?, which was shown on the ABC in September 2006, suggests that the two deaths may have been caused by accidental hydrogen sulphide poisoning. Supporting evidence for this theory includes:
- In the 1940s and 50s, the local council received scores of letters from residents complaining of the smell of "rotten eggs" coming from the river, causing nausea and breathing difficulties. There was also a series of massive fish kills. With the residents facing permanent evacuation, the Maritime Services Board conducted a year-long study of the river. It found that the bottom muds were saturated to a depth of half a metre with hydrogen sulphide and that very large and rapid releases of hydrogen sulphide gas could occur from a section of the river impounded by the weir. The source was identified as a factory that had pumped its waste into the river since the 1890s. The worst affected location was within a quarter-mile of the weir, exactly where Dr Bogle and Mrs Chandler died.
- On New Year's Day, police divers reported a great disturbance of black river-bed sediment. Although their search of the river was then delayed for 11 days, visibility remained poor.
- The very cool, still weather conditions at time of death would have allowed high concentrations of gas to accumulate.
- The location where the couple had sought privacy was at water-level in a slight depression, surrounded by a bank and mangroves, typical of where the heavier-than-air hydrogen sulphide would accumulate in calm conditions.
- Slight skin abrasions, shoe and knee prints suggest both victims were disorientated and had tried to leave the depression before collapsing.
- Both victims had been unable to correct their clothing, suggesting that the poison struck them down without warning, at the same time and with great speed.
- A pathology report, suppressed by the coroner at the time, revealed semen on Dr Bogle's body and coat. This suggests sex was taking place and that both victims could not have been suffering earlier effects of poisoning before they were suddenly struck down.
- Most importantly, a purple discoloration was seen in the victims' blood which is characteristic of hydrogen sulphide poisoning (This phenomenon is not related to other colour changes in the blood such as cyanosis, or methaemoglobin/methemoglobinemia).
- The toxicologist who tested the victims' tissue samples claimed that had he known about the semen, it would have eliminated the majority of poisons he had tested for. This knowledge he claimed, along with the hint provided by the purple colouration of the blood, might have led him to suspect that the poison was hydrogen sulphide.
- A British forensic scientist contacted by the police suggested on reading the case report that the victims had been gassed.
Hydrogen sulphide hypothesis
With Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) at a level of 1 ppm, a victim will barely notice a bad smell, at 30+ ppm H2S smells like rotten eggs but at 50-100 ppm it smells cloyingly sweet. At a level above 100 ppm, H2S paralyses the olfactory nerve (sense of smell) almost instantly and as the gas is effectively invisible, it would not be noticed despite it leading to vomiting and breathlessness. At 200 ppm respiratory failure occurs within seconds. At 1000 ppm a single breath causes instant cardiac arrest. Although no levels were measured at the river, there is anecdotal evidence of levels of up to 100ppm being common in the area on still days. As H2S is heavier than air, the gas tends to pool in hollows on calm days and needs a breeze in order to dissipate. If it is assumed that there was little or no gas around when Bogle and Chandler arrived and there was an eruption of gas upstream, the gas would seek the low points along the bank and at 100 - 150 ppm would be undetectable. The couple could remain for some time before feeling breathless and nauseous but would smell and see nothing to explain this. They would have become confused as a result of H2S binding with haemoglobin in the blood and reducing its oxygen carrying capacity, making an escape difficult.
It was the investigating detectives' belief that the victims' bodies were covered not by a murderer, but by a 'third person' who covered them for modesty after discovering the bodies. An initial suspect was a voyeur who contacted police twice, using different names. After interrogation, he was quickly dismissed. The prime suspect was a greyhound trainer who slipped his dogs daily on a path that passed the site where the bodies were found. He came forward only after his car was identified and, when interviewed by police, claimed to have used a different path that day and denied seeing the bodies. His obituary in 1977, however, claimed he had been the first to find the bodies. The theory regarding a motive of modesty for covering the bodies was supported by claims that the man was known to be a prude.
A woman who was a child at the time came forward at the time of the film's screening. She claimed she had found Mrs Chandler's handbag 4 km away in bushland between three houses. One of those houses was discovered to belong to a relative of the greyhound trainer and was near to his own home. A veteran greyhound racing steward also came forward and said that he received a call from the suspect soon after the deaths, during which he admitted that he had come across the bodies.
- Bogle, Gilbert Stanley (1924 - 1963) Biographical Entry - Australian Dictionary of Biography Online
- Chandler, Geoffrey (1969). So you think I did it?. Melbourne: Sun Books.
- Passie, Torsten; Halpern, John H.; Stichtenoth, Dirk O.; Emrich, Hinderk M.; Hintzen, Annelie (11 November 2008). "The Pharmacology of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: A Review". CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 14 (4): 295–314. doi:10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00059.x. PMID 19040555.
- Who Killed Dr Bogle & Mrs Chandler? ebook published by Blackwattle, author Peter Butt
- Who Killed Dr Bogle & Mrs Chandler? Movie Trailer 
- The Bogle-Chandler case
- Who Killed Dr Bogle And Mrs Chandler?, Australian Broadcasting Corporation
- Remembering Bogle Chandler - an interactive narrative