|City of Bogo|
(From top, left to right) : San Vicente Ferrer Church, The Shrine of Our Lady of Miraculous Medal, Bogo City Hall, Capitancillo Islet, Bogo Public Plaza
Map of Cebu with Bogo highlighted
|Region||Central Visayas (Region VII)|
|District||4th district of Cebu|
16 June 2007
|Barangay||29 (see § Barangays)|
|• Type||Sangguniang Panlungsod|
|• Mayor||Celestino Martinez (LP)|
|• Vice mayor||Santiago Sevilla|
|• City Council|
|• Total||103.52 km2 (39.97 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Density||680/km2 (1,700/sq mi)|
|• Voter (2013) ||45,468|
|Time zone||PHT (UTC+8)|
|IDD : area code||+63 (0)32|
|Income class||6th class[a]|
Bogo (Filipino: Lungsod ng Bogo; Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Bogo;), officially the City of Bogo, established in 2007, is a sixth income class component city in the province of Cebu, Philippines.[a] According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 69,911. In the 2013 election, it had 45,468 registered voters.
Bogo is located in the northeastern coast of Cebu province, on the principal island of Cebu. It is 101 kilometres (63 mi) from Cebu City and is accessible by land and sea. Bogo has an area of 103.5 square kilometres (40.0 sq mi), which constitutes 2.3% of the area of Cebu island and 2.1% of the total land area of Cebu province. The city marches with: Medellin to the north, San Remigio to the west, and Tabogon to the south; on the east it is bound by Camotes Sea.
Bogo comprises 29 barangays:
- Anonang Norte
- Anonang Sur
- Bungtod (Pob.)
- Carbon (Pob.)
- Cogon (Pob.)
- Don Pedro Rodriguez
- La Purisima Concepcion (Pob.)
- Pandan (Pandan Heights)
- Sambag (Pob.)
- San Vicente (Pob.)
- Santo Niño
- Santo Rosario (Pob.)
|Population Census of Bogo City|
|Source: National Statistics Office|
The year 1600 saw the founding of a real settlement which was subsequently transformed into a barangay with small huts made of cogon grass and bamboo, standing where the Bogo Central Extension now stands. While the barangay was then part of another community in the north (today's town of Daanbantayan), the natives enjoyed tacit freedom of self-rule although they continued to pay tributes and taxes to the chieftain of Daanbantayan. This barangay grew in prominence and for this reason, it was separated from Daanbantayan. In January 1850 the Bishop of Cebu, appointed Spanish friar Fr Jaime Micalot as the first parish priest of Bogo and decreed Saint Vincent Ferrer as the town's patron saint.
The first mass was celebrated in the hastily built chapel on April 5, 1850, to coincide with the death anniversary of the patron saint. This chapel was later gutted by fire and a new stone church was constructed at the place where the Bogo Town Plaza is now located. About this time, the Spanish authorities in Bogo introduced civil government. Pedro Aballe became the first Cabeza de Barangay or mayor from 1864 to 1869. Senator Pedro L. Rodriguez, popularly known as the Grand Old Man of Bogo named one of the oldest streets of the town after him.
In those times, a cabeza de barangay took charge of the collection of tributes to support the encomienda system of Spain. Later the tribute was substituted by the "papelita" (cedula) which the individual paid in two installments annually. A taxpayer who could not afford to pay the cost of papelita in the amount of P1.50 was made to work on local projects at fifty centavos a week. Because of this, a good number of delinquent taxpayers escaped and hid in the mountain fastness of Bogo.
Early historians aver that the town of Bogo derived its name from a lone bogo tree or Garuga floribunda, which stood on the shore where now is Bogo wharf. Here the inhabitants met traders who sailed in loaded with goods to be sold or bartered. Thus this spot became a rendezvous for traders and merchants as well as for nature-lovers and leisure-seekers. Some of these traders remained and married locals.
A few years before the turn of the 20th century, eventful episodes took place in the town marked by fire and blood. The nationalistic fervor of the Katipuneros in Luzon fanned the flames of the resistant movement in Cebu. In Bogo, the younger kin of the Katipuneros, the so-called "Pulahans", exacted heavy tolls on the forces of the cazadores (guardia civil) (cf Caçadores) during fierce encounters near the outskirts of the town. Although the Pulahans were ill-armed, untrained and outnumbered at times, they nevertheless continued to hit back at the enemy.
Success seemed almost within reach when in 1898 an American cavalry unit under Captain Rowan landed at Nailon point and proceeded to the poblacion where his troops assembled in front of the church. He was met by Pedro L. Rodriguez then presidente municipal of the town, and they soon sealed an agreement for the protection of the civilian populace of the town.
World War II
Again in 1941, the Philippines, being a territory of the United States, became a battleground in an undeclared war between the invading Japanese Imperial Forces and the combined Filipino–American troops. After the surrender of the USAFFE many from Bogo refused to swear allegiance to the Japanese. They went into the hills and organized guerrilla warfare headed by disbanded officers of the constabulary and army units in the province.
Cognizant of the anti-Japanese sentiment of this armed group who were determined to carry out harassment tactics against the occupation troops in northern Bogo, six Japanese seaplanes bombed the town of Bogo on the early morning of December 12, 1942. Several civilians were killed and many injured. In order to quell the seething rebellion, the Japanese military authorities in Cebu established a garrison in the town in a building now owned by the Northern Cebu Colleges. As a means to win the loyalty and support of the people of the town, a local puppet administration was established in Bogo under Japanese supervision, with Moises Lepatan appointed town mayor during the occupation.
Liberation came in 1944, and civilian government soon restored. Former municipal secretary Perfecto Andrino was appointed first Mayor of Bogo by President Manuel Roxas in 1945. In the first election held after the war, Severo Verallo was elected with a considerable majority and appointed town mayor.
During the 11th Congress (1998–2001), Congress enacted into law 33 bills converting 33 municipalities into cities. However, Congress did not act on a further 24 bills converting 24 other municipalities into cities.
During the 12th Congress (2001–2004), Congress enacted into law Republic Act No. 9009 (RA 9009), which took effect on 30 June 2001. RA 9009 amended Section 450 of the Local Government Code by increasing the annual income requirement for conversion of a municipality into a city from ₱20 million to ₱100 million. The rationale for the amendment was to restrain, in the words of Senator Aquilino Pimentel, "the mad rush" of municipalities to convert into cities solely to secure a larger share in the Internal Revenue Allotment despite the fact that they are incapable of fiscal independence.
After the effectivity of RA 9009, the House of Representatives of the 12th Congress adopted Joint Resolution No. 29, which sought to exempt from the ₱100 million income requirement in RA 9009 the 24 municipalities whose cityhood bills were not approved in the 11th Congress. However, the 12th Congress ended without the Senate having approved Joint Resolution No. 29.
During the 13th Congress (2004–2007), the House of Representatives re-adopted former Joint Resolution No. 29 as Joint Resolution No. 1 and forwarded it to the Senate for approval. However, the Senate again failed to approve the Joint Resolution. Following the suggestion of Senator Aquilino Pimentel (Senate President), 16 municipalities filed, through their respective sponsors, individual cityhood bills. The 16 cityhood bills each contained a common provision exempting it from the ₱100 million income requirement of RA 9009 –
"Exemption from Republic Act No. 9009. — The City of x x x shall be exempted from the income requirement prescribed under Republic Act No. 9009."
On 22 December 2006, the House of Representatives approved the cityhood bills. The Senate also approved the cityhood bills in February 2007, except that of Naga, Cebu which was passed on 7 June 2007. These cityhood bills lapsed into law on various dates from March to July 2007 after President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo failed to sign them.
The plebiscite for the cityhood of Bogo was held on 16 June 2007 in which 97.82% of voters of Bogo voted for cityhood. Former representative Clavel Asas-Martinez announced that the cityhood of Bogo has been ratified. It became the sixth component city of Cebu province.
The point of law at issue in 2007 was whether there had been a breach of Section 10, Article X of the 1987 Constitution, which provides –
No province, city, municipality, or barangay shall be created, divided, merged, abolished or its boundary substantially altered, except in accordance with the criteria established in the local government code and subject to approval by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite in the political units directly affected.
– and in each case the established criteria were far from met.
In November 2008, Bogo lost its cityhood, along with 15 other cities, after the Supreme Court of the Philippines granted a petition filed by the League of Cities of the Philippines, and declared unconstitutional the cityhood law (RA 9390) which had allowed the town to acquire its city status. The Supreme Court ruled that they did not pass the requirements for cityhood.
On 10 December 2008, the 16 cities affected acting together filed a motion for reconsideration with the Supreme Court. More than a year later, on 22 December 2009, acting on said appeal, the Court reversed its earlier ruling as it ruled that "at the end of the day, the passage of the amendatory law" (regarding the criteria for cityhood as set by Congress) "is no different from the enactment of a law, i.e., the cityhood laws specifically exempting a particular political subdivision from the criteria earlier mentioned. Congress, in enacting the exempting law/s, effectively decreased the already codified indicators." Accordingly cityhood status was restored.
But on 27 August 2010, the 16 cities lost their city status again, after the Supreme Court voted 7-6, with two justices not taking part, to reinstate the 2008 decision declaring as "unconstitutional" the Republic Acts that converted the 16 municipalities into cities. A previous law required towns aspiring to become cities to earn at least ₱100 million annually, which none of the 16 did.
And on 12 April 2011, a Supreme Court en banc ruling delivered in Baguio City, promulgated and resolved that:
We should not ever lose sight of the fact that the 16 cities covered by the Cityhood Laws not only had conversion bills pending during the 11th Congress, but have also complied with the requirements of the LGC prescribed prior to its amendment by R.A. No. 9009. Congress undeniably gave these cities all the considerations that justice and fair play demanded. Hence, this Court should do no less by stamping its imprimatur to the clear and unmistakable legislative intent and by duly recognizing the certain collective wisdom of Congress. WHEREFORE, the Ad Cautelam Motion for Reconsideration (of the Decision dated 15 February 2011) is denied with finality.
So affirming the finality of the constitutionality of the 16 cityhood laws.
On 28 June 2011 the Supreme Court directed the Clerk of Court to issue forthwith the entry of judgment on the cityhood case of 16 municipalities. Sealing with "the finality of the resolution upholding the constitutionality of the 16 Cityhood Laws absolutely warrants the respondents' "Motion for Entry of Judgment", the SC ruled."
This entry of judgment ended the cityhood battle of the 16 cities in the Philippines.
NB The income classification limits have been revised more than once since RA9009.[update]
The new Bogo City Hall was inaugurated on April 19, 2013 by President Benigno Aquino III. On November 8, 2013, a powerful super typhoon Haiyan, also known as Yolanda, badly hit northern Cebu, where Bogo City is located and not spared the widespread devastation. Typhoon Yolanda destroyed almost everything from infrastructure to agriculture, 90% left homeless and thirteen died in Bogo, among more than 6,000 fatalities in Central Philippines. City Hall was one of the structures damaged: its roof got ripped off, its windows broken and other parts of the building also affected and devastated.
Fiestas and festivals
- Piyesta sa Bogo
- 5 April is the official feast day or the death anniversary of San Vicente Ferrer. Many pilgrims around the world will come to venerate the patron saint and almost all activities in this fiesta are religious activities only.
- 26 - 27 May considered the biggest town fiesta celebration where most visitors come to witness the events, which include the search for Ms Bogo Festival Queen and the celebration of the official festival of Bogo City, the Pintos Festival.[b] The Pintos Festival involves creative street dancing depicting the sangi (Planting) and thanksgiving of the abundant harvest and merrymaking through dancing the 'Kuyayang' – a Bogohanon courtship dance staged in front of the community during fiestas. Barangays all around Bogo join together to form fives cluster tribes.
- Bogo City Charter Day
- 16 June.
There are 27 elementary schools throughout the city:
- Anonang Norte Elementary School
- Anonang Sur Elementary School
- Araneta Learning Center (Bogo) - (Private preschool & elementary school)
- Banban Elementary School
- Binabag Elementary School
- Bogo Central School I
- Bogo Central School II
- Bogo Central School III (Gairan)
- Bogo Christian Learning & Development School - (Private preschool & elementary school)
- Bung-aw Elementary School
- Cayang Elementary School
- City of Bogo Science and Arts Academy ( Elementary & High School)
- Combado Elementary School
- Dakit Elementary School
- Don Pedro Rodriguez Elementary School
- Don Celestino Martinez Sr.Taytayan Integrated School(DCMSTIS)
- Guadalupe Elementary School
- La Paz Elementary School
- Libertad Elementary School
- Malingin Elementary School
- Marangog Elementary School
- Nailon Elementary School
- Odlot Elementary School
- Polambato Elementary School
- San Roque Child Development School (Private preschool & elementary school)
- Siokon Elementary School
- Taytayan Primary School
There are 13 high schools throughout the city:
- Anonang Sur Tabacco Frasco National High School
- Banban National High School
- Binabag National High School
- Bartolome Piañar Memorial National High School Odlot Ext. (Dakit)
- Cayang National High School Ext.
- City of Bogo Science and Arts Academy ( Elementary and High School)
- Don Celestino Martinez Sr.Taytayan Integrated School(DCMSTIS)
- Don Potenciano Catarata Memorial National High School Ext. (Guadalupe)
- La Paz National High School Ext.
- Libertad National High School Ext.
- Jovencio N. Masong National High School (Nailon)
- Odlot National High School Ext.
- San Roque Child Development School (Private Elementary and High School)
- Cebu Roosevelt Memorial Colleges – (Elementary, High School and College)
- Felipe R. Verallo Memorial Foundation College, Inc. – (Elementary, High School, and College)
- Northern Cebu Colleges – (High School and College)
- St. Louise de Marillac College (Holy Family Academy) – (High School and College)
- Liahona Institute of Technology
- Radio stations
- 90.9 MHz Brigada News FM http://brigada.ph/news-fm-stations/news-fm-bogo/
- 91.7 MHz Radio Natin DYBG FM
- 93.3 MHz Hug Radio DYSM FM http://www.ustream.tv/channel/hug-radio-93-3-bogo-city
- 94.1 MHz CRMC Radio DYVL FM http://www.amfmph.com/dyvl-94-1-bogo-city-15619.html
- 100.5 MHz Bag-ong Adlaw DYCM FM Bogo - simultaneously broadcast with DYCM AM 1152 Mega Cebu http://www.dycmcebu.com; http://www.amfmph.com/dycm-cebu-am-radio-1152khz-15669.html
- 864 kHz Bantay Radyo Bogo DYHH AM - repeater of DYDD Cebu City
- Cable and TV stations
- Bogo Cable TV, Inc.
Major TV networks based in Cebu City have signals in the city
National and local daily newspapers, tabloids and magazines are available in the city. The City of Bogo has its own quarterly official publication "KANAAS" (Gikan sa Amihanan – A Whisper from the North).
- The Archdiocesan Shrine of St. Vincent Ferrer
- The Shrine of the Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal - Lapaz, Bogo City
- Bogo City Hall
- Capitancillo Islet
- Bogo City Plaza Park
- Bogo City Public Library and Museum
- Pedro "Nyor Endong" Lazala Rodriguez (1869-1932), known as the Grand Old Man of Bogo.
- Gabriel "Flash" Elorde (1935-1985), professional boxer, world super featherweight champion.
- Marcelo "Celing" Briones Fernan (1927-1999), held the top position of the two branches of government of the Republic of the Philippines – as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines and then as President of the Senate of the Philippines.
- Vina Morales (born Sharon Garcia Magdayao, 1975) singer, actress and model.
- Celestino "Junie" Espinosa Martinez Jr., authored "RA 7160 – The Local Government Code of the Philippines";
The Bogo City council has passed an ordinance requiring all schools in Bogo to sing the Bogo Hymn in all flag-raising ceremonies and school programs just like the Philippine National Anthem, "Lupang Hinirang". Radio Stations based in Bogo are also required to play the hymn every sign-on and sign-off. City legislation prohibits the alteration of the lyrics, tempo and tune in the rendition of Bogo hymn entitled "Padayon Bogo".
- "City". Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and Local Government. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "PSGC Interactive". Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010" (PDF). 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "2013 National and Local Elections Statistics" (PDF). Commission on Elections. 2015.
- “General Info. – The Land”, City of Bogo Official Website.
- “Geography of Bogo”, BOGO On Line.
- "Population and Annual Growth Rates by Province, City and Municipality: Central Visayas: 1995, 2000 and 2007" (PDF). National Statistics Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2011.
- “General Info. – History”, City of Bogo Official Website.
- The History of Bogo, BOGO On Line.
- Political History1-First Execs, BOGO On Line.
- Political History2-Spanish Regime, BOGO On Line.
- “The Bogo Tree”(Garuga Floribunda), BOGO On Line.
- The Bogo Tree, scientifically named “Garuga Floribunda”, posted by The Bogo Times.
- Government & Politics - Political History, BOGO On Line.
- The 16 were:
Municipality Province Batac Ilocos Norte Baybay Leyte Bayugan Agusan del Sur Bogo Cebu Borongan Eastern Samar Cabadbaran Agusan del Norte Carcar Cebu Catbalogan Samar El Salvador Misamis Oriental Guihulngan Negros Oriental Lamitan Basilan Mati Davao Oriental Naga Cebu Tabuk Kalinga Tandag Surigao del Sur Tayabas Quezon
- Comelec affirms Bogo is now 6th city of Cebu., Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
- Republic Act No. 9390 of 15 March 2007 Charter of the City of Bogo
- G.R. No. 176951 et al. (First appeal) of 18 November 2008 Consolidated petitions for prohibition assailing the constitutionality of the subject Cityhood Laws and enjoining the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) and respondent municipalities from conducting plebiscites pursuant to the Cityhood Laws.
- Napallacan, Jhunex (2008-11-21). "Cities’ demotion worries DepEd execs". Cebu Daily News. Inquirer.net. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- G.R. No. 176951 et al. (First reversal) of 21 December 2009
- Republic Act No. 9009 of 24 February 2001 An Act amending section 450 of Republic Act no. 7160, otherwise known as the Local Government Code of 1991, by increasing the average annual income requirement for a municipality or cluster of barangays to be converted into a component city.
- G.R. No. 176951 et al. (Second appeal) of 15 February 2011 League of Cities of the Philippines v. COMELEC
- G.R. No. 176951 et al. (Final Resolution) of 28 June 2011 Supreme Court has directed the Clerk of Court to forthwith issue the Entry of Judgment
- Media ng Bayan 2013.
- Philippine Star 2013.
- Yolanda hits northern Cebu – CNN iReport, CNN News. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
- Devastation in Northern Cebu, Philippines, Sunstar Daily. Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
- Nationwide and local holidays list, Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
- NCC 2014.
- Don Pedro Rodriguez-Grand Old Man of Bogo., Bogo On Line.
- Manila Standard 2013.
- Republic Act No. 7160 of 10 October 1991 Local Government Code of 1991. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- The Bogo City Hymn: A song that every true Bogohanon should know by the author Dante Mayor on 20 April 2010., Dante Mayor Post. Retrieved on 2 January 2014.
- City of Bogo Official Website
- Manila Standard (8 September 2013). "Remembering one of the greatest The Flash Elorde story". Manila Standard Today. Ronnie Nathanielsz. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Media ng Bayan (19 April 2013). "PNoy to campaign for local bets in Cebu on Friday, to open Bogo’s P250M city hall". Eddie O Barrita. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- NCC (20 May 2014). ""Kanaas" Gikan sa Amihanan". National Computer Center. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014.
- Philippine Star (7 November 2013). "MONSTER TYPHOON GROWS STRONGER; 10 areas in Visayas under signal no.4". Louis Bacani. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- Official Website of the City Government of Bogo
- Bogohanons' Social Network
- City of Bogo
- Townfolks celebrate Bogo’s cityhood
- The Bogo Times
|San Remigio||Camotes Sea|