Bogue-class escort carrier
USS Bogue (CVE-9)
|Preceded by||Long Island class|
|Succeeded by||Sangamon class|
|Speed||18 kn (33 km/h; 21 mph)|
|Range||26,300 nmi (48,700 km; 30,300 mi) at 15 kn (28 km/h; 17 mph)|
The Bogue class were a class of 45 escort carriers built in the United States for service with the US Navy and the Royal Navy, through the Lend-Lease program, during World War II. Following the war, ten Bogue-class ships were kept in service by the US Navy and were reclassified for helicopter and aircraft transport operations.
The first 22 ships of the class were converted from finished, or near finished, Maritime Commission C3-S-A1 and C3-S-A2 ships, with 11 retained by the US Navy, and the other 11 transferring to the RN, where they were renamed and grouped as the Attacker class. Prince William was the last of the USN ships built and comprised all of the lessons learned in the earlier ships, sometimes it is referred to as its own subclass of the Bogue class. The remaining 23 ships were built from the keel up on C3-class designs and classified as Ruler class, or the Ameer-class. Following the war, those ships that served with the Royal Navy were returned to the United States and were either scrapped or converted for mercantile use.
Construction and design
The Bogue-class escort carriers were based on the Maritime Commission's Type C3 cargo ships hull. They all were named for sounds. All of the ships for the US Navy and half of the ships for the Royal Navy were built by the Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation, some of the early Royal Navy ships were produced by Ingalls Shipbuilding of Pascagoula, Mississippi, and Western Pipe and Steel Company of San Francisco, California.
The Bogue class displaced 8,390 long tons (8,520 t) at standard load and 13,980 long tons (14,200 t) at full load. The ships had a waterline length of 465 ft (142 m) with an overall length of 495 ft 8 in (151.08 m). Their beam was 69 ft 6 in (21.18 m) at the waterline with a maximum beam of 111 ft 6 in (33.99 m). The draft was 24 ft 8 in (7.52 m) at full load and 21 ft (6.4 m) at light load.
Propulsion and power
The previous Long Island and Charger-class escort carriers had suffered from reliability issues with their diesel engines so it was decided that the Bogues would use two water-tube boilers, built by Foster-Wheeler, feeding steam to an Allis-Chalmers steam turbine engine connected to a single shaft. This produced 8,500 bhp (6,300 kW), which could propel the ship at 18 kn (33 km/h; 21 mph). They could sail 26,300 nmi (48,700 km; 30,300 mi) at 15 kn (28 km/h; 17 mph).
The Bogue class had the capacity for up to 24 anti-submarine or fighter aircraft, which could be a mixture of the Grumman Wildcat, Vought F4U Corsair and Grumman Avenger. The exact composition of the embarked squadrons depended upon the mission. Some squadrons were composite squadrons for convoy defence, and would be equipped with anti-submarine and fighter aircraft, while other squadrons working in a strike-carrier role would only be equipped with fighter aircraft. When utilised in ferry service the ships could carry up to 90 aircraft between both the flight and hangar decks. Aircraft facilities consisted of a small combined bridge–flight control island on the forward starboard side of the ship. The flight deck was 440 ft × 82 ft (134 m × 25 m), with nine arresting wires and three barriers at the stern, along with one hydraulic catapult on the port side at the bow, which was able to launch a 3.5 short tons (3.2 t) aircraft at 61 kn (113 km/h; 70 mph). Two 6.5 short tons (5.9 t) elevators were placed on the flight deck, one at the stern and one near the bow. The hangar deck was 262 ft × 62 ft × 18 ft (79.9 m × 18.9 m × 5.5 m) and fully enclosed, which was larger than the previous Long Island class. The hangar deck retained the camber at the bow and stern of the main deck of the merchant ships they were built on. Since the elevators were placed near the ends of the flight deck, pulleys were required for handling planes on and off of them on the hangar deck, which was difficult in normal conditions, and impossible in rough seas. The ships were also equipped with derricks for retrieving seaplanes and loading and unloading aircraft.
The Bogue class was equipped with a variety of weapons, which varied throughout the war and from ship to ship. The early ships were equipped with two 5-inch (130 mm)/51 caliber guns for surface targets, on sponsons at either side of the stern, these were soon refit with two 5-inch/38 caliber dual-purpose guns, and standardized on the remaining ships of the class. For anti-aircraft (AA) cover they were only equipped with ten 20-millimeter (0.79 in) Oerlikon cannons. This was later augmented with up to eight twin mounted 40-millimeter (1.57 in) Bofors AA guns and an additional 10 to 18 Oerlikons in single or twin mounts.
After the war, the 10 remaining Bogue class escort carriers retained in US service were re-designated as "helicopter escort carriers" (CVHE) in 1955, and five of these were re-designated as "utility escort carriers" (CVU) in 1958, then aircraft ferry (AKV) in 1958, and operating under US Military Sea Transportation Service (MSTS) during the Vietnam War.
Thirty-four of the 45 ships of the Bogue class were transferred to the Royal Navy under the provisions of the Lend-Lease program; they were given new names for their RN service and returned to the US Navy after the war. Out of the first group of 22 ships, 11 were transferred to the RN and reclassified as Attacker class. These ships had been converted from Maritime Commission Type C3 cargo ships that were finished or had already been laid down. A second group of 23 ships were built from the keel up, based on C3-S-A1 or C3-S-A1 plans, and transferred to the RN and reclassified as Ruler class, or Ameer class, in British service, and sometimes as the Prince William class by the US Navy.
As delivered, these carriers required modifications to conform to Royal Naval standards. The Attacker class ships had their conversions carried out in drydocks in United Kingdom, but due to these ports being overwhelmed 19 of the 23 ships of the Ameer class were converted by Burrard Dry Dock at Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. These included extending the flight deck, fitting redesigned flying controls and fighter direction layout, modifications to the hangar, accommodation and store rooms, extra safety measures, oiling at sea arrangements, gunnery and other internal communications, extra wireless and radio facilities, ship blackout arrangements and other items deemed necessary for British service.
The consequential delays in getting these ships into active service caused critical comments from some in the US Navy.
Ships of class
Converted from C-3 cargo ships.
|British name||Builder||Laid down||Launched||Commissioned||Decommissioned||Fate|
|CVE-6||Altamaha (ex-Mormacmail)||D18||Battler||Ingalls Shipbuilding||15 April 1941||4 April 1942||15 November 1942||12 February 1946||Returned to US, sold for scrap 14 May 1946|
|CVE-7||Barnes (ex-Steel Artisan)||D02||Attacker||Western Pipe and Steel Company||17 April 1941||27 September 1941||30 September 1942||5 January 1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use February 1947|
|CVE-8||Block Island (ex-Mormacpenn)||D80||Hunter (ex-Trailer)||Ingalls Shipbuilding||15 May 1941||22 May 1942||9 January 1943||29 December 1945||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use 17 January 1947|
|CVE-9||Bogue (ex-Steel Advocate)||N/A||N/A||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||1 October 1941||15 January 1942||26 September 1942||30 November 1946||Sold for scrapping 1960|
|CVE-10||Breton||D32||Chaser||Ingalls Shipbuilding||28 June 1941||15 February 1943||9 April 1943||12 May 1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-11||Card||N/A||N/A||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||27 October 1941||27 February 1942||8 November 1942||13 May 1946||Converted to an aircraft transport as USNS Card, sold for scrapping in 1971|
|CVE-12||Copahee||N/A||N/A||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||18 June 1941||21 October 1941||15 June 1942||5 July 1946||Sold for scrapping 1961|
|CVE-13||Core||N/A||N/A||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||2 January 1942||15 May 1942||10 December 1942||4 October 1946||Sold for scrapping 1971|
|CVE-14||Croatan||D64||Fencer||Western Pipe and Steel Company||5 September 1941||4 April 1942||20 February 1943||21 December 1945||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-15||Hamlin||D91||Stalker||Western Pipe and Steel Company||6 October 1941||5 March 1942||21 December 1942||29 December 1945||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-16||Nassau||N/A||N/A||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||27 November 1941||4 April 1942||20 August 1942||28 October 1946||Sold for scrap 1961|
|CVE-17||St. George||D73||Pursuer||Ingalls Shipbuilding||31 July 1941||18 July 1942||14 June 1943||12 February 1946||Returned to US, sold for scrapping 1946|
|CVE-18||Altamaha||N/A||N/A||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||19 December 1941||22 May 1942||15 September 1942||27 September 1946||Sold for scrapping 1961|
|CVE-19||Prince William||D12||Striker||Western Pipe and Steel Company||15 December 1941||7 May 1942||18 May 1943||12 February 1946||Returned to US, sold for scrapping 1948|
|CVE-20||Barnes||N/A||N/A||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||19 January 1942||2 May 1942||20 February 1943||29 August 1946||Sold for scrapping 1960|
|CVE-21||Block Island||N/A||N/A||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||19 January 1942||1 May 1942||8 March 1943||N/A||Torpedoed by German submarine U-549, scuttled 29 May 1944|
|AVG-22||N/A||D40||Searcher||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||20 February 1942||20 June 1942||7 April 1943||29 November 1945||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-23||Breton||N/A||N/A||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||25 February 1942||27 June 1942||12 April 1943||20 August 1946||Sold for scrapping 1972|
|AVG-24||N/A||D70||Ravager||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||11 April 1942||16 July 1942||25 April 1943||27 February 1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-25||Croatan||N/A||N/A||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||15 April 1942||1 August 1942||28 April 1943||20 May 1946||Sold for scrapping 1971|
|BAVG-6||N/A||D24||Tracker||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||3 November 1941||7 March 1942||31 January 1943||2 November 1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-31||Prince William||N/A||N/A||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||18 May 1942||23 August 1942||9 April 1943||29 August 1946||Sold for scrapping, 1961|
Built from the keel up as escort carriers. General characteristics as the Attacker class, except for displacement and armament.
|British name||Builder||Laid down||Launched||Commissioned||Decommissioned||Fate|
|CVE-32||Chatham||D26||Slinger||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||25 May 1942||19 September 1942||11 August 1943||12 April 1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-33||Glacier||D51||Atheling||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||9 June 1942||7 September 1942||28 October 1943||6 December 1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-34||Pybus||D98||Emperor||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||23 June 1942||7 October 1942||6 August 1943||28 March 1946||Returned to US, sold for scrapping 1946|
|CVE-35||Baffins||D01||Ameer||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||18 July 1942||18 October 1942||20 July 1943||20 March 1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-36||Bolinas||D38||Begum||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||3 August 1942||11 November 1942||2 August 1943||26 February 1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-37||Bastian||D09||Trumpeter||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||25 August 1942||15 December 1942||4 August 1943||19 June 1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-38||Carnegie||D42||Empress||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||9 September 1942||30 December 1942||12 August 1943||28 March 1946||Returned to US, sold for scrapping 1946|
|CVE-39||Cordova||D62||Khedive||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||22 September 1942||30 January 1943||25 August 1943||19 July 1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-40||Delgada||D90||Speaker||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||9 October 1942||20 February 1943||20 November 1943||25 September 1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-41||Edisto||D77||Nabob||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||20 October 1942||22 March 1943||7 September 1943||10 October 1944||Torpedoed by German submarine U-354, judged not worth repair. Later salvaged and sold for mercantile use.|
|CVE-42||Estero||D23||Premier||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||31 October 1942||22 March 1943||3 November 1943||21 May 1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-43||Jamaica||D21||Shah||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||13 November 1942||21 April 1943||27 September 1943||7 February 1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-44||Keweenaw||D07||Patroller||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||27 November 1942||6 May 1943||25 October 1943||7 February 1947||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-45||Prince||D10||Rajah||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||17 December 1942||18 May 1943||17 January 1944||7 February 1947||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-46||Niantic||D03||Ranee||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||5 January 1943||2 June 1943||8 November 1943||22 January 1947||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-47||Perdido||D85||Trouncer||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||1 February 1943||16 June 1943||31 January 1944||12 April 1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-48||Sunset||D48||Thane||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||23 February 1943||15 July 1943||19 November 1943||1945||Torpedoed by German submarine U-1172, declared a total loss and sold for scrap.|
|CVE-49||St. Andrews||D19||Queen||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||12 March 1943||2 August 1943||7 December 1943||1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-50||St. Joseph||D72||Ruler||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||25 March 1943||21 August 1943||22 December 1943||29 January 1946||Returned to US, sold for scrapping 1946|
|CVE-51||St. Simon||D31||Arbiter||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||26 April 1943||9 September 1943||31 December 1943||12 April 1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-52||Vermillion||D55||Smiter||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||10 May 1943||27 September 1943||20 January 1944||6 May 1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-53||Willapa||D79||Puncher||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||21 May 1943||8 November 1943||5 February 1944||16 February 1946||Returned to US, sold for mercantile use|
|CVE-54||Winjah||D82||Reaper||Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corporation||5 June 1943||22 November 1943||18 February 1944||2 July 1946||Used for captured aircraft transport after May 1945,|
then returned to US, sold for mercantile use.
- List of aircraft carriers
- List of aircraft carriers of World War II
- List of ship classes of World War II
- Petrescu, Relly; Petrescu, Florian (February 2013). The Aviation History. Norderstedt: Books on Demand GmbH. ISBN 9783848266395.
- Chesneau, Roger (1998). Aircraft Carriers of the World: 1914 to the Present. London, England: Brockhampton Press. ISBN 1860198759.
- Fontenoy, Paul (2006). Aircraft Carriers: An Illustrated History of Their Impact. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-Clio, Inc. ISBN 9781851095735.
- Jane, Frederick Thomas; Prendergast, Maurice; Parkes, Oscar (1961). Jane's Fighting Ships. Santa Barbara, California: Jane's Publishing Company Limited.
- Wragg, David (2005). The Escort Carrier in the Second World War: Combustible, Vulnerable, Expendable!. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, England: Pen & Sword Books. ISBN 9781783409327.
- Gardiner, Robert (1984). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1922-1946. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9780870219139.
- Konstam, Angus (2019). British Escort Carriers 1941–1945. Oxford, United Kingdom: Osprey Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4728-3625-0.
- Poolman, Kenneth (1972). Escort Carrier 1941–1945. London: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0273-8.
- Morison, Samuel (2002). History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07062-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bogue class escort carriers.|