Bohol

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This article is about the Philippine province. For other uses, see Bohol (disambiguation).
Bohol
Province
Province of Bohol
Bohol Capitol Building, Tagbilaran
Bohol Capitol Building, Tagbilaran
Flag of Bohol
Flag
Official seal of Bohol
Seal
Anthem: Awit sa Bohol Bohol Hymn[1]
Location in the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
Coordinates: 9°54′N 124°12′E / 9.9°N 124.2°E / 9.9; 124.2Coordinates: 9°54′N 124°12′E / 9.9°N 124.2°E / 9.9; 124.2
Country Philippines
Region Central Visayas (Region VII)
Discovered
Founded
25 March 1565
22 July 1854
Provincial Capital Tagbilaran
Government[2]
 • Type Sangguniang Panlalawigan
 • Governor Edgar Chatto (LP)
 • Vice governor Dionisio Balite
 • Provincial Board
Area[3]
 • Total 4,820.95 km2 (1,861.38 sq mi)
Population (2015 census)[4]
 • Total 1,313,560
 • Density 270/km2 (710/sq mi)
 • Voter(2016)[5] 798,768
Demonym(s) Boholano
Divisions
 • Independent cities 0
 • Component cities
 • Municipalities
 • Districts 3
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP code 6300–6346
IDD:area code +63(0)38 
ISO 3166 code PH-BOH
Income class 1st class
PSGC 071200000
Website www.bohol.gov.ph

Bohol is a 1st provincial income class island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region, consisting of the island itself and 75 minor surrounding islands.[6] Its capital is Tagbilaran. With a land area of 4,821 km2 (1,861 sq mi) and a coastline 261 km (162 mi) long, Bohol is the tenth largest island of the Philippines.[7] To the west of Bohol is Cebu, to the northeast is the island of Leyte and to the south, across the Bohol Sea, is Mindanao.

The province is a popular tourist destination with its beaches and resorts.[8] The Chocolate Hills, numerous mounds of limestone formations, are the most popular attraction. The formations can be seen by land (climbing the highest point) or by air via ultralight air tours. Panglao Island, located just southwest of Tagbilaran, is famous for its diving locations and is routinely listed as one of the top ten diving locations in the world. Numerous tourist resorts and dive centers dot the southern beaches. The Philippine tarsier, amongst the world's smallest primates, is indigenous to the island.

A narrow strait separates the island of Cebu and Bohol, and both share a common language, but the Boholanos retain a conscious distinction from the Cebuanos. Bohol's climate is generally dry, with maximum rainfall between the months of June and October. The interior is cooler than the coast.

It is the home province of Carlos P. Garcia, the eighth president of the Republic of the Philippines (1957–1961) who was born in Talibon, Bohol.[9]

On 15 October 2013, Bohol was devastated by a 7.2 magnitude earthquake whose epicenter was 6 km (3.7 mi) south of Sagbayan town. The earthquake, which also hit southern Cebu, claimed 156 lives altogether and injured 374 people. It also destroyed or damaged a number of Bohol's heritage churches.[10][11]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

A drawing from the Boxer Codex depicting the Pintados.

Bohol was first settled by Australoid people, like the rest of the Philippines. They still inhabit the island today and are known as the Eskaya tribe. Their population also was absorbed into the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian peoples who later settled the islands and form the majority of the population. The Austronesian people living on Bohol traded with other islands in the Philippines and as far as China and Borneo.

The people of Bohol are said to be the descendants of a group of inhabitants who settled in the Philippines called pintados or "tattooed ones."[12] Boholanos already had a culture of their own as evidenced by artifacts unearthed at Mansasa, Tagbilaran, and in Dauis and Panglao.

In a book entitled Tubod The Heart of Bohol published and accredited by the National Commission for Culture and the Arts of the Philippines, Bohol's first indigenous people settled in the Anda peninsula. These people came from northeast Mindanao. These people were responsible for the Anda petrographs which are one of the most important indigenous rock writing in the country. Around the 12th century, a group of people from Northern Mindanao settled in the straight between mainland Bohol and the island of Panglao. Those people came from a nation in northern Mindanao called Lutao (probably the animist kingdom of what will soon be the Islamic Lanao). According to the much credited book, those people established the Kingdom of Dapitan in western Bohol because the true indigenous people of Bohol in the Anda peninsula and nearby areas were not open to them, forcing them to establish settlement in the western part of the island. The kingdom was first built with hardwood on the soft seabed. It engaged it trade with nearby areas and some Chinese merchants. The Jesuit Alcina tales about a rich nation he called the 'Venice of the Visayas', pointing to the Kingdom of Dapitan at that time. The Jesuit also tells of a princess named Bugbung Hamusanum, whose beauty caused her suitor to raid parts of southern China to win her hand. By 1563, before the full Spanish colonization agenda came to Bohol, the Kingdom of Dapitan was at war with the Ternateans of the Moluccas (who were also raiding the Rajahnate of Butuan). At the time, Dapitan was ruled by two brothers named Dalisan and Pagbuaya. The Ternateans at the time were allied to the Portuguese. Dapitan was destroyed and King Dalisan was killed in battle. His brother, King Pagbuaya, together with his people fled back to Mindanao and established a new Dapitan in the northern coast of the Zamboanga peninsula. The new Dapitan eventually was subjugated by the Spanish. No records about the indigenous Dapitan royalties were recorded afterwards.[13]

Bohol is derived from the word Bo-ho or Bo-ol.[7] The island was the seat of the first international treaty of peace and unity between the native king Datu Sikatuna and Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi on 16 March 1565 through a blood compact alliance known today by many Filipinos as the Sandugo.[14]

Spanish colonial period[edit]

The earliest significant contact of the island with Spain occurred in 1565. On 25 March (16 March in the Julian calendar), a Spanish explorer named Miguel López de Legazpi arrived in Bohol seeking spices and gold. After convincing the native chieftains that they were not Portuguese (who raided the islands of Mactan in 1521), Legazpi made a peace pact with Datu Sikatuna. This pact was signified with a blood compact between the two men.[15] This event, called the Sandugo ("one blood"), is celebrated in Bohol every year during the Sandugo Festival. The Sandugo or blood compact is also depicted on Bohol's provincial flag and the Bohol provincial seal.[16]

Statue commemorating the "Blood Compact" in Tagbilaran

Two significant revolts occurred in Bohol during the Spanish Era. One was the Tamblot Uprising in 1621, led by Tamblot, a babaylan or native priest. The other was the famous Dagohoy Rebellion, considered the longest in Philippine history. This rebellion was led by Francisco Dagohoy, also known as Francisco Sendrijas, from 1744 to 1829.[15]

Politically, Bohol was administered as a residencia of Cebu. It became a separate politico-military province on 22 July 1854 together with Siquijor. A census in 1879 found Bohol with a population of 253,103 distributed among 34 municipalities.[17]

The culture of the Boholanos was influenced by Spain and Mexico during colonization. Many traditional dances, music, dishes and other aspects of the culture have considerable Hispanic influence.

U.S. intervention and occupation[edit]

After the United States defeated Spain in the Spanish–American War, the U.S. bought the entire Philippine islands. However, under the newly proclaimed independent government established by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, which was not recognized by the U.S., Bohol was governed as a Gobierno de Canton.

During the resulting Philippine–American War, American troops peacefully took over the island in March 1899.[18] However, in January 1901, Pedro Sanson led 2,000 in rebellion, due to the harsh treatment imparted by these troops and the destruction they caused.[18] General Hughes led a campaign of repression in October 1901, destroying a number of towns, and threatening in December 1901 to burn Tagbilaran if the rebels did not surrender.[18] Pantaleon E. del Rosario then negotiated the rebel surrender.[18]

On 10 March 1917, the Americans made Bohol a separate province under Act 2711 (which also established most of the other Philippine provinces).

Japanese occupation and liberation[edit]

Japanese troops landed in Tagbilaran on 17 May 1942. Boholanos struggled in a guerilla resistance against the Japanese forces. Bohol was later liberated by the local guerrillas and the Filipino and American troops who landed on 11 April 1945.[19]

A plaque placed on the port of Tagbilaran commemorating the liberation reads:

One thousand one hundred seventy two officers and men of the 3rd Battalion of the 164th Infantry Regiment of the Americal Division under the command of Lt. Col. William H. Considine landed at the Tagbilaran Insular Wharf at 7:00 o'clock in the morning of April 11, 1945.

The convoy taking the Filipino and American liberation forces to Bohol consisted of a flotilla of six landing ships (medium), six landing crafts (infantry), two landing crafts (support), and one landing craft (medium-rocket)[clarification needed]. Upon arrival, the reinforced battalion combat team advanced rapidly to the east and northeast with the mission of destroying all hostile forces in Bohol. Motor patrols were immediately dispatched by Col. Considine, Task Force Commander, and combed the area to the north and east, approximately halfway across the island, but no enemies were found during the reconnaissance. Finally, an enemy group of undetermined strength was located to the north of Ginopolan in Valencia, near the Sierra-Bullones boundary.

By 17 April the Task Force was poised to strike in Ginopolan. The bulk of the Japanese force was destroyed and beaten in the ten days of action. Bohol was officially declared liberated on 25 May 1945 by Major General William H. Arnold, Commander of the Americal Division. About this time, most officers and men of the Bohol Area Command had been processed by units of the Eighth United States Army.

On 31 May 1945, the Bohol Area Command was officially deactivated upon orders of Lt. General Robert L. Eichelberger, Commanding General of the Eighth United States Army, together with the Philippine Constabulary, the former Philippine Commonwealth Army Forces and the Boholano guerrillas.

During the Second Battle of Bohol from March to August 1945, Filipino troops of the 8th, 83rd, 85th and 86th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and 8th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary captured and liberated the island province of Bohol and helped the Boholano guerrilla fighters and U.S. liberation forces defeat the Japanese Imperial forces under General Sōsaku Suzuki.[citation needed]

Earthquakes[edit]

Main article: 2013 Bohol earthquake

At 8:12 a.m. (PST) on 15 October 2013, the island province suffered a severe earthquake with a magnitude of 7.2 on the Richter scale.[20] Its epicenter was at 9°52′N 124°04′E / 9.86°N 124.07°E / 9.86; 124.07 (6 km (3.7 mi) S 24° W of Sagbayan and 629 km (391 mi) from Manila), and its depth of focus was 12 km (7.5 mi). The quake was felt as far as Davao City, Mindanao. According to official reports by the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), 57 people died in Bohol, and 104 were injured.[21]

It was the deadliest earthquake in the Philippines since the 7.8 magnitude 1990 Luzon earthquake.[22] Earlier that same year Bohol was struck by an earthquake (on 8 February 1990) with an epicentre almost exactly the same as in 2013,[23] causing six fatalities and 200 injured. Several buildings were damaged and it caused a tsunami.[24]

Geography[edit]

The Chocolate Hills of Bohol

The Chocolate Hills are considered one of Philippine's natural wonders and Bohol is often referred to as the Jewel of the Philippines. They are hills made of limestone left over from coral reefs during the Ice Age when the island was submerged. They turn brown during the summer.

There are four main rivers that run through Bohol, with the Loboc River running from the center of the island to the mid-southern coast. The largest river, the Inabanga, runs in the northwestern part of the province; the Abatan River runs in the southwest, and Ipil River in the north.

Numerous waterfalls and caves are scattered across the island, including Mag‑Aso Falls in Antequera. Mag‑Aso means smoke in the native tongue. The water is cool and often creates a mist in humid mornings which can hide the falls.

The Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape protects Bohol's largest remaining lowland forest and can be found in the island's southern portion near Bilar.

Physical[edit]

With a land area of 4,821 km2 (1,861 sq mi) and a coastline 261 km (162 mi) long, Bohol is the tenth largest island of the Philippines. The main island is surrounded by about 70 smaller islands, the largest of which are Panglao Island, facing Tagbilaran, in the southwest and Lapinig Island in the northeast.

The terrain of Bohol is basically rolling and hilly, and about half the island is covered in limestone. Near the outer areas of the island are low mountain ranges. The interior is a large plateau with irregular landforms.

Near Carmen, the Chocolate Hills are more than 1,200 uniformly cone-shaped limestone hills named for the grass growing on the hills that turns brown in the summer, making the landscape look like chocolate mounds. The Chocolate Hills appear on the provincial seal of Bohol.

Islands[edit]

The outlying islands surrounding mainland Bohol under the jurisdiction of the Bohol Provincial Government are:

  • Alicia
  • Bagatusan
  • Bagong Banwa
  • Balicasag
  • Banacon
  • Banbanan
  • Bansaan
  • Batasan
  • Bay Sa Owak
  • Bilangbilangan
  • Bonbon
  • Bosaan
  • Buabuahan
  • Bugatusan
  • Busalian
  • Cabilao
  • Cabul‑an
  • Cabantulan
  • Cabgan
  • Calangaman
  • Cancoslino
  • Calituban
  • Cataban
  • Catang
  • Cati‑il
  • Cuaming
  • Gak‑ang
  • Gaus
  • Guindacpan
  • Hambongan
  • Hingutanan
  • Inanoran
  • Jaguliao
  • Jandayan
  • Jao
  • Juagdan
  • Lapinig
  • Lapinig Chico (Tres Reyes)
  • Limasoc
  • Lumislis
  • Ma‑agpit
  • Mahanay
  • Makaina
  • Makalingao
  • Malingin
  • Mantatao Daku
  • Mantatao Gamay
  • Maomauan
  • Maubay
  • Mocaboc
  • Nasingin
  • Nocnocan
  • Pamasaun
  • Pamilacan
  • Pandanon
  • Pandao
  • Pangangan
  • Pangapasan
  • Panglao
  • Pinango
  • Potohan
  • Pungtud
  • Saag
  • Sagasa
  • Sandingan
  • Sentingnenay
  • Silo
  • Sinandigan
  • Tabangdio
  • Talibon
  • Talimobo
  • Tambo
  • Tangtaang
  • Tintinan
  • Tumok

Tarsier[edit]

In 1996 the Philippine Tarsier Foundation was established in Corella, Bohol in efforts to help conserve and protect tarsiers and their habitat. Forest and habitat sanctuaries have been created to ensure the safety of tarsiers while allowing visitors to roam and discover these miniature primates in their natural habitats.

The tarsier is the smallest living primate that exists in several South East Asian countries today. The Philippine tarsier, Tarsius syrichta, is near to threatened according to the IUCN Red List of Endangered Species.[25] Adaptation to their large bulging eyes allows them to catch prey clearly at night, and with elongated limbs and fingers, leaping from tree to tree gives no limitation to the tarsier.[26] Their brain is about the same size as their eyes. The connection between its eyes and brain serves a unique function to these animals which is important for their stability and balance.[27] Tarsiers have incredible hearing abilities. They can hear a frequency of up to 91 kHz (kilohertz) and send sounds of 70 kHz.[28]

Climate[edit]

From November to April, the northeast monsoon (amihan) prevails. Except for a rare shower, this is the mildest time of the year. Daytime temperatures average 28 °C (82 °F), cooling at night to around 25 °C (77 °F). The summer season from May to July brings higher temperatures and very humid days. From August to October is the southwest monsoon (habagat). The weather during this season is not very predictable, with weeks of calm weather alternating with rainy days. It can rain any day of the year, but a higher chance of heavy showers occurs from November to January.

Administrative divisions[edit]

The province of Bohol is a first-class province divided into 3 congressional districts, contenting 1 component city and 47 municipalities.[29] It has 1,109 barangays[30] with a total population of 1,313,560.[4]


PSGC City or Municipality Population ±% p.a. Area[3] PD2015 Electorate Dist
2015[4] 2010[31] km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi 2016 2013
071201000 Alburquerque 0.8% 10,540 9,921 1.16% 26.98 10.42 390 1,000 6,698 6,574 I
071202000 Alicia 1.8% 23,517 22,285 1.03% 114.50 44.21 210 540 13,423 13,664 III
071203000 Anda 1.3% 16,462 16,909 −0.51% 61.89 23.90 270 700 11,852 11,043 III
071204000 Antequera 1.1% 14,425 14,481 −0.07% 118.60 45.79 120 310 8,691 6,574 I
071205000 Baclayon 1.6% 20,591 18,630 1.92% 34.43 13.29 600 1,600 12,166 11,728 I
071206000 Balilihan 1.4% 17,903 17,147 0.82% 127.27 49.14 140 360 11,556 10,995 I
071207000 Batuan 1.0% 12,767 12,431 0.51% 79.08 30.53 160 410 8,359 8,586 III
071248000 Bien Unido 2.1% 27,115 23,412 2.84% 27.39 10.58 990 2,600 15,858 15,230 II
071208000 Bilar 1.3% 17,590 17,078 0.56% 129.71 50.08 140 360 11,565 11,273 III
071209000 Buenavista 2.1% 27,261 26,443 0.58% 96.00 37.07 280 730 16,813 17,910 II
071210000 Calape 2.3% 30,863 29,786 0.68% 75.36 29.10 410 1,100 20,449 19,854 I
071211000 Candijay 2.2% 29,475 31,183 −1.07% 103.26 39.87 290 750 19,708 18,757 III
071212000 Carmen 3.5% 46,306 43,153 1.35% 239.45 92.45 190 490 29,767 29,228 III
071213000 Catigbian 1.7% 22,675 23,333 −0.54% 113.33 43.76 200 520 13,832 13,907 I
071214000 Clarin 1.5% 20,301 18,871 1.40% 52.12 20.12 390 1,000 13,743 13,160 II
071215000 Corella 0.6% 8,479 7,471 2.44% 37.22 14.37 230 600 5,140 4,898 I
071216000 Cortes 1.3% 16,954 14,586 2.91% 27.32 10.55 620 1,600 10,566 10,580 I
071217000 Dagohoy 1.5% 19,158 18,311 0.86% 77.59 29.96 250 650 11,228 11,041 II
071218000 Danao 1.4% 17,890 17,716 0.19% 162.76 62.84 110 280 12,212 12,027 II
071219000 Dauis 3.5% 45,663 36,525 4.34% 43.33 16.73 1,100 2,800 26,470 24,797 I
071220000 Dimiao 1.1% 14,364 14,187 0.24% 135.75 52.41 110 280 9,965 10,036 III
071221000 Duero 1.4% 17,876 17,254 0.68% 97.30 37.57 180 470 12,150 11,841 III
071222000 Garcia Hernandez 1.8% 24,194 21,308 2.45% 127.50 49.23 190 490 14,484 14,035 III
071226000 Getafe 2.4% 30,955 27,852 2.03% 120.50 46.53 260 670 18,576 18,926 II
071223000 Guindulman 2.5% 32,408 32,355 0.03% 179.17 69.18 180 470 20,529 19,848 III
071224000 Inabanga 3.5% 45,880 43,331 1.09% 125.63 48.51 370 960 25,979 26,345 II
071225000 Jagna 2.6% 33,892 32,034 1.08% 168.49 65.05 200 520 20,459 20,643 III
071227000 Lila 0.9% 12,257 10,801 2.44% 40.50 15.64 300 780 6,835 6,922 III
071228000 Loay 1.3% 16,691 15,881 0.95% 48.24 18.63 350 910 11,777 12,023 III
071229000 Loboc 1.2% 15,993 16,299 −0.36% 57.65 22.26 280 730 11,472 11,000 III
071230000 Loon 3.3% 43,034 42,441 0.26% 125.38 48.41 340 880 27,676 26,596 I
071231000 Mabini 2.1% 27,171 28,788 −1.09% 104.57 40.37 260 670 16,609 16,048 III
071232000 Maribojoc 1.6% 20,688 18,113 2.56% 69.08 26.67 300 780 12,753 12,194 I
071233000 Panglao 2.6% 33,553 25,558 5.32% 51.20 19.77 660 1,700 21,394 20,536 I
071234000 Pilar 2.1% 27,256 27,276 −0.01% 120.39 46.48 230 600 16,152 15,784 III
071235000 President Carlos P. Garcia 1.8% 23,356 25,118 −1.38% 54.82 21.17 430 1,100 14,455 14,392 II
071236000 Sagbayan 1.7% 22,339 22,339 0.00% 69.61 26.88 320 830 14,394 14,290 II
071237000 San Isidro 0.7% 8,744 9,176 −0.91% 60.04 23.18 150 390 6,509 6,144 II
071238000 San Miguel 1.8% 24,135 22,199 1.60% 123.29 47.60 200 520 14,040 13,679 II
071239000 Sevilla 0.8% 10,661 11,289 −1.08% 64.55 24.92 170 440 7,156 6,998 III
071240000 Sierra Bullones 1.9% 24,745 26,398 −1.22% 198.87 76.78 120 310 15,053 15,209 III
071241000 Sikatuna 0.5% 6,726 6,335 1.15% 38.22 14.76 180 470 4,647 4,760 I
071242000 Tagbilaran 8.0% 105,051 92,297 2.50% 36.50 14.09 2,900 7,500 59,949 51,462 I
071243000 Talibon 5.1% 66,969 59,274 2.35% 140.46 54.23 480 1,200 33,211 31,928 II
071244000 Trinidad 2.4% 31,956 27,580 2.84% 195.30 75.41 160 410 19,017 17,941 II
071245000 Tubigon 3.5% 45,893 44,434 0.62% 81.87 31.61 560 1,500 26,394 26,591 I
071246000 Ubay 5.6% 73,712 65,900 2.16% 335.06 129.37 220 570 41,792 40,211 II
071247000 Valencia 2.1% 27,126 28,043 −0.63% 116.67 45.05 230 600 15,245 15,377 III
TOTAL 1,313,560 1,255,128 0.87% 4,820.95 1,900 270 700 798,768 729,815
 † 
  
Provincial capital
Highly Urbanized City
  
  
Municipality
Component city

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Bohol
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1990 948,403 —    
1995 994,440 +0.89%
2000 1,139,130 +2.95%
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
2007 1,230,110 +1.07%
2010 1,255,128 +0.74%
2015 1,313,560 +0.87%
Source: Philippine Statistics Office[4][31][32]

According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 1,313,560.[4] In the 2016 election, it had 798,768 registered voters, meaning that 61% of the population are aged 18 and over.[5]

Legislative districts[edit]

Provincial Capitol Complex of Bohol in Tagbilaran
1st Congressional District

President Carlos P. Garcia  9,999,999
2nd Congressional District

President Carlos P. Garcia  9,999,999
3rd Congressional District

President Carlos P. Garcia  9,999,999
Rene Relampagos
Liberal Party
Erico Aristotle Aumentado
Nationalist People's Coalition
Arthur Yap
Nationalist People's Coalition
City or municipality Electorate
2016
City or municipality Electorate
2016
City or municipality Electorate
2016
Alburquerque 6,698 Bien Unido 15,858 Alicia 13,423
Antequera 8,691 Buenavista 16,813 Anda 11,852
Baclayon 12,166 Clarin 13,743 Batuan 8,359
Balilihan 11,556 Dagohoy 11,228 Bilar 11,565
Calape 20,449 Danao 12,212 Candijay 19,708
Catigbian 13,832 Getafe 18,576 Carmen 29,767
Corella 5,140 Inabanga 25,979 Dimiao 9,965
Cortes 10,566 President Carlos P. Garcia 14,455 Duero 12,150
Dauis 26,470 Sagbayan 14,394 Garcia Hernandez 14,484
Loon 27,676 San Isidro 6,509 Guindulman 20,529
Maribojoc 12,753 San Miguel 14,040 Jagna 20,459
Panglao 21,394 Talibon 33,211 Lila 6,835
Sikatuna 4,647 Trinidad 19,017 Loay 11,777
Tagbilaran 59,949 Ubay 41,792 Loboc 11,472
Tubigon 26,394 Mabini 16,609
Pilar 16,152
Sevilla 7,156
Sierra Bullones 15,053
Valencia 15,245
1st District 268,381 2nd District 257,827 3rd District 272,560
Total 798,768

Economy[edit]

Tourism plays an increasing role in the island's economy. The Panglao Island International Airport is currently planned for Panglao, which houses the most-visited and accessible beaches in the province. Proponents of the scheme hope that the new airport will increase Bohol's reputation as an international tourist destination although the plan has been dogged by ongoing criticism.[33]

Infrastructure[edit]

Airport[edit]

Tagbilaran Airport terminal building
Tagbilaran, Bohol, Philippines Sea Port
Sunset at Tagbilaran Sea Port

Though a number of national flag carriers serve the Tagbilaran Airport, a proposed international airport (see Panglao Island International Airport) has been planned on nearby Panglao Island to accommodate bigger aircraft and handle larger volumes of passengers and tourists to the province. The Panglao airport project is controversial. Private land in the planned right-of-way that was bought cheaply is being sold expensively, creating further issues and delays.

Seaports[edit]

Port of Tubigon, the busiest among the smaller ports, offers more than ten daily round trips plying the Cebu-Bohol route. Catagbacan Port in Loon serves the roll-on roll-off services between Cebu and Bohol for those who have vehicles. Port of Jagna offers service between Bohol to Cagayan and Camiguin (with roll-on/roll-off) route. The other ports are Ubay, Talibon, Getafe, Buenavista, and Clarin.

Media Organizations[edit]

Bohol has 2 major AM radio stations, DYRD and DYTR, both based in Tagbilaran City. Another AM radio station, DYZD, based in Ubay, is being operated by DYRD. Both DYRD and DYTR also operate FM stations with the same names. There are multiple weekly or bi-weekly newspapers like Bohol Chronicle, Sunday Post, Bohol Times, Bohol Standard and Bohol Bantay Balita. An online news website called Bohol News Daily aggregates news from various sources.

Education[edit]

The literacy rate of the province of Bohol is high at 98%.[30]

Institutions of Higher Learning:

Festivals[edit]

  • Sandugo Festival (1–31 July)
  • Tagbilaran City Fiesta (1 May)
  • Saulog Tagbilaran Festival in honor to Saint Joseph the Worker
  • Bolibong Kingking Festival (23–24 May) – Loboc, Bohol
  • Pana-ad sa Loboc (Holy Thursday & Good Friday) – Loboc
  • SidlaKasilak or Festival of LightsLoon (Fiesta Week: 30 August – 8 September)
  • Sambat Mascara y Regatta Festival (1st Saturday of December) – Loay, Bohol
  • Suroy sa Musikero (25 December 25 – 2 February) – Loboc
  • Bohol Fiestas (month of May)
  • Ubi Festival (January)[34]
  • Tigum Bol-anon Tibuok Kalibutan or TBTK – "A gathering of Boholanos from different parts of the world and the name for such a grand event"[35]
  • Hudyaka sa Panglao (27–28 August) Panglao, Bohol
  • Sinulog (3rd Saturday of January) – Valencia, Bohol
  • Dujan Festival (3rd to last week of January) – Anda
  • Sinuog–Estokada Festival (28–29 September) – Jagna
  • Chocolate Hills Festival – Carmen
  • Alimango Festival – Mabini
  • Humay Festival – Candijay
  • Guimbawan Festival – Batuan

Notable people[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hellingman 2002.
  2. ^ "Province". Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and Local Government. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
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  5. ^ a b "2016 National and Local Elections Statistics". Commission on Elections. 2016. 
  6. ^ "Bohol Island Philippines". bohol-philippines.com. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
  7. ^ a b The Island-Province of Bohol www.bohol.gov.ph Retrieved 15 November 2006.
  8. ^ Socio-economic Profile www.bohol.gov.ph
  9. ^ Bountiful Bohol www.aenet.org Retrieved 15 November 2006.
  10. ^ Philippines quake hits Cebu and Bohol BBC News. Retrieved on 15 October 2013
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  13. ^ http://ncca.gov.ph/publications/
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  15. ^ a b (Gardner 1997), sourced from Zaide 1949
  16. ^ The Bohol Flag and Seal www.bohol.gov.ph Retrieved November 15, 2006.
  17. ^ History of Bohol www.bohol.gov.ph Retrieved 15 November 2006.
  18. ^ a b c d Foreman 1906, p. 528.
  19. ^ A Short History of Bohol (Part II) www.bohol.ph Retrieved November 15, 2006.
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  28. ^ "World's Highest-Pitched Primate Calls Out Like a Bat". LiveScience.com. Retrieved 2016-01-27. 
  29. ^ NEDA 2000.
  30. ^ a b Bohol Profile Executive Brief www.bohol.gov.ph Retrieved November 19, 2006.
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  32. ^ "Region VII (CENTRAL VISAYAS)". Census of Population (1995, 2000 and 2007): Total Population by Province, City and Municipality (Report). NSO. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. 
  33. ^ "Bohol Profile on Infrastructure". Government of Bohol. Archived from the original on 10 October 2006. 
  34. ^ Bohol to hold ubi festival www.inq7.net Retrieved December 4, 2006
  35. ^ Bohol Island Festivals www.hoteltravel.com Retrieved November 19, 2006.

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