Boleslaus II, Duke of Bohemia

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This article is about the Bohemian duke nicknamed Boleslaus the Pious. For the Polish duke nicknamed Boleslaus the Pious, see Boleslaus of Greater Poland.
Boleslaus II, Duke of Bohemia
Boleslaus II the Pious
Reign 972 - 999
Spouse(s) Adiva
Emma of Mělník
Noble family Přemyslid dynasty
Father Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia
Mother Biagota
Born c. 932
Died 7 February 999(999-02-07)

Boleslaus II the Pious (Czech: Boleslav II. Pobožný) (c. 932 - 7 February 999) was a Bohemian nobleman, a member of the Přemyslid dynasty[1] and was the ruling Duke of Bohemia from 972 until his death.

The Reign of Boleslaus II[edit]

Boleslaus was the son of Boleslaus I and brother of Strachkvas, Dobrawa - wife of Mieszko I and Mlada Maria.[2] According to some historians his mother was Biagota. Biagota is only known from her coins and according some historians (V. Katz, J. Slama, J. Paukert) was wife of Boleslaus I.[3]

Boleslaus II became Duke (or Prince) on his father's death. Boleslaus maintained good relations with the Ottonian German kings, and in 975 supported Otto II during the civil war against Henry II, Duke of Bavaria. In 977, Boleslaus again attacked Bavaria, but on this occasion was barred from annexing any lands by Otto II.


Boleslaus' reign is most notable for the foundation of the Diocese of Prague in 973,[4] placed at that time within the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Mainz. In 982, Adalbert of Prague (later known as Saint Adalbert) was appointed to head the bishopric until he abandoned his primacy to lead a mission to the Old Prussians in 994. The alliance between Poland and Bohemia was overturned between 977 and 985, and Poland participated in invasions led by the German Emperor against Bohemia. However, in 985 or 990 Poland acquired Silesia at the expense of Bohemia.

Complete Unity[edit]

Duchy of Bohemia during the reign of Boleslav I and Boleslav II.

On 28 September 995, Boleslaus and his confederate Vršovci stormed Libice in southern Bohemia and massacred the members of the Slavník dynasty.[5] This clan had been the main rival of Přemyslid power in Bohemia. Boleslaus' brutal triumph ensured the unity of Bohemia under a single ruler.

Marriages and issue[edit]

Boleslaus' first wife Adiva, was perhaps the daughter of Edward the Elder, King of England, who married "a prince near the Jupiter mountains", meaning the Alps. His second wife was Emma of Mělník. His sons were:

  • Boleslaus III, his eldest son and successor
  • Wenceslaus, died as an infant
  • Jaromír, later became Duke of Bohemia
  • Oldřich, also became Duke of Bohemia


  1. ^ "The Přemyslids". Retrieved 15 September 2012. 
  2. ^ Sobiesiak, p. 16.
  3. ^ Sobiesiak, p. 236-237.
  4. ^ Bohemia to the Extinction of the Premyslids, Kamil Krofta, Cambridge Medieval History:Victory of the Papacy, Vol. VI, ed. J.R. Tanner, C.W. Previte-Orton and Z.N. Brooke, (Cambridge University Press, 1957), 432.
  5. ^ "Boleslaus II the Pious". Retrieved 15 September 2012. 


  • Joanna A. Sobiesiak: Bolesław II Przemyślida (†999): Dynasta i jego państwo. Kraków: Avalon, 2006
Boleslaus II, Duke of Bohemia
Born: c. 932 Died: 7 February 999
Preceded by
Boleslaus I
Duke of Bohemia
Succeeded by
Boleslaus III