Bolgar, Spassky District, Republic of Tatarstan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Bolgar

Болгар
Other transcription(s)
 • TatarБолгар
Coat of arms of Bolgar
Coat of arms
Location of Bolgar
Bolgar is located in Russia
Bolgar
Bolgar
Location of Bolgar
Bolgar is located in Tatarstan
Bolgar
Bolgar
Bolgar (Tatarstan)
Coordinates: 54°58′27″N 49°01′51″E / 54.97417°N 49.03083°E / 54.97417; 49.03083Coordinates: 54°58′27″N 49°01′51″E / 54.97417°N 49.03083°E / 54.97417; 49.03083
CountryRussia
Federal subjectTatarstan[1]
Administrative districtSpassky District[1]
Founded1781[2]
Area
 • Total8.0 km2 (3.1 sq mi)
Elevation
80 m (260 ft)
Population
 • Total8,650
 • Estimate 
(2018)[5]
8,476 (-2%)
 • Density1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
 • Capital ofSpassky District[1]
 • Municipal districtSpassky Municipal District[6]
 • Urban settlementBolgar Urban Settlement[6]
 • Capital ofSpassky Municipal District[6], Bolgar Urban Settlement[6]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[7])
Postal code(s)[8]
422840, 422869
Dialing code(s)+7 84347
OKTMO ID92632101001

Bolgar (Russian: Болгар; Tatar: Cyrillic Болгар, Latin Bolğar) is a town and the administrative center of Spassky District in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, located on the left bank of the Volga River, 140 kilometers (87 mi) from Kazan. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 8,650.[4]

It was previously known as Spassk (until 1926),[2] Spassk-Tatarsky (until 1935),[2] Kuybyshev (until 1991).[2]

History[edit]

View to the Bolgar Historical and Archaeological Complex before the implementation of the complex programme

The excavated monuments of the medieval capital of Volga Bulgaria, Bolgar, are within easy reach from the town. The modern town of Spassk (Спасск) was formed from the village of Spassk (Chertykovo) on the bank of Bezdna River in 1781.[2] It was renamed Spassk-Tatarsky (Спасск-Татарский) in 1926, then Kuybyshev Куйбышев), in honor of Valerian Kuybyshev, in 1935, before getting its present name in 1991.[2] It served as a district administrative center since 1930.[3]

In 1957, due the construction of Kuybyshev Reservoir and flooding of the original Spassk, the town was moved from the place of its foundation[3] closer to historical Bolgar.

In 1991, the town changed its name to Bolgar in honor of the remains of the medieval city of Bolghar (Bolgar Historical and Archaeological Complex) located nearby.

Since 2010, on the initiative and the supervision of the first president of the Republic of Tatarstan Mintimer Shaimiev, the complex programme 'Cultural Heritage - Island-Town of Sviyazhsk and Ancient Bolgar' has been implemented in Bolgar. The programme involves the conservation of architectural and archaeological heritage of Bolgar and the development of its touristic infrastructure. The programme has the following results:

  • Ket architectural monuments as Small Minaret, Cathedral Mosque, Khan's Shrine, Eastern Mausoleum, Northern Mausoleum, Eastern Chamber, Assumption Church were conserved;
  • Key archaeological ruins as Khan's Palace, Bath No2, Pottery Kilns were conserved;
  • Tourism and research infrastructure, including a River Station with the Museum of Bulgarian Civilization, Memorial Sign in honor of the adoption of Islam in the Volga Bulgaria, White Mosque, Healer's House and Crafts Workshops, International Centre for Archaeological Research, International Archaeological School, Museum of Bread, were constructed;
  • New museum expositions, including an Open-Air Museum on Turkic-Tatar Writing and Medieval Crafts of the City of Bolgar Ground were created;
  • Several houses on Nazarovykh and Mukhamedyara Streets were conserved, which are currently re-used as a cafe and museums;
  • Volga Riverside from the River station to the Saint Abraham's Well was improved and enhanced with interactive education facilities on Bolgar heritage.[9]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Bolgar serves as the administrative center of Spassky District, to which it is directly subordinated.[1] As a municipal division, the town of Bolgar, together with the selo of Bolgary, is incorporated within Spassky Municipal District as Bolgar Urban Settlement.[6]

Economy[edit]

As of 1997, the town's industrial enterprises included a meat factory, a bakery, a brewery, a clothing factory, and a forestry farm.[3] The nearest railway station is Cherdakly on the UlyanovskUfa line, 71 kilometers (44 mi) south of Bolgar.[3]

Since 2010, the tourism flow to Bolgar has increased about 20 times: in 2010 Bolgar was visited by 50 000 tourists, in 2018 the annual visitation number has reached 541 000.[10] In 2016, Bolgar became the most popular touristic towns of Russia.[11]

Demographics[edit]

Bolgar population
2010 Census8,650[4]
2002 Census8,655[12]
1989 Census8,397[13]
1979 Census8,383[14]

As of 1989, the population was ethnically mostly Russian (83.4%), Tatar (12.9%), and Chuvash (2.1%).[3]

As of 2018, the town is on the 989 place from 1113 cities and towns of the Russian Federation in terms of the number of its inhabitants.[15]

Attractions[edit]

The town is bordering the Bolgar Historical and Archaeological Complex World Heritage site. The property was inscribed to the World Heritage List in 2014 in accordance with criteria (ii) and (vi). Its architectural and archaeological heritage is considered as an evidence of the medieval city of Bolgar, which existed in the 7-15th centuries as a key political centre of the Volga Bulgaria and the first capital of the Golden Horde. The property also has a significant religious value as a symbolic place of the adoption of Islam by the Volga Bulgaria in 922 and serves asa pilgrimage place for Tatar Muslims.[16] The following historic monuments are located in the complex:

  • Northern Mausoluem
  • Eastern Mausoleum
  • Cathedral Mosque
  • Big Minaret (Reconstruction)
  • Assumption Church (currently operates as the Museum of the History of the Assumption Church)
  • Small Minaret and Khan's Shrine
  • Khan's Palace
  • Black Chamber
  • Eastern Chamber
  • White Chamber
  • Bath House No 2
  • Bath House No 3
  • Red Chamber

The Bolgar Historical and Archaeological Complex is managed by the Bolgar State Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve, which museums are located inside of the property:[17]

  • Museum of the Bulgarian Civilization
  • Quran Museum (Memorial Sign in honor of adoption of Islam by the Volga Bulgaria)
  • Healer's House Museum
  • Museum of the History of the Assumption Church
  • Turkic-Tatar Writing Open Air Museum
  • Bolgar Tea Party Museum
  • Town on a River Museum
  • Museum of the Nobility of Spassky Uyezd
  • Abdulla Alish Museum
  • Interactive Historic Riverside
  • Saint Abraham's Well

There are several attractions located close to the Bolgar Historical and Archaeological Complex:

  • Museum of Bread
  • Small Town
  • Camel Farm
  • Bolgar Historical and Archaeological Complex in the mid-20th century

  • White Mosque

  • Saint Abraham Church in the town of Bolgar

  • The visit of the President of Russian Federation Vladimir Putin to Bolgar in 2012

  • Memorial Sign in honor of the adoption of Islam by the Volga Bulgaria in 922

  • The ruins of the medieval city of Bolgar (1839)

  • Museum of Bread

  • Small Minaret, Khan's Shrine and Sahabah Memorial

  • The ruins of the Cathedral Mosque, the Big Minaret and the Assumption Church

  • Turkic-Tatar Writing History Open Air Museum

  • Black Chamber

  • Volga Riverside in Bolgar

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Order #01-02/9
  2. ^ a b c d e f Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 61. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Inhabited Localities of the Republic of Tatarstan, p. 246
  4. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  5. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d e Law #40-ZRT
  7. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  9. ^ "Итоги". yanarysh.tatarstan.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2018-08-08.
  10. ^ "За минувший год Болгар и Свияжск посетили более миллиона туристов". www.tatar-inform.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2018-08-08.
  11. ^ "Самые Малые Города России, Популярные Для Путешествий — ТурСтат". turstat.com (in Russian). Retrieved 2018-08-08.
  12. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  13. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  14. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России" [All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia] (XLS). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года [All-Union Population Census of 1979] (in Russian). 1979 – via Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics.
  15. ^ "Population of the Russian Federation in municipal districts".
  16. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Bolgar Historical and Archaeological Complex". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-08-08.
  17. ^ "Болгарский музей-заповедник – Attractions". xn----8sbcchjvajijg2b5a.xn--p1ai. Retrieved 2018-08-08.

Sources[edit]

  • Министерство юстиции Республики Татарстан. Приказ №01-02/9 от 4 февраля 2014 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов в Республике Татарстан», в ред. Приказа №01-02/160 от 11 марта 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Приказ Министерства юстиции Республики Татарстан от 04.02.2014 №01-02/9 "Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов в Республике Татарстан"». Опубликован: Официальный сайт правовой информации Министерства юстиции Республики Татарстан (http://pravo.tatarstan.ru), 27 февраля 2014 г. (Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Tatarstan. Order #01-02/9 of February 4, 2014 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Inhabited Localities in the Republic of Tatarstan, as amended by the Order #01-02/160 of March 11, 2015 On Amending the Order of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Tatarstan #01-02/9 of February 4, 2014 "On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Inhabited Localities in the Republic of Tatarstan". ).
  • Государственный Совет Республики Татарстан. Закон №40-ЗРТ от 31 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ территорий и статусе муниципального образования "Спасский муниципальный район" и муниципальных образований в его составе», в ред. Закона №100-ЗРТ от 22 ноября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Татарстан "Об установлении границ территорий и статусе муниципального образования "Спасский муниципальный район" и муниципальных образований в его составе"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Республика Татарстан", №№18–19, 1 февраля 2005 г. (State Council of the Republic of Tatarstan. Law #40-ZRT of January 31, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Territories and the Status of the Municipal Formation of "Spassky Municipal District" and of the Municipal Formations It Comprises, as amended by the Law #100-ZRT of November 22, 2014 On Amending the Law of the Republic of Tatarstan "On Establishing the Borders of the Territories and the Status of the Municipal Formation of "Spassky Municipal District" and of the Municipal Formations It Comprises". Effective as of the official publication date.).
    • Академия наук Республики Татарстан. Институт татарской энциклопедии (1997). Населённые пункты Республики Татарстан. Краткий справочник [Inhabited Localities of the Republic of Tatarstan. Brief Reference.location=Казань].