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Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): SAR
Superphylum: Heterokonta
Phylum: Ochrophyta
Class: Bolidophyceae
Order: Parmales
Family: Triparmaceae
Genus: Triparma
Booth and Marchant 1987
  • Triparma columacea
  • Triparma eleuthera
  • Triparma laevis
  • Triparma mediterranea
  • Triparma pacifica
  • Triparma retinervis
  • Triparma strigata
  • Triparma verrucosa
  • Bolidomonas

Triparma is a genus of unicellular algae in the family Triparmaceae in the order Parmales. They form siliceous plates on the cell surface that aid in identification. Triparma is distinguished by its possession of three shield plates, three triradiate girdle plates, a triradiate girdle plate with notched ends, and a small ventral plate.[1] It was first described by Booth & Marchant in 1987 and the holotype is Triparma columacea.[2]

Triparma cells have two forms: the motile, naked form and the non-motile siliceous form. The motile cells propelled by two flagella of unequal length, typical of heterokonts. The non-motile forms do not possess flagella but instead have a silicified cell wall with a distinctive plate morphology: three shield plates, three oblong girdle plates, a triradiate dorsal plate with rounded ends, and a large ventral plate. Both forms contain a single, dorsal chloroplast that contains chlorophylls a and c1-3 as well as fucoxanthin. They are typically 1-2 μm in size and generally spherical or heart-shaped.[3]

The genus Triparma is actively studied because of their close relationship to the diatoms, and it has been discovered that they have different silica-limitation responses. While diatoms stop growing and cell division is inhibited under low-silica conditions, Triparma continues to grow and divide normally even under nanomolar concentrations of silica, although the silica plates are no longer produced.[4]

Photosynthetic pigments present in bolydophyte choroplasts include chlorophylls a, c1, c2, c3, fucoxanthin, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin.[5]


The genus now includes all species from the non-monophyletic genus Bolidomonas, according to Ichinomiya et al (2016).[3][6]



  1. ^ Konno, Susumu; Jordan, Richard W. (November 2007). "An amended terminology for the Parmales (Chrysophyceae)". Phycologia. 46 (6): 612–616. doi:10.2216/07-29.1. 
  2. ^ Booth, Beatrice C.; Marchant, Harvey J. (June 1987). "PARMALES, A NEW ORDER OF MARINE CHRYSOPHYTES, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE NEW GENERA AND SEVEN NEW SPECIES". Journal of Phycology. 23 (s2): 245–260. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.1987.tb04132.x. 
  3. ^ a b Ichinomiya, Mutsuo; dos Santos, Adriana Lopes; Gourvil, Priscillia; Yoshikawa, Shinya; Kamiya, Mitsunobu; Ohki, Kaori; Audic, Stéphane; de Vargas, Colomban; Noël, Mary-Hélène; Vaulot, Daniel; Kuwata, Akira (22 March 2016). "Diversity and oceanic distribution of the Parmales (Bolidophyceae), a picoplanktonic group closely related to diatoms". The ISME Journal. 10 (10): 2419–2434. doi:10.1038/ismej.2016.38. Retrieved 10 April 2018. 
  4. ^ Yamada, Kazumasa; Yoshikawa, Shinya; Ichinomiya, Mutsuo; Kuwata, Akira; Kamiya, Mitsunobu; Ohki, Kaori; Lovejoy, Connie (23 July 2014). "Effects of Silicon-Limitation on Growth and Morphology of Triparma laevis NIES-2565 (Parmales, Heterokontophyta)". PLoS ONE. 9 (7): e103289. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103289. 
  5. ^ Dimier C, Giovanni S, Ferdinando T, Brunet C (April 2009). "Comparative Ecophysiology of the Xanthophyll Cycle in Six Marine Phytoplanktonic Species". Protist. 160 (3): 397–411. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2009.03.001. PMID 19375387. 
  6. ^ "Genus Detail :: Algaebase". AlgaeBase. Retrieved 11 April 2018. 
  7. ^ M.D. Guiry (2016), AlgaeBase, World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway, retrieved 25 October 2016