Bolivarian diaspora

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Bolivarian diaspora
Part of Crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela
People line in Maiquetía Airport.jpg
Bolivarian diaspora - Colombia 2018.jpg
2015 Venezuela–Colombia migrant crisis 2.jpg
(top to bottom, left to right)
Airline passengers leaving Venezuela from Maiquetia Airport; Colombian National Police leading Venezuelans into Cúcuta, Colombia; refugees seeking shade in a makeshift shelter
CauseSocial issues, political repression, crime, economic downturn, corruption, poverty, censorship, unemployment, shortages, undernutrition, human rights violations and others[1][2][3]

The Bolivarian diaspora, the largest recorded refugee crisis in the Americas,[6] refers to the emigration of millions of Venezuelans from their native country during the presidencies of Hugo Chávez and Nicolás Maduro due to the Bolivarian Revolution.[1][2][7] The revolution was an attempt by Chávez and later, Maduro to establish a cultural and political hegemony[8][9][10] which culminated in the crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela when their populist policies failed.[11] The resulting refugee crisis has been compared to those faced by Cuban exiles, Syrian refugees and those affected by the European migrant crisis.[12][13] The Bolivarian government of Venezuela has denied any migratory crisis, stating that the United Nations and others are attempting to justify foreign intervention within Venezuela.[14]

Newsweek described the Bolivarian diaspora as "a reversal of fortune on a massive scale", where the "reversal" is a comparison with Venezuela's high immigration rate during the 20th century.[2] Initially, upper class Venezuelans and scholars emigrated during Chávez's presidency, but middle- and lower-class Venezuelans began to leave as conditions worsened in the country.[15] This created a brain drain, due to the large number of emigrants who were educated or skilled.[16][17]

During the crisis, Venezuelans have often been asked about their desire to leave their native country[18] and over 30 percent of those asked in a December 2015 survey said that they planned to permanently leave Venezuela.[19] The percentage nearly doubled the following September as according to Datincorp 57 percent of respondents wanted to leave the country.[20] By 2018, about four million Venezuelans, more than 10 percent of the country's population, had emigrated since the revolution began in 1999.[5][21]


During the 20th century, "Venezuela was a haven for immigrants fleeing Old World repression and intolerance".[2] Emigration began in 1983 after oil prices collapsed, although "the outflow, mainly of professionals, has accelerated sharply under Mr. Chávez's Bolivarian Revolution".[22] Andrés Bello Catholic University Economic and Social Research Institute head Anitza Freitez said that emigration became more prominent during Chávez's presidency.[23]

First diaspora[edit]

Airport terminal, with colorful floor tiles
Venezuelan emigrants often take selfies of their feet against the Carlos Cruz-Diez-designed tiles at Maiquetia International Airport.[24] The Bolivarian government installed a replica of the tiles at the airport, which was seen as mocking the emigrants.[25]

In 1998, when Chávez was first elected, 14 Venezuelans were granted asylum in the United States; according to U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, 1,086 Venezuelans were granted asylum in the 12-month period ending in September 1999.[26] Chávez's promise to redistribute wealth to the poor concerned wealthy and middle-class Venezuelans, triggering the first wave of emigrants fleeing the Bolivarian government.[27]

After the April 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt in 2002 and years of political tension following Chávez's rise to power, Venezuela experienced a spike in emigration.[28] A May 2002 cable from the U.S. embassy in Caracas to United States agencies expressed astonishment at the number of Venezuelans attempting to enter the United States: "This drain of skilled workers could have a significant impact on Venezuela's future".[29] By June of that year, many Venezuelans who had family or links to other countries had emigrated; others, who had immigrated to Venezuela, began to leave due to economic and political instability.[28]

Following the 2006 Venezuelan presidential elections and Chávez's re-election, visits to emigration websites by Venezuelans increased; visits to rose from 20,000 in December 2006 to 30,000 in January 2007, and there was a 700-percent increase in visa applications from Venezuelans at[30] In 2009, it was estimated that more than one million Venezuelans had emigrated since Hugo Chávez became president.[2] According to the Central University of Venezuela, an estimated 1.5 million Venezuelans (four to six percent of the country's total population) emigrated between 1999 and 2014.[16]

Second diaspora[edit]

Academics and business leaders have said that emigration from Venezuela increased significantly during the final years of Chávez's presidency and, especially, during the presidency of Nicolás Maduro.[32] This second wave consisted of lower-income Venezuelans, the people whom Chávez promised to aid and who were experiencing hunger in the country's economic crisis.[27] Between 2012 and 2015, the number of Venezuelans who emigrated increased by 2,889 percent.[33]

In 2015, PGA Group estimated that a total of about 1.8 million Venezuelans had emigrated.[34][35] The following year, an estimated 150,000-plus Venezuelans emigrated – "the highest [number] in more than a decade, according to scholars studying the exodus".[27] Venezuelans have emigrated in a number of ways, and images of migrants fleeing by sea have been compared to Cuban exiles.[27]

A man, a woman and five children walking, seen from behind
A Venezuelan family entering Colombia

According to the Colombian government, more than 100,000 Venezuelans emigrated to Colombia in the first half of 2017.[36] In the run-up to the 2017 Venezuelan Constitutional Assembly elections, Colombia granted a Special Permit of Permanence to Venezuelan citizens who entered the country before 25 July; over 22,000 Venezuelans applied for permanent residency in Colombia in the program's first 24 hours.[37]

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees found that host countries throughout Latin America recorded more than one million Venezuelans settling between 2014 and 2017.[38] The intergovernmental International Organization for Migration (IOM) had similar figures, with about one million Venezuelans emigrating between 2015 and 2017 in their data;[31] other statistics indicated that the IOM's numbers may have been conservative.[39]

After President Maduro's re-election in May 2018, emigration continued; Venezuelans believed that Maduro's policies would not change, and conditions in the country would continue to deteriorate.[40] In September 2018, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees' regional representative officially compared the crisis with the migrant and refugee crisis caused by the Syrian Civil War.[13] The UNHCR and IOM released data in November 2018 showing that the number of refugees fleeing Venezuela since the Bolivarian revolution began in 1999 had risen to 3 million, around 10 percent of the country's population.[4]


Parents will say, "I would rather say goodbye to my son in the airport than in the cemetery".

—Tomás Páez, Central University of Venezuela[27]

El Universal reported that according to Venezuelan Community Abroad. A New Method of Exile, a Central University of Venezuela study, the Bolivarian diaspora has been caused by the "deterioration of both the economy and the social fabric, rampant crime, uncertainty and lack of hope for a change of leadership in the near future".[1] The Wall Street Journal said that many "white-collar Venezuelans have fled the country's high crime rates, soaring inflation and expanding statist controls".[22] Studies of current and former citizens of Venezuela indicated that reasons for leaving the country included lack of freedom, high levels of insecurity and lack of opportunity.[16][17] Link Consultants director Oscar Hernandez said that causes for emigration include economic issues, although insecurity and legal uncertainties are the main reasons.[41]


Graph of Venezuela's increasing murder rate
Murder rate from 1998 to 2013. Sources: OVV, PROVEA, UN
* UN dashed line is projected from missing data.

Venezuela's crime rate is a major cause of emigration.[1][22] According to sociologist Tomás Páez, Venezuelan parents and grandparents encourage young people to leave the country for their own good.[16]

Venezuela deteriorated under Hugo Chávez, with political instability and violence increasing.[42] According to Gareth A. Jones and Dennis Rodgers in their book, Youth violence in Latin America: Gangs and Juvenile Justice in Perspective, "With the change of political regime in 1999 and the initiation of the Bolivarian Revolution, a period of transformation and political conflict began, marked by a further increase in the number and rate of violent deaths".[43] The Bolivarian Revolution attempted to "destroy what previously existed, the status quo of society", with instability increasing as a result.[42] The government attributed violence and crime to poverty and inequality, boasting about reducing both as the Venezuelan murder rate increased.[42] The increase in the murder rate following the Chávez presidency has been attributed by experts to the corruption of Venezuelan authorities, poor gun control, and a poor judicial system.[44] The murder rate increased from 25 per 100,000 in 1999 (when Chávez was elected)[43] to 82 per 100,000 in 2014,[45] and kidnappings increased over twenty-fold from the beginning of the Chávez presidency to 2011.[46][47][48]


Venezuelans picking through trash in late 2015

Since Hugo Chávez imposed stringent currency controls in 2003 in an attempt to prevent capital flight,[49] a series of currency devaluations has disrupted the Venezuelan economy.[50] Price controls and other government policies have caused severe shortages in Venezuela.[51] Venezuela's inflation rate passed 100 percent by 2015, the world's highest inflation rate and the highest in the country's history.[52] As a result of the shortages, Venezuelans must search for food (occasionally eating wild fruit or garbage), wait in line for hours, and live without some products.[53][54][55][56][57]

Many business owners have emigrated to countries with growing economies since the Bolivarian Revolution.[1] According to a 2018 Gallup analysis, "Government decisions have led to a domino-effect crisis that continues to worsen, leaving residents unable to afford basic necessities such as food and housing" and Venezuelans "believe they can find better lives elsewhere".[58]

Political repression[edit]

A dead body in the street, Paola Ramírez, covered with a sheet
Body of a female protester, killed by colectivos in the Mother of All Marches during the 2017 Venezuelan protests

According to Venezuelan Community Abroad. A New Method of Exile, the Bolivarian government "would rather urge those who disagree with the revolution to leave, instead of pausing to think deeply about the damage this diaspora entails to the country".[1] Newsweek reported that Chávez "has pushed hard against anyone" who was not part of his movement, with science, business and media professionals emigrating from Venezuela.[2]

Up to 9,000 Venezuelan exiles lived in the United States in 2014, with the number of exiles also increasing in the European Union.[1] The Florida Center for Survivors of Torture reported in 2015 that most of those they assisted since the previous year were Venezuelan migrants, with the organization providing psychiatrists, social workers, interpreters, lawyers and doctors for dozens of individuals and their families.[59]



Many Venezuelan emigrants are educated professionals.[16] Iván de la Vega of the Simón Bolívar University found that 60 to 80 percent of students in Venezuela said that they want to leave the country and not return to 2015 conditions.[60] Primary-and secondary-school students were also affected, with media reports of children at school fainting from hunger.[61] In Venezuela's border regions, the school dropout rate is as high as 80 percent.[62][63]

Modern outdoor sculpture, with a red building and elevated walkway in the background
Central University of Venezuela, the country's most prominent university, saw a large percentage of its educators leave the country.

According to Iván de la Vega in a 2014 report, about a million Venezuelans had emigrated during the Chávez presidency but the number of academics was unknown;[64] the Central University of Venezuela lost more than 700 of its 4,000 professors between 2011 and 2015.[65] About 240 professors left Simón Bolívar University between 2009 and 2014,[64][65] with an additional 430 faculty members leaving from 2015 to 2017.[66]

Major reasons for the emigration of educational professionals are Venezuela's crime rate and low government pay.,[64][65] According to Venezuelan Academy of Physical, Mathematical and Natural Sciences president Claudio Bifano, most of Venezuela's "technology and scientific capacity, built up over half a century" had been lost during Hugo Chávez's presidency. Despite two percent of the country's GDP invested in science and technology, the number of papers published in international journals fell from about 1,600 to 1,000 (the 1997 figure, when Venezuela's technology budget was 0.3 percent of GDP) from 2008 to 2012.[67]

Centre for Cultural Research and Education director Mariano Herrera estimated a shortage of about 40 percent of teachers for mathematics and science classes in 2014. The Venezuelan government attempted to ease the teacher shortage by creating the Simón Rodríguez Micromission, reducing graduation requirements for educational professionals to two years studies.[68] From January to March 2018, 102 of 120 positions at Simón Bolívar University remained vacant.[69]

Venezuelan Community Abroad. A New Method of Exile, a 2014 study by Thomas Paez, Mercedes Vivas and Juan Rafael Pulido of the Central University of Venezuela, reported that over 90 percent of Venezuela's more than 1.5 million emigrants were college graduates; 40 percent had a master's degree, and 12 percent had doctorates or post-doctorate degrees.[16][17] The study used official data verified abroad and surveys from Venezuelans who had decided to emigrate.[16]


Businesspeople emigrated from Venezuela due to government price controls and corruption, shortages, and foreign exchange controls. Accountants and administrators left for countries experiencing economic growth, such as Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru, and the United States.[1] A Latin America Economic System study reported that the emigration of highly skilled laborers age 25 or older from Venezuela to OECD countries rose by 216 percent between 1990 and 2007.[2]

An estimated 75 percent of about 20,000 PDVSA (Petróleos de Venezuela) workers who left the company emigrated to other countries for work.[18] Former oil engineers began work on oil rigs in the North Sea and in the tar sands of western Canada;[2] the number of Venezuelans in Alberta increased from 465 in 2001 to 3,860 in 2011.[70] Former PDVSA employees also joined the more-successful oil industry in neighboring Colombia.[70] According to El Universal, "thousands of oil engineers and technicians, adding up to hundreds of thousands of man-hours in training and expertise in the oil industry (more meaningful than academic degrees)" and most of PDVSA's former executive are working abroad.[1] After the PDVSA exodus, Venezuelan oil production decreased and work-related injuries increased.[70]

By 2019, more than 50,000 engineers and architects had left Venezuela in the six preceding years, with some of the Venezuelan labor force being replaced by foreign laborers including Chinese counterparts.[71]

Media and the arts[edit]

Actors, producers, TV presenters, news anchors, and journalists have reportedly left for Colombia, Florida and Spain after the closing of media outlets by the Venezuelan government or their purchase by government sympathizers. Musicians emigrate to places receptive to their style of music.[1]


Line of doctors blocking a street
Venezuelan doctors protesting in Caracas 2017

Physicians and medical staff, particularly those in private facilities, emigrated due to low pay and lack of recognition following the Venezuelan government's opposition to traditional 6-year programs. The Bolivarian government instead supports Cuba's training of "community medical doctors". The government reportedly restricted access to facilities and funding for physician training, which led to medical programs closing throughout the country.[1]

Medical Federation of Venezuela president Douglas León Natera said in April 2015 that more than 13,000 doctors (over 50 percent of the country's total) had emigrated. According to Natera, the resulting physician shortage affected public and private hospitals alike.[72] In March 2018 (after 22,000 doctors had fled Venezuela), the salary of many physicians was less than US$10 per month.[73]

In Latin American countries, the medical credentials of Venezuelan doctors are generally accepted. Opportunities for Venezuelans are limited in the United States, however, with physicians often becoming medical assistants or working in non-medical fields.[73]


According to Iván de la Vega, the number of Venezuelans living abroad increased by over 2,000 percent from the mid-1990s to 2013 (from 50,000 to 1,200,000).[74] The median emigrant age is 32.[60]

The percentage of Venezuelans who said that they had family abroad increased from 10 percent in 2004 to nearly 30 percent in 2014.[3] In 2014, about 10 percent said that they were preparing to emigrate.[3] According to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, "Between 2003 and 2004, the number of (Venezuelan) refugees doubled from 598 to 1,256, and between 2004 and 2009, the number of Venezuelan refugees was five-fold higher, up to 6,221. By that date, there is also a log of 1,580 Venezuelan applicants for refuge."[23]

A late-2017 survey by Consultores 21 found that over four million Venezuelans had left the country due to the Bolivarian Revolution, and 51 percent of young adults said that they wanted to emigrate.[5] In 2018, it was estimated that over one million Venezuelans had plans to emigrate.[75] Emigrants primarily consist of professionals between 18 and 35. Most Venezuelans attempting to leave the country are in higher-income socioeconomic groups, although lower-income groups plan to emigrate as well.[3] Several minority populations have also declined significantly.

Colombian population[edit]

Venezuelan migrants crossing a river, aided by Colombian police
Colombian National Police officer carrying an elderly woman across the Táchira River into Colombia

According to Universidad de los Andes sociologist Raquel Alvarez, 77 percent of immigrants to Venezuela during the 1990s were from Colombia. By the early 2010s, the Colombian immigrants were disappointed with Venezuela's economic collapse and discrimination by the government and its supporters. From tens of thousands to 200,000 Colombians left Venezuela in the years before 2015. The Colombian Ministry of Foreign Affairs reported that visas to Colombia increased by 150 percent between March 2014 and March 2015, and repatriation assistance of Colombian-Venezuelans reached a record number in the first quarter of 2015. Martin Gottwald, deputy head of the United Nations refugee agency in Colombia, said that many of the 205,000 Colombian refugees who had fled to Venezuela may return to Colombia. The number of repatriating Colombians concerned the Colombian government, due to its effect on unemployment and public services.[76]

Jewish population[edit]

The Jewish population in Venezuela has, according to several community organizations, declined from an estimated 18,000–22,000 in 2000[77] to about 9,000 in 2010.[78] Community leaders cite the economy, security, and increased antisemitism as major reasons for the decline. Some have accused the government of engaging in (or supporting) antisemitic action and rhetoric.[78][79][80][81][82][83][84] In 2015, it was reported that the Jewish population had declined to 7,000.[85]

Refugee life[edit]


Organizations and events have been created to assist Venezuelan emigrants. A website (, created by a former public-affairs employee of PDVSA who moved to Canada, quickly became popular among Venezuelan emigrants.[18][86][87] In June 2015, the first annual Migration Expo was held in Caracas; the event included support groups, study-abroad assistance and help with the emigration process.[88] The Somos Diáspora network, consisting of a website and radio station in Lima, Peru, was launched in May 2018 to provide Venezuelan entertainment, news and migration information to the diaspora.[89]



Just as we have opened our arms for Venezuelan brothers to enter, who come from a very strong crisis ... some people who are linked to crime also leave there

Mauro Medina, Peruvian Minister of the Interior[90]

The Maduro government often granted the emigration of Venezuelan criminals and organized crime into regional countries, with nations like Aruba, Colombia, Panama, Peru and the United States experiencing crimes as a result.[91][92]

Criminals from Venezuela have also entered Peru.[91] In June 2018, a group of Venezuelans robbed a jewelry store in Jockey Plaza and fled the country.[93] On 27 July 2018, four Venezuelans shot and injured one police officer while robbing a store, though they were later captured.[94][95] The "Tren de Aragua" (Train of Aragua) gang of Venezuela–which flourished in their native country's impunity where they directed robbery, kidnapping and murder operations– saw five of their members arrested in August 2018 for planning a bank robbery at a shopping mall.[91][96][97] The Venezuelan gang members were found by the National Police of Peru equipped with firearms, a grenade and a map of the bank.[96] At least seventy-two Venezuelans were imprisoned in Peru by mid-2018.[91]

On 19 February 2019, a group of masked Venezuelan and Colombian migrants attempted to break-in at the Inkaterra Amazon Reserve lodge in the Madre de Dios region of Peru, resulting the death of a local tour guide. A total of 53 guests, including American and Chinese tourists were safe.[98][99]


Women and children sleeping on the ground
Venezuelan refugees sleeping on the streets of Cúcuta, Colombia

Venezuelan refugees have occasionally faced xenophobia and discrimination in destination countries.[100] The International Organization for Migration has increased awareness that refugees are vulnerable to trafficking and prostitution.[100] Venezuelans in Panama experience xenophobia due to competition with local residents, and Panamanian nationalist movements have used anti-Venezuelan-refugee rhetoric to gain support.[101]

In Brazil, at least 1,200 Venezuelans were forced from refugee camps by residents of Pacaraima on 18 August 2018 after the family of a local merchant told the authorities that he had been assaulted by a group of Venezuelans. However, two days later the authorities said the assailants’ identity and nationality had not been confirmed.[102] The residents destroyed the migrant camps.[103][104][105]


Many Venezuelan women in Colombia resort to prostitution to earn a living,[106] and some fight to the death with their Colombian counterparts.[107] In "La Chama", a Panamanian hit song by Mr. Saik, the singer mocks a Venezuelan woman that resorts to prostitution; the singer received death threats from migrants.[101] Educated Venezuelan emigrants have also turned to prostitution because they can no longer continue the careers they pursued.[108]


Infectious diseases[edit]

In 2018, polio re-emerged in Venezuela for the first time in decades. The re-emergence of polio, measles, and other communicable diseases as a result of Venezuela's physician shortage raised concerns in destination countries that refugees would spread disease throughout the region. Measles outbreaks occurred in Brazil, Colombia, and Ecuador in areas in which Venezuelan refugees lived; most of the infected were refugees.[109] Increases in malaria and diphtheria in Venezuela have also raised concerns in neighboring countries.[61]

Mental health[edit]

Many Venezuelan refugees suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder due to the traumatic events they have experienced within their native country.[110] Migrants experience both physical and psychological symptoms from their traumas which are caused by violence in Venezuela, leaving relatives behind and adapting to the culture of their host countries.[110] Some of the main causes of hospitalization among Venezuelan refugees in Peru are mental health related.[111]


The top ten destinations for Venezuelan emigrants are Colombia, Peru, the United States, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Argentina, Canada, France, and Panama.[112] Tens of thousands of Venezuelans have also moved to other locations, including Trinidad and Tobago[113] and other countries in the Americas and Europe.[16][114]

Venezuelans have fled to over 90 countries in pursuit of a better life.[115] Between 2015 and 2017, Venezuelan immigration increased by 1,388 percent in Chile, 1,132 percent in Colombia, 1,016 percent in Peru, 922 percent in Brazil, 344 percent in Argentina and Ecuador, 268 percent in Panama, 225 percent in Uruguay, 104 percent in Mexico, 38 percent in Costa Rica, 26 percent in Spain, and 14 percent in the United States.[12]

United States[edit]

Number of Venezuelans granted permanent residence in United States per year (by Venzuelan president), with asylum applications (per United States Department of Homeland Security)[116][117][118]

The United States is one of the main destinations for Venezuelan emigrants.[41][16][23] The number of U.S. residents who identified as Venezuelan increased by 135 percent between 2000 and 2010, from 91,507 to 215,023.[119] In 2015, it was estimated that about 260,000 Venezuelans had emigrated to the United States.[60] According to researcher Carlos Subero, "The vast majority of Venezuelans trying to migrate enter the country with a non-immigrant tourist or business visa"; 527,907 Venezuelans remain in the United States with non-immigrant visas.[3] The Latin American and Caribbean Economic System (SELA) reported that in 2007, 14 percent of Venezuelans 25 and older in the United States had a Ph.D. (more than the U.S. average of nine percent).[23]

The largest community of Venezuelans in the United States lives in South Florida.[16] Between 2000 and 2012, the number of legal Venezuelan residents in Florida increased from 91,500 to 259,000.[120] In 2015, the Venezuelan Refugee Assistance Act was proposed by four Florida delegates to the United States House of Representatives.[120] The act would adjust the status of Venezuelans without a criminal record or involvement in persecution who arrived in the United States before 1 January 2013, with a deadline of 1 January 2019 to apply for adjustment.[120] One chief sponsor, U.S. Representative Carlos Curbelo, said: "This bill will help those Venezuelan nationals who have made a new home in the United States to remain here if they choose to, since it is dangerous to return home".[120] The bill was sent to the House Judiciary Committee.[120]

Latin America and the Caribbean[edit]

Latin American countries, such as Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Panama, are popular destinations for Venezuelan emigrants.[32]


A smiling woman holding a banner
Celebrating Immigrants' Day in Buenos Aires
Venezuelans in a protest against the Bolivarian Revolution in São Paulo, Brazil

Venezuelan immigration has increased significantly since 2005, from 148 annually to 12,859 in 2016. Over 15,000 Venezuelans emigrated to Argentina from 2004 to 2014, of whom 4,781 have obtained permanent residency.[121][112] The number of Venezuelan immigrants increased by 500 percent from 2014 to 2016, to 600 per week. Between 2014 and mid-2017, 38,540 Venezuelans filed residency applications in Argentina.[112][122]

Venezuelans emigrating to Argentina face several obstacles (such as the cost of plane fare), due to the distance between the countries compared with neighboring Colombia and Brazil. Attracted by better living conditions, many risk the trip by land; Marjorie Campos, a Venezuelan woman who was eight months pregnant, traveled by bus for 11 days across Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Chile to reach the Argentine city of Cordoba.[123]


We’re at the start of an unprecedented humanitarian crisis in this part of the Amazon ... We’re already seeing Venezuelan lawyers working as supermarket cashiers, Venezuelan women resorting to prostitution, indigenous Venezuelans begging at traffic intersections.

Col. Edvaldo Amara, Roraima civil-defense chief[27]

As socioeconomic conditions worsened, many Venezuelans emigrated to neighboring Brazil. Tens of thousands of refugees traveled through the Amazon basin seeking a better life, some traveling by foot and paying over $1,000 to be smuggled into larger cities. The Brazilian government increased its military presence on the border to assist refugees on its roads and rivers.[27] Over 70,000 refugees[124] entered the Brazilian state of Roraima in late 2016, straining local resources.[15] Hundreds of Venezuelan children are enrolled in schools near the Brazil-Venezuela border, and about 800 Venezuelans entered Brazil daily by 2018.[125]

Caribbean islands[edit]

Once a tourist and vacation destination for Venezuelans, the islands of Aruba and Curaçao require Venezuelan refugees to have at least $1,000 in cash before entering (over five years' income for a Venezuelan working a minimum-wage job). Patrols and deportation of Venezuelans has increased, and Aruba has dedicated a stadium to hold up to 500 Venezuelan migrants facing deportation.[27]

The journey to Curaçao is an often-dangerous 60-mile (97 km) trip, with "backbreaking swells, gangs of armed boatmen and coast-guard vessels looking to capture migrants and send them home".[27] Venezuelans are brought near the island's shore, dumped overboard and forced to swim to land, where they meet contacts to set up their new lives. According to Curaçao authorities, common jobs held by Venezuelans on the islands serve tourists; immigrants "clean the floors of restaurants, sell trinkets on the street, or even solicit Dutch tourists for sex, forced by the smugglers to pay for their passage by working in a brothel".[27] The Dutch Caribbean Coast Guard estimates that only five to ten percent of boats carrying Venezuelan migrants are intercepted.[27]

Venezuelans have historically emigrated (legally and illegally) to Trinidad and Tobago, due to the country's relatively-stable economy, access to United States dollars, and close proximity to eastern Venezuela.[126] Direct flights from Maturin, Caracas and Isla Margarita and ferry service between Guiria and Chaguaramas, Trinidad and Tucupita and Cedros, Trinidad and Tobago are legal transport routes; illegal routes exist between Venezuela's east coast and the Gulf of Paria.[127] About 14,000 Venezuelans entered Trinidad and Tobago between 1 January and 10 May 2016, with 43 percent reportedly overstaying their visas.[126] Venezuelans who remain often seek employment on the island; others, particularly women, enter the sex industry.[128]


Following the reopening of the Colombian border after the Venezuela–Colombia migrant crisis, many Venezuelans began to emigrate into the country.[129] Since then, Colombia has accepted many Venezuelan refugees and has attempted to give legal status to them.[130] The aid provided by the Colombian government to Venezuelan refugees has been costly and multiple international partners have intervened to provide assistance.[130] Assistance provided by Colombia to Venezuelans ranges from emergency room visits to public education for children; all provided by the Colombian government for free.[130]

In July 2016, over 200,000 Venezuelans entered Colombia to purchase goods due to shortages in Venezuela.[131] On 12 August 2016, the Venezuelan government officially reopened the border; thousands of Venezuelans again entered Colombia to escape the Venezuelan crisis.[131] Colombia's oil industry has benefited from skilled Venezuelan immigrants, although the country began deporting unauthorized immigrants in late 2016.[129]

According to the Colombian government, more than 100,000 Venezuelans emigrated to Colombia in the first half of 2017.[36] In the run-up to the 2017 Venezuelan Constituent Assembly elections, Colombia granted a Special Permit of Permanence to Venezuelan citizens who entered the country before 25 July; over 22,000 Venezuelans applied for permanent residence in the permit's first 24 hours of existence.[37] By the end of November 2017, over 660,000 Venezuelans were in Colombia (over double the number in June).[38] By the end of August 2018, close to 1 million Venezuelans were in Colombia.[132] In September 2018, the number of Venezuelans exceeded the one million figure for the first time.[133]

Costa Rica[edit]

The number of Venezuelan asylum seekers in the country increased from only 200 in 2015 to 1,423 in 2016 and 2,600 in 2017.[134] A subject that was discussed jointly by the governments of both Costa Rica and Panama in a bilateral summit.[135] Of the total of 6,337 refugee applications in 2017 50% were from Venezuelans.[136]


Between 2015 and 2017, Venezuelan emigration to Chile increased by 1,388 percent.[12] In 2016, Venezuelans emigrated to Chile due to its stable economy and simple immigration policy. According to the Chilean Department for Foreigners and Migration, the number of Chilean visas for Venezuelans increased from 758 in 2011 to 8,381 in 2016; 90 percent were work visas for Venezuelans aged 20 to 35. Since international travel by air is difficult (especially due to the value of the Venezuelan bolívar), many Venezuelans must travel overland through dangerous terrain to reach Chile. After arriving, they must start a new life. According to Catholic Chilean Migration Institute executive secretary Delio Cubides, most Venezuelan immigrants "are accountants, engineers, teachers, the majority of them very well-educated" but accept low-paying jobs so they can meet visa requirements and remain in the country.[129][137]


Graph of Mexicans born in Venezuela
Broken line represents simulated data (Source: INEGI).[138][139]

The Venezuelan Mexican population increased from 2,823 in 2000 to 10,063 in 2010, a 357-percent increase in Venezuelan-born people living in Mexico.[138] Mexico granted 975 Venezuelans permanent identification cards in the first five months of 2014, double the number of ID cards issued in 2013.[32]


Venezuelans selling arepas and tisana [es] in Lima

Peruvian President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski introduced legislation granting Venezuelan nationals in Peru a Temporary Permit of Permanence (PTP). The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights approved, encouraging other Latin American countries to adopt similar measures. The Venezuelan Union in Peru, a non-governmental organization, announced that they would present President Kuczynski's actions to the Norwegian Nobel Committee and nominate him for the Nobel Peace Prize:[140]

[W]hile other countries build walls, in Peru, bridges are built to bring citizens closer and protect their most elementary fundamental rights, so with overwhelming hope we will present this nomination of President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, not only in search of this award, but also to place in the international debate the abuses of which Latin American migrants are victims in some parts of the world.

In August 2017, a little over three months after the decree, over 40,000 Venezuelan refugees had entered Peru.[141] By mid-2018,[142] over 400,000 Venezuelans had emigrated to Peru.[143] In a United Nations survey, 61.9 percent of Venezuelans who moved to Peru worked in retail, tourism or a similar position; 9.4 percent worked in industry and construction.[144] Forty-six percent earned between 984 and 1,968 soles ($300–600) per month; 34 percent earned between 656 and 984 soles ($200–300), and 11 percent earned less than 656 soles per month (less than $200).,[144] by the end of 2018 more than 670,000 Venezuelans had emigrated to Peru.[145]


In February 2018, almost 1,400 Venezuelans crossed the Atlantic Ocean to Europe. Most of these (1,160) sought asylum in Spain. The number was a significant increase from 150 in February 2016, and 985 in February 2017. Cultural and linguistic ties are the main reason why Spain is the most popular destination among European countries for Venezuelan migrants.[146]



Intergovernmental organizations[edit]


Catholic Church[edit]

The Catholic Church in Peru organized programs to help Venezuelan refugees, dedicating masses and collections to the migrants.[154]


President Nicolás Maduro said that international reports of millions of Venezuelans emigrating are "propaganda", and Venezuelans regret leaving the country because they end up "cleaning toilets in Miami".[75] Angry Venezuelans criticized Maduro, saying that they would rather clean toilets in another country than live in Venezuela.[75]

President of the National Constituent Assembly (ANC) and Vice President of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV), Diosdado Cabello claimed that the migrant crisis is being staged as part of a right-wing conspiracy overthrow the government of Nicolás Maduro and that images of showing Venezuelans fleeing through South America on foot had been manufactured.[155]

See also[edit]


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External links[edit]


  • Somos Diáspora – Network with Venezuelan entertainment, news and migration information